Abstract

We present a three-dimensional (3D) tracker for a clinical ophthalmic spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system that combines depth-tracking with lateral tracking, providing a stabilized reference frame for 3D data recording and post acquisition analysis. The depth-tracking system is implemented through a real-time dynamic feedback mechanism to compensate for motion artifact in the axial direction. Active monitoring of the retina and adapting the reference arm of the interferometer allowed the whole thickness of the retina to be stabilized to within ±100 µm. We achieve a relatively constant SNR from image to image by stabilizing the image of the retina with respect to the depth dependent sensitivity of SD-OCT. The depth tracking range of our system is 5.2 mm in air and the depth is adjusted every frame. Enhancement in the stability of the images with the depth-tracking algorithm is demonstrated on a healthy volunteer.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurements of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117,43-48 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7,457-463 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29,480-482 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. C. Chen, B. Cense, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, B. R. White, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral domain optical coherence tomography - Ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution ophthalmic imaging," Arch. Ophthalmol. 123,1715-1720 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12,2977-2998 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, and J. S. Schuman, "Tracking optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29,2139-2141 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. X. Hammer, R. Daniel Ferguson, NicusorV. Iftimia, Teoman Ustun, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, Michelle L. Gabriele, William D. Dilworth, Larry Kagemann and Jeol S. Schuman, "Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13,7937-7947 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12,367-376 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. V. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and G. J. Tearney, "Adaptive ranging for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12,4025-4034 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line," Opt. Lett. 22,1811-1813 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11,782-793 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. V. Iftimia, C. E. Bigelow, T. Ustun, J. F. de Boer, R. D. Ferguson, "Hybrid retinal imager using line-scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14,12909 - 12914 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. X. Hammer, R. Daniel Ferguson, J. C. Magill, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. S. Shuman, "Active retinal tracker for clinical optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, Art. No. 024038 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13,9480-9491 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. L. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. R. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. A. Puliafito, "Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13,444-452 (2005).
    [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (5)

2004 (5)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7,457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurements of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117,43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akkin, T.

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7,457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaton, S.

D. X. Hammer, R. Daniel Ferguson, J. C. Magill, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. S. Shuman, "Active retinal tracker for clinical optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, Art. No. 024038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, and J. S. Schuman, "Tracking optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29,2139-2141 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigelow, C. E.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chan, R. C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Daniel Ferguson, R.

D. X. Hammer, R. Daniel Ferguson, J. C. Magill, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. S. Shuman, "Active retinal tracker for clinical optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, Art. No. 024038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. Daniel Ferguson, NicusorV. Iftimia, Teoman Ustun, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, Michelle L. Gabriele, William D. Dilworth, Larry Kagemann and Jeol S. Schuman, "Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13,7937-7947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

N. V. Iftimia, C. E. Bigelow, T. Ustun, J. F. de Boer, R. D. Ferguson, "Hybrid retinal imager using line-scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14,12909 - 12914 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13,9480-9491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Chen, B. Cense, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, B. R. White, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral domain optical coherence tomography - Ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution ophthalmic imaging," Arch. Ophthalmol. 123,1715-1720 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29,480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and G. J. Tearney, "Adaptive ranging for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12,4025-4034 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12,367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12,2977-2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11,782-793 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurements of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117,43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7,457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurements of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117,43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, R. D.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gregori, G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurements of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117,43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X. R.

Iftimia, N. V.

Ishikawa, H.

D. X. Hammer, R. Daniel Ferguson, J. C. Magill, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. S. Shuman, "Active retinal tracker for clinical optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, Art. No. 024038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S. L.

Joo, C.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurements of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117,43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Knighton, R.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7,457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7,457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magill, J. C.

D. X. Hammer, R. Daniel Ferguson, J. C. Magill, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. S. Shuman, "Active retinal tracker for clinical optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, Art. No. 024038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

T. C. Chen, B. Cense, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, B. R. White, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral domain optical coherence tomography - Ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution ophthalmic imaging," Arch. Ophthalmol. 123,1715-1720 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29,480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N. A.

Nicusor, R.

Park, B. H.

Paunescu, L. A.

D. X. Hammer, R. Daniel Ferguson, J. C. Magill, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. S. Shuman, "Active retinal tracker for clinical optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, Art. No. 024038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, and J. S. Schuman, "Tracking optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29,2139-2141 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Puliafito, C. A.

S. L. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. R. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. A. Puliafito, "Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13,444-452 (2005).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, and J. S. Schuman, "Tracking optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29,2139-2141 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuman, J. S.

D. X. Hammer, R. Daniel Ferguson, J. C. Magill, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. S. Shuman, "Active retinal tracker for clinical optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, Art. No. 024038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Ustun, T.

White, B. R.

T. C. Chen, B. Cense, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, B. R. White, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral domain optical coherence tomography - Ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution ophthalmic imaging," Arch. Ophthalmol. 123,1715-1720 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7,457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

D. X. Hammer, R. Daniel Ferguson, J. C. Magill, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. S. Shuman, "Active retinal tracker for clinical optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, Art. No. 024038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

T. C. Chen, B. Cense, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, B. R. White, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral domain optical coherence tomography - Ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution ophthalmic imaging," Arch. Ophthalmol. 123,1715-1720 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

D. X. Hammer, R. Daniel Ferguson, J. C. Magill, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. S. Shuman, "Active retinal tracker for clinical optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, Art. No. 024038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7,457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurements of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117,43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

D. X. Hammer, R. Daniel Ferguson, NicusorV. Iftimia, Teoman Ustun, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, Michelle L. Gabriele, William D. Dilworth, Larry Kagemann and Jeol S. Schuman, "Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13,7937-7947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12,367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and G. J. Tearney, "Adaptive ranging for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12,4025-4034 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13,9480-9491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. R. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. A. Puliafito, "Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13,444-452 (2005).
[PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12,2977-2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11,782-793 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, C. E. Bigelow, T. Ustun, J. F. de Boer, R. D. Ferguson, "Hybrid retinal imager using line-scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14,12909 - 12914 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254,1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (4)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of SD-OCT setup. The components of the system are: high-power superluminescent diode source (HP-SLD), isolator (ISO), polarization controllers (PC), transmission grating (TG), air-spaced focusing lens (ASL), reflection grating (RG), neutral density filter (NDF), National Instrument (NI) boards, scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO), lateral tracking (LT) beam, frame triggering (FT) waveform

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Integrated reflectance image (en-face) of the retina a) without lateral tracking and b) with lateral tracking. The OCT scans covering areas of (a) 5×5.2 mm2 and (b) 8×8.6 mm2 were acquired from different normal volunteers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Block diagram depicting the depth-tracking algorithm; DT — Depth-tracking

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Block diagram introducing a sinusoidal function as an external disturbance

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Frequency response of the depth-tracking algorithm a) shows the response and the disturbance at a frequency of 2.42 Hz. b) shows the amplitude ratio between the response and the disturbance as a function of frequency. c) shows the phase difference in degrees between the response and the disturbance.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Movie of the retina acquired at 29 fps with 500A-lines per frame with 512 points per A-line. After cropping, the resultant image is 6.9×1.55 mm2. a) shows the depiction of the movement of the retina, had the depth tracking been inactive. b) shows the retinal movement with active depth tracking. c) shows the software stabilization of the image performed in addition to the active tracking. d) Image displacement of retina (change in reference arm length) as function of the frame number. (15MB version) [Media 1, Media 2]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Movie of the retina illustrating volumetric SD-OCT imaging with three-dimensional tracking. a) Enface image over optical nerve head (6.4×6.9mm2) and b) corresponding cross sectional fly through of the retinal scan (6.4×1.7 mm2). (15MB version) [Media 3, Media 4]

Equations (5)

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W = d = 1 D n = 1 N n f ( I d , n ) d = 1 D n = 1 N f ( I d , n )
f ( I d , n ) = ( dBOffset 10 log I d , n ) * 255 dBRange + 255
σ = [ d = 1 D n = 1 N n 2 f ( I d , n ) d = 1 D n = 1 N f ( I d , n ) W 2 ] 1 2
P = W σ .
V i = γ K p e i 1 + V i 2

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