Abstract

An analytical approach for the thermal design for high-power fiber lasers and fiber components is presented. The approach is based on defining a thermal resistance for each fiber layer. Thus the importance of each layer for the heat transport is made transparent and the influence of the parameters can be studied for each layer separately. Furthermore the analysis and analytic optimization of interacting effects of groups of layers is possible. The approach is applied to air-clad-fiber with results differing up to 40 % from previous works. Furthermore the heat transport from splices is analyzed and recommendations for the thermal packaging of splices and fiber integrated components are given.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, "Thermal Stress and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 2, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. A. Brilliant and K. Lagonik, "Thermal effects in a dual-clad ytterbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 1669 - 1671, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Wang, C.-Q. Xu, and H. Po "Analysis of Raman and thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers," Opt.Commun. 242, 487-502 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Incropera, and D. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, (John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2002).
  5. J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, T. Peschel, V. Guyenot, and A. Tünnermann, "Thermo-optical properties of air-clad photonic crystal fiber lasers in high power operation," Opt. Express 11, 2982 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, VDI-Wärmeatlas, Berechnungsblätter für den Wärmeübergang, 6. Edition, (VDI-Verlag GmbH Düsseldorf, 1991).
  7. F. Seguin, A. Wetter, L. Martineau, M. Faucher, C. Delisle, and S. Caplette; "Tapered fused bundle coupler package for reliable high optical power dissipation," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021N, (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Kuester, "Die Waermeleitfähigkeit thermoplastischer Kunststoffe," Heat and Mass Transfer 1,121- 128 (1968).
  9. B. Zintzen, A. Emmerich, J. Geiger, D. Hoffmann, and P. Loosen, "Effective Cooling for High-Power Fiber Lasers," Proc. Fourth International WLT-Conference on Lasers in Manufacturing, Munich, (2007).

2006

F. Seguin, A. Wetter, L. Martineau, M. Faucher, C. Delisle, and S. Caplette; "Tapered fused bundle coupler package for reliable high optical power dissipation," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021N, (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Wang, C.-Q. Xu, and H. Po "Analysis of Raman and thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers," Opt.Commun. 242, 487-502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

N. A. Brilliant and K. Lagonik, "Thermal effects in a dual-clad ytterbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 1669 - 1671, (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, "Thermal Stress and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 2, (2001).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. Kuester, "Die Waermeleitfähigkeit thermoplastischer Kunststoffe," Heat and Mass Transfer 1,121- 128 (1968).

Brilliant, N. A.

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, "Thermal Stress and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 2, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Caplette, S.

F. Seguin, A. Wetter, L. Martineau, M. Faucher, C. Delisle, and S. Caplette; "Tapered fused bundle coupler package for reliable high optical power dissipation," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021N, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delisle, C.

F. Seguin, A. Wetter, L. Martineau, M. Faucher, C. Delisle, and S. Caplette; "Tapered fused bundle coupler package for reliable high optical power dissipation," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021N, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Faucher, M.

F. Seguin, A. Wetter, L. Martineau, M. Faucher, C. Delisle, and S. Caplette; "Tapered fused bundle coupler package for reliable high optical power dissipation," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021N, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guyenot, V.

Hoffman, H. J.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, "Thermal Stress and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 2, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuester, W.

W. Kuester, "Die Waermeleitfähigkeit thermoplastischer Kunststoffe," Heat and Mass Transfer 1,121- 128 (1968).

Lagonik, K.

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Martineau, L.

F. Seguin, A. Wetter, L. Martineau, M. Faucher, C. Delisle, and S. Caplette; "Tapered fused bundle coupler package for reliable high optical power dissipation," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021N, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

Peschel, T.

Po, H.

Y. Wang, C.-Q. Xu, and H. Po "Analysis of Raman and thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers," Opt.Commun. 242, 487-502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, T.

Seguin, F.

F. Seguin, A. Wetter, L. Martineau, M. Faucher, C. Delisle, and S. Caplette; "Tapered fused bundle coupler package for reliable high optical power dissipation," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021N, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C.-Q. Xu, and H. Po "Analysis of Raman and thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers," Opt.Commun. 242, 487-502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wetter, A.

F. Seguin, A. Wetter, L. Martineau, M. Faucher, C. Delisle, and S. Caplette; "Tapered fused bundle coupler package for reliable high optical power dissipation," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021N, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.-Q.

Y. Wang, C.-Q. Xu, and H. Po "Analysis of Raman and thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers," Opt.Commun. 242, 487-502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zellmer, H.

Heat and Mass Transfer

W. Kuester, "Die Waermeleitfähigkeit thermoplastischer Kunststoffe," Heat and Mass Transfer 1,121- 128 (1968).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, "Thermal Stress and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 2, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt.Commun.

Y. Wang, C.-Q. Xu, and H. Po "Analysis of Raman and thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers," Opt.Commun. 242, 487-502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

F. Seguin, A. Wetter, L. Martineau, M. Faucher, C. Delisle, and S. Caplette; "Tapered fused bundle coupler package for reliable high optical power dissipation," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021N, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. Zintzen, A. Emmerich, J. Geiger, D. Hoffmann, and P. Loosen, "Effective Cooling for High-Power Fiber Lasers," Proc. Fourth International WLT-Conference on Lasers in Manufacturing, Munich, (2007).

F. Incropera, and D. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, (John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2002).

Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, VDI-Wärmeatlas, Berechnungsblätter für den Wärmeübergang, 6. Edition, (VDI-Verlag GmbH Düsseldorf, 1991).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Thermal resistances of coating and coating surface und the sum of both

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Model and equivalent thermal circuit diagram for the simulation of the heat transport from recoated splices

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Maximum temperature in recoat depending on the recoat thickness and the share of q′1 of the total heat flow

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Thermal resistances for two optical fibers

Tables Icon

Table 2. thermal resistances of air-clad fibers

Equations (16)

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1 r d dr ( λ r dT dr ) = 0
T ( r ) = C 1 ln r + C 2
T ( r ) = T s 1 T s 2 ln ( r 1 r 2 ) ln r r 2 + T s 2
q = 2 π λ ( T s 1 T s 2 ) ln ( r 2 r 1 )
T s 1 T s 2 = R t · q
R tcond = ln ( r 2 r 1 ) 2 π λ
R tconv = 1 α 2 π r
R tac = 1 1 R tair + 1 R tbridge
R tbridge = 1 nb λ
R tot = R cond + R conv = ln ( r coat r p ) 2 π λ + 1 2 π α r coat
d R tot dr = 0
1 2 π λ r coat 1 2 π α r coat 2 = 0
r coat = λ α
r p = d coat ( λ p λ coat 1 )
T src T c = ( q 1 + q 2 ) · ( R thcp + R tcu + R tconv )
T sp T src = q 1 · R trc

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