Abstract

The assessment of plaque composition is one of the important steps in the interventional management of atherosclerosis. The difference in the optical absorption between the arterial wall and plaque constituents could be utilized to obtain high resolution photoacoustic images. Therefore, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging has the potential to play a major role in the detection and differentiation of atherosclerotic lesions. Using a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, we performed ex vivo imaging studies to evaluate the ability of IVPA imaging to detect the presence of inflammation in the plaque. Specifically, the difference in the magnitude of the photoacoustic response from the free lipids, macrophage foam cells, blood and the rest of the arterial wall were used in detecting the fibro-cellular inflammatory plaque. The constituents identified in the IVPA images were confirmed by the results from histology.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. M. Overturf, H. Sybers, J. Schapers, and H. Taegtmeyer, “Hypertension and atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Part 1. Mild, two kidney one-clip goldblatt hypertension treated with enlapril,” Atherosclerosis 59, 283–299 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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2007 (1)

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 978–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Development of a combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system,” Proceedings of the 2006 SPIE Photonics West Symposium: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 6086, F1–F10 (2006).

2005 (1)

R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 0540041–0540046 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

P. R. Moreno, K. R. Purushothaman, V. Fuster, D. Echeverri, H. Truszczynska, S. K. Sharma, J. J. Badimon, and W. N. O’Connor, “Plaque neovascularization is increased in ruptured atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta: implications for plaque vulnerability,” Circulation 110, 2032–2038 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Siphanto, K. K. Thumma, R. G. M. Kolkman, T. G. van Leeuwen, d. M. F.F.M., J. W. van Neck, L. N. A. van Adrichem, and W. Steenbergen, “Serial noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of neovascularization in tumor angiogenesis,” Opt. Express 13, 89–95 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Shah, S. Sethuraman, W. G. Scott, R. Schmitt, M. Motamedi, A. Karpiouk, and A. Oraevsky, “Combined ultrasound, optoacoustic and elasticity imaging,” Proceedings of the 2004 SPIE Photonics West Symposium: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 5320, 101–112 (2004).

2003 (2)

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

Z. A. Fayad and V. Fuster, “Clinical imaging of the high-risk or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque,” Circ. Res. 89, 305–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Nissen and P. Yock, “Intravascular ultrasound: novel pathophysiological insights and current clinical applications,” Circulation 103, 604–616 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, “Lessons from sudden coronary death: a comprehensive morphological classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 1262–1275 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Noninvasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2, 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

M. Jeziorska and D. E. Woolley, “Neovascularization in early atherosclerotic lesions of human carotid arteries: its potential contribution to plaque development,” Hum. Pathol. 30, 919–925 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Neumann, A. Vollmer, T. Schaffner, O. M. Hess, and G. Heusch, “Diastolic dysfunction and collagen structure in canine pacing-induced heart failure,” J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 31, 179–192 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ross, “Atherosclerosis--an inflammatory disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 340, 115–126 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Col. Cardiol. 12, 56–62 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

P. C. Beard and T. N. Mills, “Characterization of post mortem arterial tissue using time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy at 436, 461 and 532 nm,” Phys Med Biol 42, 177–198 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, “Measurement of tissue optical properties by time-resolved detection of laser-induced transient stress,” Appl. Opt. 36, 402–415 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

P. R. Moreno, E. Falk, I. F. Palacios, J. B. Newell, V. Fuster, and J. T. Fallon, “Macrophage infiltration in acute coronary syndromes. Implications for plaque rupture,” Circulation 90, 775–778 (1994).
[PubMed]

S. J. Daley, E. Herderick, J. F. Cornhill, and K. A. Rogers, “Cholesterol-fed and casein-fed rabbit models of atherosclerosis. Part 1: Differing lesion area of volume despite equal plasma cholesterol levels,” Arteroscler. Thromb. 14, 95–104 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. J. Daley, E. Herderick, J. F. Cornhill, and K. A. Rogers, “Cholesterol-fed and casein-fed rabbit models of atherosclerosis. Part 2: Differing lesion area of volume despite equal plasma cholesterol levels,” Arteroscler. Thromb. 14, 105–114 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

M. Overturf and D. Loose-Mitchell, “In vivo model system: the choice of experimental model for analysis of lipoproteins and atherosclerosis,” Curr. Opin. Lipidology 3, 179–185 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. R. Guyton and K. F. Klemp, “Early extracellular lipid deposits in aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits,” Am. J. Pathol. 141, 925–936 (1992).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. B. Atkinson, R. L. Hoover, K. K. Berry, and L. L. Swift, “Cholesterol-fed heterozygous watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit: A new model for Atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis 78, 123–126 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

M. E. Rosenfeld, A. Chait, E. L. Bierman, W. King, P. Goodwin, C. E. Walden, and R. Ross, “Lipid composition of aorta of Watanabe heritable hyperlipemic and comparably hypercholesterolemic fat-fed rabbits. Plasma lipid composition determines aortic lipid composition of hypercholesterolemic rabbits,” Arteriosclerosis 8, 338–347 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Little, M. Constantinescu, R. J. Applegate, M. A. Kutcher, M. T. Burrows, F. R. Kahl, and W. P. Santamore, “Can coronary angiography predict the site of a subsequent myocardial infarction in patients with mild-to-moderate coronary artery disease?,” Circulation 78, 1157–1166 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. Overturf, H. Sybers, J. Schapers, and H. Taegtmeyer, “Hypertension and atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Part 1. Mild, two kidney one-clip goldblatt hypertension treated with enlapril,” Atherosclerosis 59, 283–299 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1880 (1)

A. G. Bell, “On the production and reproduction of sound by light,” Am. J. Sci. 20, 305–324 (1880).

Aglyamov, S. R.

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 978–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Development of a combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system,” Proceedings of the 2006 SPIE Photonics West Symposium: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 6086, F1–F10 (2006).

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Shah, S. Sethuraman, W. G. Scott, R. Schmitt, M. Motamedi, A. Karpiouk, and A. Oraevsky, “Combined ultrasound, optoacoustic and elasticity imaging,” Proceedings of the 2004 SPIE Photonics West Symposium: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 5320, 101–112 (2004).

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium(Vancouver, Canada, 2006), pp. 405–415.

Aikawa, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexopoulos, D.

J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Col. Cardiol. 12, 56–62 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ambrose, J. A.

J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Col. Cardiol. 12, 56–62 (1998).
[Crossref]

Amirian, J. H.

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 978–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Development of a combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system,” Proceedings of the 2006 SPIE Photonics West Symposium: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 6086, F1–F10 (2006).

Applegate, R. J.

W. C. Little, M. Constantinescu, R. J. Applegate, M. A. Kutcher, M. T. Burrows, F. R. Kahl, and W. P. Santamore, “Can coronary angiography predict the site of a subsequent myocardial infarction in patients with mild-to-moderate coronary artery disease?,” Circulation 78, 1157–1166 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assmann, G.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, J. B.

J. B. Atkinson, R. L. Hoover, K. K. Berry, and L. L. Swift, “Cholesterol-fed heterozygous watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit: A new model for Atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis 78, 123–126 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badimon, J. J.

P. R. Moreno, K. R. Purushothaman, V. Fuster, D. Echeverri, H. Truszczynska, S. K. Sharma, J. J. Badimon, and W. N. O’Connor, “Plaque neovascularization is increased in ruptured atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta: implications for plaque vulnerability,” Circulation 110, 2032–2038 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
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B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Noninvasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2, 26–40 (2000).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
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S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Shah, S. Sethuraman, W. G. Scott, R. Schmitt, M. Motamedi, A. Karpiouk, and A. Oraevsky, “Combined ultrasound, optoacoustic and elasticity imaging,” Proceedings of the 2004 SPIE Photonics West Symposium: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 5320, 101–112 (2004).

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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
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S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium(Vancouver, Canada, 2006), pp. 405–415.

Rumberger, J.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santamore, W. P.

W. C. Little, M. Constantinescu, R. J. Applegate, M. A. Kutcher, M. T. Burrows, F. R. Kahl, and W. P. Santamore, “Can coronary angiography predict the site of a subsequent myocardial infarction in patients with mild-to-moderate coronary artery disease?,” Circulation 78, 1157–1166 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaffner, T.

T. Neumann, A. Vollmer, T. Schaffner, O. M. Hess, and G. Heusch, “Diastolic dysfunction and collagen structure in canine pacing-induced heart failure,” J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 31, 179–192 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schapers, J.

M. Overturf, H. Sybers, J. Schapers, and H. Taegtmeyer, “Hypertension and atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Part 1. Mild, two kidney one-clip goldblatt hypertension treated with enlapril,” Atherosclerosis 59, 283–299 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, R.

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Shah, S. Sethuraman, W. G. Scott, R. Schmitt, M. Motamedi, A. Karpiouk, and A. Oraevsky, “Combined ultrasound, optoacoustic and elasticity imaging,” Proceedings of the 2004 SPIE Photonics West Symposium: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 5320, 101–112 (2004).

Schwartz, R. S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, S. M.

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, “Lessons from sudden coronary death: a comprehensive morphological classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 1262–1275 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scott, W. G.

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Shah, S. Sethuraman, W. G. Scott, R. Schmitt, M. Motamedi, A. Karpiouk, and A. Oraevsky, “Combined ultrasound, optoacoustic and elasticity imaging,” Proceedings of the 2004 SPIE Photonics West Symposium: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 5320, 101–112 (2004).

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium(Vancouver, Canada, 2006), pp. 405–415.

Serruys, P. W.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sethuraman, S.

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 978–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Development of a combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system,” Proceedings of the 2006 SPIE Photonics West Symposium: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 6086, F1–F10 (2006).

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Shah, S. Sethuraman, W. G. Scott, R. Schmitt, M. Motamedi, A. Karpiouk, and A. Oraevsky, “Combined ultrasound, optoacoustic and elasticity imaging,” Proceedings of the 2004 SPIE Photonics West Symposium: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 5320, 101–112 (2004).

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium(Vancouver, Canada, 2006), pp. 405–415.

Shah, J.

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Shah, S. Sethuraman, W. G. Scott, R. Schmitt, M. Motamedi, A. Karpiouk, and A. Oraevsky, “Combined ultrasound, optoacoustic and elasticity imaging,” Proceedings of the 2004 SPIE Photonics West Symposium: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 5320, 101–112 (2004).

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium(Vancouver, Canada, 2006), pp. 405–415.

Shah, N.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Noninvasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2, 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, P. K.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, S. K.

P. R. Moreno, K. R. Purushothaman, V. Fuster, D. Echeverri, H. Truszczynska, S. K. Sharma, J. J. Badimon, and W. N. O’Connor, “Plaque neovascularization is increased in ruptured atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta: implications for plaque vulnerability,” Circulation 110, 2032–2038 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siphanto, R. I.

Siscovick, D. S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smalling, R. W.

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 978–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Development of a combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system,” Proceedings of the 2006 SPIE Photonics West Symposium: Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 6086, F1–F10 (2006).

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium(Vancouver, Canada, 2006), pp. 405–415.

Steenbergen, W.

Stefanadis, C.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 0540041–0540046 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stoica, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, P. H.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Noninvasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2, 26–40 (2000).
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Swift, L. L.

J. B. Atkinson, R. L. Hoover, K. K. Berry, and L. L. Swift, “Cholesterol-fed heterozygous watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit: A new model for Atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis 78, 123–126 (1989).
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Sybers, H.

M. Overturf, H. Sybers, J. Schapers, and H. Taegtmeyer, “Hypertension and atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Part 1. Mild, two kidney one-clip goldblatt hypertension treated with enlapril,” Atherosclerosis 59, 283–299 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taegtmeyer, H.

M. Overturf, H. Sybers, J. Schapers, and H. Taegtmeyer, “Hypertension and atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Part 1. Mild, two kidney one-clip goldblatt hypertension treated with enlapril,” Atherosclerosis 59, 283–299 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tannenbaum, M. A.

J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Col. Cardiol. 12, 56–62 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thumma, K. K.

Tittel, F. K.

Torricelli, A.

R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 0540041–0540046 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tromberg, B. J.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Noninvasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2, 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Truszczynska, H.

P. R. Moreno, K. R. Purushothaman, V. Fuster, D. Echeverri, H. Truszczynska, S. K. Sharma, J. J. Badimon, and W. N. O’Connor, “Plaque neovascularization is increased in ruptured atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta: implications for plaque vulnerability,” Circulation 110, 2032–2038 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Adrichem, L. N. A.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

van Neck, J. W.

van Veen, R. L. P.

R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 0540041–0540046 (2005).
[Crossref]

Virmani, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, “Lessons from sudden coronary death: a comprehensive morphological classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 1262–1275 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogel, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vollmer, A.

T. Neumann, A. Vollmer, T. Schaffner, O. M. Hess, and G. Heusch, “Diastolic dysfunction and collagen structure in canine pacing-induced heart failure,” J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 31, 179–192 (1999).
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Walden, C. E.

M. E. Rosenfeld, A. Chait, E. L. Bierman, W. King, P. Goodwin, C. E. Walden, and R. Ross, “Lipid composition of aorta of Watanabe heritable hyperlipemic and comparably hypercholesterolemic fat-fed rabbits. Plasma lipid composition determines aortic lipid composition of hypercholesterolemic rabbits,” Arteriosclerosis 8, 338–347 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waxman, S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Juhani Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I,” Circulation 108, 1664–1672 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, M.

J. A. Ambrose, M. A. Tannenbaum, D. Alexopoulos, C. E. Hjemdahl-Monsen, J. Leavy, M. Weiss, S. Borrico, R. Gorlin, and V. Fuster, “Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and development of myocardial infarction,” J. Am. Col. Cardiol. 12, 56–62 (1998).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging system

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Ex vivo IVUS/IVPA images (6.75 mm diameter) and histology of an advanced atherosclerotic lesion. (a) The IVUS image of the arterial cross-section shows a hypoechoic concentric plaque with significant structural thickening of the intima. (b) The IVPA image at 532 nm optical excitation with lipids in the plaque indicated by low photoacoustic signals. The higher photoacoustic response from the rest of the plaque corresponds to the presence of the fibrous collagenous cap infiltrated with macrophages. (c) Coregistered IVUS and IVPA image. (d) H&E stained histology image. (e) RAM11 stained image showing the highly expressed RAM11 antigen with intense macrophages embedded in the plaque. (f) Polarized image of the Picrosirius red stained cross-section showing the presence of focally dense collagen in the plaque.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

IVUS and IVPA images (8.25 mm diameter) and the histology of the cross-section of the aorta from the control rabbit. (a) The IVUS image of the normal rabbit aorta with no plaques. The lumen of the normal aorta is larger than the plaque-filled aorta. (b) The IVPA image details uniform photoacoustic signals from the fibrous tissue (elastin and collagen) layers. (c) The coregistered IVUS and IVPA image. (d–f) The histological images stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E), RAM-11 and Picrosirius red. The histology confirms the absence of the plaque

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