Abstract

This paper demonstrates, for the first time, a method to fabricate optical ridge waveguides in SBN photorefractive crystal, i.e. by first using high-energy carbon ion implantation (forming planar waveguide substrate) followed by Ar+ ion sputter etching (constructing ridged stripes). A two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional refractive index profile of ridge waveguide is reconstructed by carefully considering the ridged topography as well as the index distributions of the planar waveguide. Based on this profile, the waveguide modes are calculated, in which shows a reasonable agreement with the experimentally observed modal near-field intensity distributions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (3)

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, "Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman and M. Segev, "Transport and Anderson Localization in disordered two-dimensional Photonic Lattices," Nature 446, 52-55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Flores-Romero, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, "Optical channel waveguides by proton and carbon implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Express 15, 8513-8520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

T.C. Sum, A.A. Bettiol, J.A. van Kan, S. V. Rao, F. Watt, K. Liu, and E.Y.B. Pun, "Direct imaging of the end-of-range and surface profiles of proton beam written erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers by atomic force microscopy", J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fleischer, G. Bartal, O. Cohen, T. Schwartz, O. Manela, B. Freedman, M. Segev, H. Buljan, and N. Efremidis, "Spatial photonics in nonlinear waveguide arrays," Opt. Express 13, 1780-1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan and F. Watt, "Proton Beam Writing of Passive Waveguides in PMMA," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

S.S. Sarkisov, M.J. Curley, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, V.L. Svetchnikov, H.W. Zandberegn, G.A. Zykov, C. Banks, J.-C. Wang, D.B. Poker, and D.K. Hensley, "Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 166-167, 750-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva and D. N. Christodoulides, "Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams," Science 290, 495-498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

1998 (5)

1997 (1)

D. Kip, B. Kemper, I. Nee, R. Pankrath, and P. Moretti, "Photorefractive properties of ion-implanted waveguides in strontium barium niobate crystals," Appl. Phys. B 65, 511-516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. S. Sarkisov, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, P. Venkateswarlu, and D.B. Poker, "Vanishing optical isolation barrier in double ion-implanted lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2329-2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

J. M. Marx, Z. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Low-loss strain induced optical waveguides in strontium barium niobate (Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6) at 1.3 µm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 274-276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, S. Aulkemeyer, and P. Moretti, "Low-loss planar optical waveguides in strontium barium niobate crystals formed by ion-beam implantation," Opt. Lett. 20, 1256-1258 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Opt. Acta 33, 127-142 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

K. Megumi, H. Kozuka, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Furuhata, "High-sensitive holographic storage in Ce-doped SBN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 631-633 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Abouelleil, M. M.

Arvidsson, G.

Assanto, G.

Aulkemeyer, S.

Ball, G. A.

Banks, C.

S.S. Sarkisov, M.J. Curley, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, V.L. Svetchnikov, H.W. Zandberegn, G.A. Zykov, C. Banks, J.-C. Wang, D.B. Poker, and D.K. Hensley, "Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 166-167, 750-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman and M. Segev, "Transport and Anderson Localization in disordered two-dimensional Photonic Lattices," Nature 446, 52-55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fleischer, G. Bartal, O. Cohen, T. Schwartz, O. Manela, B. Freedman, M. Segev, H. Buljan, and N. Efremidis, "Spatial photonics in nonlinear waveguide arrays," Opt. Express 13, 1780-1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckers, L.

Bettiol, A. A.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan and F. Watt, "Proton Beam Writing of Passive Waveguides in PMMA," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A.A.

T.C. Sum, A.A. Bettiol, J.A. van Kan, S. V. Rao, F. Watt, K. Liu, and E.Y.B. Pun, "Direct imaging of the end-of-range and surface profiles of proton beam written erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers by atomic force microscopy", J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Borca, C. N.

Buchal, C.

Buljan, H.

Buse, K.

Chandler, P. J.

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Opt. Acta 33, 127-142 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, "Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, "Channel waveguide array in Ce-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystal fabricated by He+ ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, B. Teng, J. Y. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, "Formation of a planar optical waveguide by mega-electron-volt He+ and P+ ions implanted in a BiB3O6 crystal," Opt. Lett. 26, 1993-1995 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva and D. N. Christodoulides, "Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams," Science 290, 495-498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

Curley, M.J.

S.S. Sarkisov, M.J. Curley, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, V.L. Svetchnikov, H.W. Zandberegn, G.A. Zykov, C. Banks, J.-C. Wang, D.B. Poker, and D.K. Hensley, "Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 166-167, 750-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dazzi, A.

Eason, R. W.

Efremidis, N.

Eknoyan, O.

J. M. Marx, Z. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Low-loss strain induced optical waveguides in strontium barium niobate (Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6) at 1.3 µm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 274-276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eugenieva, E.

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva and D. N. Christodoulides, "Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams," Science 290, 495-498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishman, S.

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman and M. Segev, "Transport and Anderson Localization in disordered two-dimensional Photonic Lattices," Nature 446, 52-55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischer, J.

Flores-Romero, E.

Fluck, D.

Freedman, B.

Furuhata, Y.

K. Megumi, H. Kozuka, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Furuhata, "High-sensitive holographic storage in Ce-doped SBN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 631-633 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gallo, K.

Gerwens, A.

Grivas, C.

Guarino, A.

Günter, P.

Hensley, D.K.

S.S. Sarkisov, M.J. Curley, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, V.L. Svetchnikov, H.W. Zandberegn, G.A. Zykov, C. Banks, J.-C. Wang, D.B. Poker, and D.K. Hensley, "Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 166-167, 750-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herzog, C.

Hu, H.

Ila, D.

S.S. Sarkisov, M.J. Curley, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, V.L. Svetchnikov, H.W. Zandberegn, G.A. Zykov, C. Banks, J.-C. Wang, D.B. Poker, and D.K. Hensley, "Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 166-167, 750-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Sarkisov, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, P. Venkateswarlu, and D.B. Poker, "Vanishing optical isolation barrier in double ion-implanted lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2329-2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jazbinšek, M.

Jullien, P.

Kemper, B.

D. Kip, B. Kemper, I. Nee, R. Pankrath, and P. Moretti, "Photorefractive properties of ion-implanted waveguides in strontium barium niobate crystals," Appl. Phys. B 65, 511-516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva and D. N. Christodoulides, "Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams," Science 290, 495-498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kip, "Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications," Appl. Phys. B 67, 131-150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Wesner, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, "Observation of bright spatial photorefractive solitons in a planar strontium barium niobate waveguide," Opt. Lett. 23, 921-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, B. Kemper, I. Nee, R. Pankrath, and P. Moretti, "Photorefractive properties of ion-implanted waveguides in strontium barium niobate crystals," Appl. Phys. B 65, 511-516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, S. Aulkemeyer, and P. Moretti, "Low-loss planar optical waveguides in strontium barium niobate crystals formed by ion-beam implantation," Opt. Lett. 20, 1256-1258 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, M.

K. Megumi, H. Kozuka, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Furuhata, "High-sensitive holographic storage in Ce-doped SBN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 631-633 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kozuka, H.

K. Megumi, H. Kozuka, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Furuhata, "High-sensitive holographic storage in Ce-doped SBN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 631-633 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Krätzig, E.

Lama, F. L.

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Opt. Acta 33, 127-142 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Laversenne, L.

Lipovskii, A. A.

Liu, K.

T.C. Sum, A.A. Bettiol, J.A. van Kan, S. V. Rao, F. Watt, K. Liu, and E.Y.B. Pun, "Direct imaging of the end-of-range and surface profiles of proton beam written erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers by atomic force microscopy", J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q. M.

F. Chen, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, "Channel waveguide array in Ce-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystal fabricated by He+ ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, B. Teng, J. Y. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, "Formation of a planar optical waveguide by mega-electron-volt He+ and P+ ions implanted in a BiB3O6 crystal," Opt. Lett. 26, 1993-1995 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mailis,

Manela, O.

Márquez, H.

Marx, J. M.

J. M. Marx, Z. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Low-loss strain induced optical waveguides in strontium barium niobate (Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6) at 1.3 µm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 274-276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mathey, P.

Matsubara, K.

Megumi, K.

K. Megumi, H. Kozuka, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Furuhata, "High-sensitive holographic storage in Ce-doped SBN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 631-633 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

Nakano, H.

Nee, I.

D. Kip, B. Kemper, I. Nee, R. Pankrath, and P. Moretti, "Photorefractive properties of ion-implanted waveguides in strontium barium niobate crystals," Appl. Phys. B 65, 511-516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

J. M. Marx, Z. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Low-loss strain induced optical waveguides in strontium barium niobate (Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6) at 1.3 µm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 274-276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nighan, W. L.

Opal, D. J.

Pankrath, R.

D. Kip, B. Kemper, I. Nee, R. Pankrath, and P. Moretti, "Photorefractive properties of ion-implanted waveguides in strontium barium niobate crystals," Appl. Phys. B 65, 511-516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pliska, T.

Poker, D.B.

S.S. Sarkisov, M.J. Curley, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, V.L. Svetchnikov, H.W. Zandberegn, G.A. Zykov, C. Banks, J.-C. Wang, D.B. Poker, and D.K. Hensley, "Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 166-167, 750-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Sarkisov, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, P. Venkateswarlu, and D.B. Poker, "Vanishing optical isolation barrier in double ion-implanted lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2329-2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

Pun, E.Y.B.

T.C. Sum, A.A. Bettiol, J.A. van Kan, S. V. Rao, F. Watt, K. Liu, and E.Y.B. Pun, "Direct imaging of the end-of-range and surface profiles of proton beam written erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers by atomic force microscopy", J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rajta, I.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan and F. Watt, "Proton Beam Writing of Passive Waveguides in PMMA," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

Rao, S. V.

T.C. Sum, A.A. Bettiol, J.A. van Kan, S. V. Rao, F. Watt, K. Liu, and E.Y.B. Pun, "Direct imaging of the end-of-range and surface profiles of proton beam written erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers by atomic force microscopy", J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rickards, J.

Rytz, D.

Sarkisov, S. S.

S. S. Sarkisov, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, P. Venkateswarlu, and D.B. Poker, "Vanishing optical isolation barrier in double ion-implanted lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2329-2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sarkisov, S.S.

S.S. Sarkisov, M.J. Curley, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, V.L. Svetchnikov, H.W. Zandberegn, G.A. Zykov, C. Banks, J.-C. Wang, D.B. Poker, and D.K. Hensley, "Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 166-167, 750-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, T.

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman and M. Segev, "Transport and Anderson Localization in disordered two-dimensional Photonic Lattices," Nature 446, 52-55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fleischer, G. Bartal, O. Cohen, T. Schwartz, O. Manela, B. Freedman, M. Segev, H. Buljan, and N. Efremidis, "Spatial photonics in nonlinear waveguide arrays," Opt. Express 13, 1780-1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman and M. Segev, "Transport and Anderson Localization in disordered two-dimensional Photonic Lattices," Nature 446, 52-55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fleischer, G. Bartal, O. Cohen, T. Schwartz, O. Manela, B. Freedman, M. Segev, H. Buljan, and N. Efremidis, "Spatial photonics in nonlinear waveguide arrays," Opt. Express 13, 1780-1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva and D. N. Christodoulides, "Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams," Science 290, 495-498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekiguchi, M.

Seng, H. L.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan and F. Watt, "Proton Beam Writing of Passive Waveguides in PMMA," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shandarov, V.

Shen, D. Y.

Shepherd, D. P.

Shibayama, J.

Sjoberg, A.

Soljacic, M.

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva and D. N. Christodoulides, "Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams," Science 290, 495-498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sum, T. C.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan and F. Watt, "Proton Beam Writing of Passive Waveguides in PMMA," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sum, T.C.

T.C. Sum, A.A. Bettiol, J.A. van Kan, S. V. Rao, F. Watt, K. Liu, and E.Y.B. Pun, "Direct imaging of the end-of-range and surface profiles of proton beam written erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers by atomic force microscopy", J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Svetchnikov, V.L.

S.S. Sarkisov, M.J. Curley, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, V.L. Svetchnikov, H.W. Zandberegn, G.A. Zykov, C. Banks, J.-C. Wang, D.B. Poker, and D.K. Hensley, "Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 166-167, 750-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z.

J. M. Marx, Z. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Low-loss strain induced optical waveguides in strontium barium niobate (Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6) at 1.3 µm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 274-276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

J. M. Marx, Z. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Low-loss strain induced optical waveguides in strontium barium niobate (Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6) at 1.3 µm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 274-276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Teng, B.

Trejo-Luna, R.

van Kan, J. A.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan and F. Watt, "Proton Beam Writing of Passive Waveguides in PMMA," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Kan, J.A.

T.C. Sum, A.A. Bettiol, J.A. van Kan, S. V. Rao, F. Watt, K. Liu, and E.Y.B. Pun, "Direct imaging of the end-of-range and surface profiles of proton beam written erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers by atomic force microscopy", J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez, G. V.

Venkateswarlu, P.

S. S. Sarkisov, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, P. Venkateswarlu, and D.B. Poker, "Vanishing optical isolation barrier in double ion-implanted lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2329-2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, J.-C.

S.S. Sarkisov, M.J. Curley, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, V.L. Svetchnikov, H.W. Zandberegn, G.A. Zykov, C. Banks, J.-C. Wang, D.B. Poker, and D.K. Hensley, "Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 166-167, 750-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. M.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, "Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, "Channel waveguide array in Ce-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystal fabricated by He+ ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, B. Teng, J. Y. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, "Formation of a planar optical waveguide by mega-electron-volt He+ and P+ ions implanted in a BiB3O6 crystal," Opt. Lett. 26, 1993-1995 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

F. Chen, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, "Channel waveguide array in Ce-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystal fabricated by He+ ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, "Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, "Channel waveguide array in Ce-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystal fabricated by He+ ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watt, F.

T.C. Sum, A.A. Bettiol, J.A. van Kan, S. V. Rao, F. Watt, K. Liu, and E.Y.B. Pun, "Direct imaging of the end-of-range and surface profiles of proton beam written erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers by atomic force microscopy", J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan and F. Watt, "Proton Beam Writing of Passive Waveguides in PMMA," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wesner, M.

Wevering, S.

Williams, E.K.

S.S. Sarkisov, M.J. Curley, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, V.L. Svetchnikov, H.W. Zandberegn, G.A. Zykov, C. Banks, J.-C. Wang, D.B. Poker, and D.K. Hensley, "Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 166-167, 750-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Sarkisov, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, P. Venkateswarlu, and D.B. Poker, "Vanishing optical isolation barrier in double ion-implanted lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2329-2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, J.

Zandberegn, H.W.

S.S. Sarkisov, M.J. Curley, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, V.L. Svetchnikov, H.W. Zandberegn, G.A. Zykov, C. Banks, J.-C. Wang, D.B. Poker, and D.K. Hensley, "Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 166-167, 750-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zykov, G.A.

S.S. Sarkisov, M.J. Curley, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, V.L. Svetchnikov, H.W. Zandberegn, G.A. Zykov, C. Banks, J.-C. Wang, D.B. Poker, and D.K. Hensley, "Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 166-167, 750-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. Kip, "Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications," Appl. Phys. B 67, 131-150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. M. Marx, Z. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Low-loss strain induced optical waveguides in strontium barium niobate (Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6) at 1.3 µm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 274-276 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, "Channel waveguide array in Ce-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystal fabricated by He+ ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Megumi, H. Kozuka, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Furuhata, "High-sensitive holographic storage in Ce-doped SBN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 631-633 (1977).
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S. S. Sarkisov, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, P. Venkateswarlu, and D.B. Poker, "Vanishing optical isolation barrier in double ion-implanted lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2329-2331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T.C. Sum, A.A. Bettiol, J.A. van Kan, S. V. Rao, F. Watt, K. Liu, and E.Y.B. Pun, "Direct imaging of the end-of-range and surface profiles of proton beam written erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers by atomic force microscopy", J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

Nature (1)

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman and M. Segev, "Transport and Anderson Localization in disordered two-dimensional Photonic Lattices," Nature 446, 52-55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B (2)

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan and F. Watt, "Proton Beam Writing of Passive Waveguides in PMMA," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.S. Sarkisov, M.J. Curley, E.K. Williams, D. Ila, V.L. Svetchnikov, H.W. Zandberegn, G.A. Zykov, C. Banks, J.-C. Wang, D.B. Poker, and D.K. Hensley, "Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3," Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. B 166-167, 750-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Opt. Acta 33, 127-142 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, "Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva and D. N. Christodoulides, "Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams," Science 290, 495-498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, "Optical Effects of Ion Implantation," (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).

J. F. Ziegler, computer code SRIM, http://www.srim.org.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic plots of the fabrication process of ridge waveguides in SBN crystal: a) planar waveguide formation by 6 MeV C3+ ion implantation into SBN sample, b) photoresist stripe masks deposition on the SBN planar waveguide surface by standard lithography technique, and c) ridge waveguides construction by Ar+ ion sputter etching, etching the unshielded surface regions of the planar waveguide. MP: mask plate, PW: planar waveguide, OB: optical barrier, SUB: substrate, PM: photoresist mask, RW: ridge waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Electronic (solid line) and nuclear (dashed line) energy deposition onto the substrate lattices versus the penetration depth of the incident ions

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reconstructed refractive index profiles of n e and n o for the SBN planar waveguide

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Microscope images of SBN ridge waveguide: a) at regimes of cross section and b) top-view of the waveguide sample surface.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured a) 2D and b) 3D near-field intensity distribution of light in quasi-TE00 mode from the output facet of the SBN ridge waveguide sample; and c) comparison of reconstructed refractive index profile of SBN planar waveguide (1D, left) and ridge waveguide (2D, right) at regimes of the sample cross section and the calculated modal distribution of quasi-TE00 mode (contour map)

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured effective refractive indices of the planar waveguide in SBN

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