Abstract

A computer-generated hologram designed to generate an optical vortex was recorded in a cell filled with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal material under a collimated Ar+laser beam operating at 514.5 nm. Owing to the photopolymerization-induced phase separation between the polymer and the liquid crystal, an index modulation was formed between the polymer-rich and liquid crystal-rich regions. A good optical vortex beam with high fidelity was reconstructed using a collimated He-Ne laser beam. The diffraction efficiency is estimated to be about 13%–17%. With a suitable voltage applied, the reconstructed optical vortex beam can be switched owing to the index change between the polymer and the liquid crystal.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, "Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713-4716 (1997).
  2. L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, "Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 292, 912-914 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Rotational frequency shift of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424,810-816 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, "Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 52,429-431 (1990).
  7. M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Wang, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, and X. J. Yin, "Dynamic switching of optical vortices with dynamic gamma-correction liquid crystal spiral phase plate," Opt. Express 13, 10285-10291 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Nakagawa, S. Iguchi, and T. Minemoto, "Computer-generated holograms in photorefractive LiNbO3 crystal," Proc. SPIE 3470, 77-83 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Pugliese and G. M. Morris, "Computer-generated holography in photorefractive materials," Opt. Lett. 15, 338-340 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Guessous, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, "Computer generated holograms recorded in bacteriorhodopsin," Proc. SPIE 5310, 369-376 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, "Electrically switchable computer-generated hologram recorded in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191118 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Zumer and J. W. Doane, "Light scattering from a small nematic droplet," Phys. Rev. A 34, 3373-3386 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, "Improvement of the diffraction properties in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 218, 27-32 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, "Electrically tunable two-dimensional holographic photonic crystal fabricated by a single diffractive element," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. P. Gorkhali, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, "Switchable quasi-crystal structures with five-, seven-, and ninefold symmetries," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 149-158 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Jakubiak, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, P. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Dynamic lasing from all-organic two-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 17, 2807-2811 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, H. P. Li, J. Mi, W. Ji, and X. H. Zhang, "Low-threshold and narrow-linewidth lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. W. Ren, Y. -H. Fan, Y. -H. Lin, and S. -T. Wu, "Tunable-focus microlens arrays using nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystal droplets," Opt. Commun. 247, 101-106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Z. S. Sacks, D. Rozas, and G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., "Holographic formation of optical-vortex filaments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2226-2234 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Q. Wang, X. W. Sun, and P. Shum, "Generating doughnut-shaped beams with large charge numbers by use of liquid-crystal spiral phase plates," Appl. Opt. 43, 2292-2297 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, "Electrically switchable computer-generated hologram recorded in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, H. P. Li, J. Mi, W. Ji, and X. H. Zhang, "Low-threshold and narrow-linewidth lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, "Electrically tunable two-dimensional holographic photonic crystal fabricated by a single diffractive element," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Gorkhali, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, "Switchable quasi-crystal structures with five-, seven-, and ninefold symmetries," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 149-158 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Jakubiak, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, P. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Dynamic lasing from all-organic two-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 17, 2807-2811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ren, Y. -H. Fan, Y. -H. Lin, and S. -T. Wu, "Tunable-focus microlens arrays using nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystal droplets," Opt. Commun. 247, 101-106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, and X. J. Yin, "Dynamic switching of optical vortices with dynamic gamma-correction liquid crystal spiral phase plate," Opt. Express 13, 10285-10291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

F. Guessous, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, "Computer generated holograms recorded in bacteriorhodopsin," Proc. SPIE 5310, 369-376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, X. W. Sun, and P. Shum, "Generating doughnut-shaped beams with large charge numbers by use of liquid-crystal spiral phase plates," Appl. Opt. 43, 2292-2297 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, "Improvement of the diffraction properties in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 218, 27-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424,810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, "Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 292, 912-914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Rotational frequency shift of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakagawa, S. Iguchi, and T. Minemoto, "Computer-generated holograms in photorefractive LiNbO3 crystal," Proc. SPIE 3470, 77-83 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Sacks, D. Rozas, and G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., "Holographic formation of optical-vortex filaments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2226-2234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, "Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713-4716 (1997).

1996

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

L. Pugliese and G. M. Morris, "Computer-generated holography in photorefractive materials," Opt. Lett. 15, 338-340 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, "Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 52,429-431 (1990).

1986

S. Zumer and J. W. Doane, "Light scattering from a small nematic droplet," Phys. Rev. A 34, 3373-3386 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Rotational frequency shift of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, "Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 292, 912-914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bazhenov, V. Y.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, "Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 52,429-431 (1990).

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bowley, C.

H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, P. E.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, "Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 292, 912-914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

R. Jakubiak, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, P. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Dynamic lasing from all-organic two-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 17, 2807-2811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L.

H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Colegrove, J.

H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Courtial, J.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Rotational frequency shift of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G.

H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

Dholakia, K.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, "Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 292, 912-914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Rotational frequency shift of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

S. Zumer and J. W. Doane, "Light scattering from a small nematic droplet," Phys. Rev. A 34, 3373-3386 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elim, H. I.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. -H.

H. W. Ren, Y. -H. Fan, Y. -H. Lin, and S. -T. Wu, "Tunable-focus microlens arrays using nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystal droplets," Opt. Commun. 247, 101-106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fiske, T.

H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gorkhali, S. P.

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424,810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guessous, F.

F. Guessous, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, "Computer generated holograms recorded in bacteriorhodopsin," Proc. SPIE 5310, 369-376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gunther, J.

H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hampp, N.

F. Guessous, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, "Computer generated holograms recorded in bacteriorhodopsin," Proc. SPIE 5310, 369-376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, T.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, "Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713-4716 (1997).

Hu, G.

H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iguchi, S.

K. Nakagawa, S. Iguchi, and T. Minemoto, "Computer-generated holograms in photorefractive LiNbO3 crystal," Proc. SPIE 3470, 77-83 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jakubiak, R.

R. Jakubiak, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, P. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Dynamic lasing from all-organic two-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 17, 2807-2811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, H. P. Li, J. Mi, W. Ji, and X. H. Zhang, "Low-threshold and narrow-linewidth lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, "Improvement of the diffraction properties in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 218, 27-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Juchem, T.

F. Guessous, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, "Computer generated holograms recorded in bacteriorhodopsin," Proc. SPIE 5310, 369-376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J.

H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuga, T.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, "Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713-4716 (1997).

Lewis, A.

H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. P.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, H. P. Li, J. Mi, W. Ji, and X. H. Zhang, "Low-threshold and narrow-linewidth lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. -H.

H. W. Ren, Y. -H. Fan, Y. -H. Lin, and S. -T. Wu, "Tunable-focus microlens arrays using nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystal droplets," Opt. Commun. 247, 101-106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, "Electrically switchable computer-generated hologram recorded in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, H. P. Li, J. Mi, W. Ji, and X. H. Zhang, "Low-threshold and narrow-linewidth lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, "Electrically tunable two-dimensional holographic photonic crystal fabricated by a single diffractive element," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, "Improvement of the diffraction properties in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 218, 27-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd, P.

R. Jakubiak, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, P. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Dynamic lasing from all-organic two-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 17, 2807-2811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, M. P.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, "Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 292, 912-914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mi, J.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, H. P. Li, J. Mi, W. Ji, and X. H. Zhang, "Low-threshold and narrow-linewidth lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Minemoto, T.

K. Nakagawa, S. Iguchi, and T. Minemoto, "Computer-generated holograms in photorefractive LiNbO3 crystal," Proc. SPIE 3470, 77-83 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. M.

Nakagawa, K.

K. Nakagawa, S. Iguchi, and T. Minemoto, "Computer-generated holograms in photorefractive LiNbO3 crystal," Proc. SPIE 3470, 77-83 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

R. Jakubiak, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, P. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Dynamic lasing from all-organic two-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 17, 2807-2811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Rotational frequency shift of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, L.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, "Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 292, 912-914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pugliese, L.

Qi, J.

Ren, H. W.

H. W. Ren, Y. -H. Fan, Y. -H. Lin, and S. -T. Wu, "Tunable-focus microlens arrays using nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystal droplets," Opt. Commun. 247, 101-106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, D. A.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Rotational frequency shift of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rozas, D.

Sacks, Z. S.

Sasada, H.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, "Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713-4716 (1997).

Shimizu, Y.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, "Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713-4716 (1997).

Shiokawa, N.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, "Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713-4716 (1997).

Shum, P.

Sibbett, W.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, "Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 292, 912-914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Silverstein, L.

H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. M.

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soskin, M. S.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, "Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 52,429-431 (1990).

Sun, X. W.

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, "Electrically switchable computer-generated hologram recorded in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, "Electrically tunable two-dimensional holographic photonic crystal fabricated by a single diffractive element," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, H. P. Li, J. Mi, W. Ji, and X. H. Zhang, "Low-threshold and narrow-linewidth lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, and X. J. Yin, "Dynamic switching of optical vortices with dynamic gamma-correction liquid crystal spiral phase plate," Opt. Express 13, 10285-10291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, X. W. Sun, and P. Shum, "Generating doughnut-shaped beams with large charge numbers by use of liquid-crystal spiral phase plates," Appl. Opt. 43, 2292-2297 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. Jakubiak, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, P. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Dynamic lasing from all-organic two-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 17, 2807-2811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, G. A.

Tomlin, D.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. Jakubiak, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, P. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Dynamic lasing from all-organic two-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 17, 2807-2811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Torii, Y.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, "Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713-4716 (1997).

Turnbull, G. A.

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vaia, R. A.

R. Jakubiak, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, P. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Dynamic lasing from all-organic two-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 17, 2807-2811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, H. E. L. O.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, "Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 52,429-431 (1990).

Wang, Q.

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. -T.

H. W. Ren, Y. -H. Fan, Y. -H. Lin, and S. -T. Wu, "Tunable-focus microlens arrays using nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystal droplets," Opt. Commun. 247, 101-106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K. S.

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, "Improvement of the diffraction properties in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 218, 27-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X. J.

Yuan, H.

H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, "Improvement of the diffraction properties in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 218, 27-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, H. P. Li, J. Mi, W. Ji, and X. H. Zhang, "Low-threshold and narrow-linewidth lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zumer, S.

S. Zumer and J. W. Doane, "Light scattering from a small nematic droplet," Phys. Rev. A 34, 3373-3386 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 14, 187-191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakubiak, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, P. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning, and R. A. Vaia, "Dynamic lasing from all-organic two-dimensional photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 17, 2807-2811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, "Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs)," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, H. P. Li, J. Mi, W. Ji, and X. H. Zhang, "Low-threshold and narrow-linewidth lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, "Electrically tunable two-dimensional holographic photonic crystal fabricated by a single diffractive element," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, "Electrically switchable computer-generated hologram recorded in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, "Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 52,429-431 (1990).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424,810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

H. W. Ren, Y. -H. Fan, Y. -H. Lin, and S. -T. Wu, "Tunable-focus microlens arrays using nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystal droplets," Opt. Commun. 247, 101-106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, "Improvement of the diffraction properties in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 218, 27-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum," Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnbull, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

S. Zumer and J. W. Doane, "Light scattering from a small nematic droplet," Phys. Rev. A 34, 3373-3386 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, "Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713-4716 (1997).

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Rotational frequency shift of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

K. Nakagawa, S. Iguchi, and T. Minemoto, "Computer-generated holograms in photorefractive LiNbO3 crystal," Proc. SPIE 3470, 77-83 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Yuan, J. Colegrove, G. Hu, T. Fiske, A. Lewis, J. Gunther, L. Silverstein, C. Bowley, G. Crawford, L. Chien, and J. Kelly, "HPDLC color reflective displays," Proc. SPIE 3690, 196-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Guessous, T. Juchem, and N. Hampp, "Computer generated holograms recorded in bacteriorhodopsin," Proc. SPIE 5310, 369-376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, "Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 292, 912-914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Binary transparency masks fabricated with the topological charge of (a) m=1, (b) m=2, and (c) m=3, respectively. Inset in (a) shows the resolution in the magnified image of (a).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical setup to reconstruct the image from PDLC OVs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Central optical microscopic images of CGH masks and PDLC CGH for (a) and (b) where m=1, (c) and (d) where m=2, and (e) and (f) where m=3, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photographs of the reconstructed OV without voltage applied for (a) m=1, (b) m=2,and (c) m=3, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Photographs of the reconstructed OV at (a) V=0, and (b) V=70 Vrms, respectively.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u ( r , θ , z ) = A m ( r , z ) exp ( im θ ) exp [ i Φ m ( r , z ) ] ,
Δ δ = 2 π ( n eff n p ) d λ ,

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