Abstract

We present an experimental study of the impact of FWM-induced nonlinear spectral broadening on the effective reflectivity of ultra-long Raman fiber laser cavities of diverse lengths and fiber bases. We observe an exponential decay of the effective reflectivity with growing power. In standard single-mode fiber, effective reflectivity drops of up to 50% for shorter cavity lengths are observed, while the longest cavity length of 82.4km displays power leakage amounting to an effective reduction of reflectivity of approximately 30%. Using different types of fiber we examine the effect of chromatic dispersion on the Stokes wave broadening.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. E.M. Dianov, M.V. Grekov, I.A. Bufetov, S.A. Vasiliev, O.I. Medvedkov, V.G. Plotnichenko,1 V.V. Koltashev, A.V. Belov, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, and A.M. Prokhorov, "CW high power 1.24 µm and 1.48 µm Raman lasers based on low loss phosphosilicate fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 1542-1544 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. -G. Han, T. V. A. Tran, S. -H. Kim, and S. B. Lee, "Development of a multiwavelength Raman fiber laser based on phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings for long-distance remote-sensing applications," Opt. Lett. 30, 1114-1116 (2005)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. -L. Hsiung, Y. Chen, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, C. de Matos, S. Popov, J. Taylor, and V. Gapontsev, "Optical coherence tomography using a continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum light source," Opt. Express 12, 5287-5295 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-22-5287
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S.V. Smirnov, J.D. Ania Castanon, T.J. Ellingham, S.M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S.K. Turitsyn, "Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12122-147 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  5. "Raman amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems," C. Headley and G.P. Agrawal (Eds.), Academic Press (2005)
  6. J.-C. Bouteiller, "Spectral modeling of Raman fiber lasers,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1698-1700 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  7. S.A. Babin, D.V. Churkin, E.V. Podivilov "Intensity interactions in cascades of a two-stage Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 329-335 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  8. J.D. Ania-Castañón, "Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings," Opt. Express 12, 4372-4377 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-19-4372
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T.J. Ellingham, J.D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268-270 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.D. Ania-Castañón, T.J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Ultralong raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S.A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, E.V. Podivilov, V.K. Mezentsev, J.D. Ania-Castañón and S.K. Turitsyn, "Experimental demonstration of mode structure in ultralong Raman fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1135-1137 (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S.A. Babin, D.V. Churkin, A.E. Ismagulov, S.I. Kablukov, E.V. Podivilov, "FWM-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1729-1738 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  13. J.D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper and S.K. Turitsyn, "Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency using ultra-long fibre laser transmission", in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications 2007, paper 1.4.3, Berlin, Germany, 2007

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

S.V. Smirnov, J.D. Ania Castanon, T.J. Ellingham, S.M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S.K. Turitsyn, "Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12122-147 (2006)
[CrossRef]

T.J. Ellingham, J.D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268-270 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J.D. Ania-Castañón, T.J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Ultralong raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

J.-C. Bouteiller, "Spectral modeling of Raman fiber lasers,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1698-1700 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S.A. Babin, D.V. Churkin, E.V. Podivilov "Intensity interactions in cascades of a two-stage Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 329-335 (2003)
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E.M. Dianov, M.V. Grekov, I.A. Bufetov, S.A. Vasiliev, O.I. Medvedkov, V.G. Plotnichenko,1 V.V. Koltashev, A.V. Belov, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, and A.M. Prokhorov, "CW high power 1.24 µm and 1.48 µm Raman lasers based on low loss phosphosilicate fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 1542-1544 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Ania Castanon, J.D.

S.V. Smirnov, J.D. Ania Castanon, T.J. Ellingham, S.M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S.K. Turitsyn, "Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12122-147 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Ania-Castañón, J.D.

S.A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, E.V. Podivilov, V.K. Mezentsev, J.D. Ania-Castañón and S.K. Turitsyn, "Experimental demonstration of mode structure in ultralong Raman fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1135-1137 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.J. Ellingham, J.D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268-270 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J.D. Ania-Castañón, T.J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Ultralong raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.D. Ania-Castañón, "Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings," Opt. Express 12, 4372-4377 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-19-4372
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babin, S.A.

Bouteiller, J.-C.

J.-C. Bouteiller, "Spectral modeling of Raman fiber lasers,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1698-1700 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I.A.

E.M. Dianov, M.V. Grekov, I.A. Bufetov, S.A. Vasiliev, O.I. Medvedkov, V.G. Plotnichenko,1 V.V. Koltashev, A.V. Belov, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, and A.M. Prokhorov, "CW high power 1.24 µm and 1.48 µm Raman lasers based on low loss phosphosilicate fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 1542-1544 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

J.D. Ania-Castañón, T.J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Ultralong raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.J. Ellingham, J.D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268-270 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Churkin, D.V.

S.A. Babin, D.V. Churkin, A.E. Ismagulov, S.I. Kablukov, E.V. Podivilov, "FWM-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1729-1738 (2007)
[CrossRef]

S.A. Babin, D.V. Churkin, E.V. Podivilov "Intensity interactions in cascades of a two-stage Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 329-335 (2003)
[CrossRef]

de Matos, C.

Dianov, E.M.

E.M. Dianov, M.V. Grekov, I.A. Bufetov, S.A. Vasiliev, O.I. Medvedkov, V.G. Plotnichenko,1 V.V. Koltashev, A.V. Belov, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, and A.M. Prokhorov, "CW high power 1.24 µm and 1.48 µm Raman lasers based on low loss phosphosilicate fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 1542-1544 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Ellingham, T.J.

T.J. Ellingham, J.D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268-270 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J.D. Ania-Castañón, T.J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Ultralong raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.V. Smirnov, J.D. Ania Castanon, T.J. Ellingham, S.M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S.K. Turitsyn, "Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12122-147 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.

Gapontsev, V.

Grekov, M.V.

E.M. Dianov, M.V. Grekov, I.A. Bufetov, S.A. Vasiliev, O.I. Medvedkov, V.G. Plotnichenko,1 V.V. Koltashev, A.V. Belov, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, and A.M. Prokhorov, "CW high power 1.24 µm and 1.48 µm Raman lasers based on low loss phosphosilicate fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 1542-1544 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. -G.

Harper, P.

Hsiung, P. -L.

Ibbotson, R.

T.J. Ellingham, J.D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268-270 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J.D. Ania-Castañón, T.J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Ultralong raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ismagulov, A.E.

Kablukov, S.I.

Karalekas, V.

Kim, S. -H.

Ko, T.

Kobtsev, S.M.

S.V. Smirnov, J.D. Ania Castanon, T.J. Ellingham, S.M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S.K. Turitsyn, "Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12122-147 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Kukarin, S.

S.V. Smirnov, J.D. Ania Castanon, T.J. Ellingham, S.M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S.K. Turitsyn, "Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12122-147 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

Medvedkov, O.I.

E.M. Dianov, M.V. Grekov, I.A. Bufetov, S.A. Vasiliev, O.I. Medvedkov, V.G. Plotnichenko,1 V.V. Koltashev, A.V. Belov, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, and A.M. Prokhorov, "CW high power 1.24 µm and 1.48 µm Raman lasers based on low loss phosphosilicate fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 1542-1544 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V.K.

Plotnichenko, V.G.

E.M. Dianov, M.V. Grekov, I.A. Bufetov, S.A. Vasiliev, O.I. Medvedkov, V.G. Plotnichenko,1 V.V. Koltashev, A.V. Belov, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, and A.M. Prokhorov, "CW high power 1.24 µm and 1.48 µm Raman lasers based on low loss phosphosilicate fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 1542-1544 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Podivilov, E.V.

Popov, S.

Sergei, L.

J.D. Ania-Castañón, T.J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Ultralong raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.J. Ellingham, J.D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268-270 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, S.V.

S.V. Smirnov, J.D. Ania Castanon, T.J. Ellingham, S.M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S.K. Turitsyn, "Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12122-147 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J.

Tran, T. V. A.

Turitsyn, S.K.

S.A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, E.V. Podivilov, V.K. Mezentsev, J.D. Ania-Castañón and S.K. Turitsyn, "Experimental demonstration of mode structure in ultralong Raman fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1135-1137 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.V. Smirnov, J.D. Ania Castanon, T.J. Ellingham, S.M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S.K. Turitsyn, "Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12122-147 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Vasiliev, S.A.

E.M. Dianov, M.V. Grekov, I.A. Bufetov, S.A. Vasiliev, O.I. Medvedkov, V.G. Plotnichenko,1 V.V. Koltashev, A.V. Belov, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, and A.M. Prokhorov, "CW high power 1.24 µm and 1.48 µm Raman lasers based on low loss phosphosilicate fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 1542-1544 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

T.J. Ellingham, J.D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268-270 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J.D. Ania-Castañón, T.J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Ultralong raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

E.M. Dianov, M.V. Grekov, I.A. Bufetov, S.A. Vasiliev, O.I. Medvedkov, V.G. Plotnichenko,1 V.V. Koltashev, A.V. Belov, M.M. Bubnov, S.L. Semjonov, and A.M. Prokhorov, "CW high power 1.24 µm and 1.48 µm Raman lasers based on low loss phosphosilicate fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 1542-1544 (1997)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T.J. Ellingham, J.D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268-270 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Bouteiller, "Spectral modeling of Raman fiber lasers,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1698-1700 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

S.A. Babin, D.V. Churkin, E.V. Podivilov "Intensity interactions in cascades of a two-stage Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 329-335 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

S.V. Smirnov, J.D. Ania Castanon, T.J. Ellingham, S.M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S.K. Turitsyn, "Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12122-147 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J.D. Ania-Castañón, T.J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, SergeiK. Turitsyn, "Ultralong raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J.D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper and S.K. Turitsyn, "Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency using ultra-long fibre laser transmission", in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications 2007, paper 1.4.3, Berlin, Germany, 2007

"Raman amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems," C. Headley and G.P. Agrawal (Eds.), Academic Press (2005)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental Setup of the proposed system

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Total 1455nm intra-cavity power as a function of the total 1365nm input pump power for all of the studied lengths. (b) Spectral evolution of the 1455nm Stokes spectrum in a 21km cavity for the input power of 288, 504 and 1140mW. The inset plot presents the reflected (inner) and incident (outer) spectra for 504mW of pump power.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Effective cavity reflectivity as a function of the total 1365nm pump power for 6.6, 10.1, 21, 40.4, 50.8, 82.4km cavities. (b) Numerical contour plot for a 10km cavity, showing iso-lines of identical total 1455nm power vs. pump power and effective reflectivity. The dots represent superimposed experimental results.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Effective reflectivity as a function of total 1455 Stokes power for 10km of TrueWave-RS, LS-LEAF, and SMF. Solid lines represent exponential fit.

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