Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a transmission scheduling algorithm to avoid congestion collapse in O-CDMA networks. Our result shows that transmission scheduling increases the performance of the system by orders of magnitude.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824–833 (1989)
    [Crossref]
  2. P. Saghari, R. Omrani, A. E. Willner, and V. Kumar, “Analytical interference model for 2-dimentional (time-wavelength) asynchronous O-CDMA systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FG7. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2004-FG7
  3. P. Saghari, R. Gholizadeh, H. Abrishami, E. Pakbaznia, J. E. McGeehan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the optimum decision threshold for varying numbers of active users in a 2-D time-wavelength asynchronous O-CDMA system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3339–3346 (2005)
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Kamath, J. D. Touch, and J. A. Bannister, “Algorithms for interference sensing in optical CDMA networks,” IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC)3, 1720–1724 (2004)
  5. P. Kamath, J. D. Touch, and J. A. Bannister, “The need for media access control in optical CDMA networks,” INFOCOM 4, 2208–2219 (2004)
  6. Kumar and D. Patil, “Stability and throughput analysis of CDMAALOHA with finite number of users and code sharing,” Telecommunication Systems (a Baltzer Science Journal) 8, 257–275 (1997)
  7. D. Raychaudhuri, “Performance analysis of random access packetswitched code division multiple access systems,” IEEE Trans. on Commun. 29, 895–901, (1981)
    [Crossref]
  8. F. A. Tobagi and V. B. Hunt, “Performance analysis of carrier sense multiple access with collision detection,” Computer Networks 4, 245–259 (1980)
  9. NLANR, “Traffic traces from an OC48 link,” www.nlanr.net (2005)
  10. R. Omrani and P. V. Kumar, “Improved constructions and bounds for 2-D optical orthogonal codes,” International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), (2005)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

P. Kamath, J. D. Touch, and J. A. Bannister, “The need for media access control in optical CDMA networks,” INFOCOM 4, 2208–2219 (2004)

1989 (1)

J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824–833 (1989)
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

D. Raychaudhuri, “Performance analysis of random access packetswitched code division multiple access systems,” IEEE Trans. on Commun. 29, 895–901, (1981)
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

F. A. Tobagi and V. B. Hunt, “Performance analysis of carrier sense multiple access with collision detection,” Computer Networks 4, 245–259 (1980)

Abrishami, H.

Bannister, J. A.

P. Kamath, J. D. Touch, and J. A. Bannister, “The need for media access control in optical CDMA networks,” INFOCOM 4, 2208–2219 (2004)

P. Kamath, J. D. Touch, and J. A. Bannister, “Algorithms for interference sensing in optical CDMA networks,” IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC)3, 1720–1724 (2004)

Gholizadeh, R.

Hunt, V. B.

F. A. Tobagi and V. B. Hunt, “Performance analysis of carrier sense multiple access with collision detection,” Computer Networks 4, 245–259 (1980)

Kamath, P.

P. Kamath, J. D. Touch, and J. A. Bannister, “The need for media access control in optical CDMA networks,” INFOCOM 4, 2208–2219 (2004)

P. Kamath, J. D. Touch, and J. A. Bannister, “Algorithms for interference sensing in optical CDMA networks,” IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC)3, 1720–1724 (2004)

Kumar,

Kumar and D. Patil, “Stability and throughput analysis of CDMAALOHA with finite number of users and code sharing,” Telecommunication Systems (a Baltzer Science Journal) 8, 257–275 (1997)

Kumar, P. V.

R. Omrani and P. V. Kumar, “Improved constructions and bounds for 2-D optical orthogonal codes,” International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), (2005)

Kumar, V.

P. Saghari, R. Omrani, A. E. Willner, and V. Kumar, “Analytical interference model for 2-dimentional (time-wavelength) asynchronous O-CDMA systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FG7. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2004-FG7

McGeehan, J. E.

Nezam, S. M. R. M.

Omrani, R.

R. Omrani and P. V. Kumar, “Improved constructions and bounds for 2-D optical orthogonal codes,” International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), (2005)

P. Saghari, R. Omrani, A. E. Willner, and V. Kumar, “Analytical interference model for 2-dimentional (time-wavelength) asynchronous O-CDMA systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FG7. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2004-FG7

Pakbaznia, E.

Patil, D.

Kumar and D. Patil, “Stability and throughput analysis of CDMAALOHA with finite number of users and code sharing,” Telecommunication Systems (a Baltzer Science Journal) 8, 257–275 (1997)

Raychaudhuri, D.

D. Raychaudhuri, “Performance analysis of random access packetswitched code division multiple access systems,” IEEE Trans. on Commun. 29, 895–901, (1981)
[Crossref]

Saghari, P.

P. Saghari, R. Gholizadeh, H. Abrishami, E. Pakbaznia, J. E. McGeehan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the optimum decision threshold for varying numbers of active users in a 2-D time-wavelength asynchronous O-CDMA system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3339–3346 (2005)
[Crossref]

P. Saghari, R. Omrani, A. E. Willner, and V. Kumar, “Analytical interference model for 2-dimentional (time-wavelength) asynchronous O-CDMA systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FG7. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2004-FG7

Salehi, J. A.

J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824–833 (1989)
[Crossref]

Tobagi, F. A.

F. A. Tobagi and V. B. Hunt, “Performance analysis of carrier sense multiple access with collision detection,” Computer Networks 4, 245–259 (1980)

Touch, J. D.

P. Kamath, J. D. Touch, and J. A. Bannister, “The need for media access control in optical CDMA networks,” INFOCOM 4, 2208–2219 (2004)

P. Kamath, J. D. Touch, and J. A. Bannister, “Algorithms for interference sensing in optical CDMA networks,” IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC)3, 1720–1724 (2004)

Willner, A. E.

P. Saghari, R. Gholizadeh, H. Abrishami, E. Pakbaznia, J. E. McGeehan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the optimum decision threshold for varying numbers of active users in a 2-D time-wavelength asynchronous O-CDMA system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3339–3346 (2005)
[Crossref]

P. Saghari, R. Omrani, A. E. Willner, and V. Kumar, “Analytical interference model for 2-dimentional (time-wavelength) asynchronous O-CDMA systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FG7. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2004-FG7

Computer Networks (1)

F. A. Tobagi and V. B. Hunt, “Performance analysis of carrier sense multiple access with collision detection,” Computer Networks 4, 245–259 (1980)

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824–833 (1989)
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. on Commun. (1)

D. Raychaudhuri, “Performance analysis of random access packetswitched code division multiple access systems,” IEEE Trans. on Commun. 29, 895–901, (1981)
[Crossref]

INFOCOM (1)

P. Kamath, J. D. Touch, and J. A. Bannister, “The need for media access control in optical CDMA networks,” INFOCOM 4, 2208–2219 (2004)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Other (5)

P. Kamath, J. D. Touch, and J. A. Bannister, “Algorithms for interference sensing in optical CDMA networks,” IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC)3, 1720–1724 (2004)

P. Saghari, R. Omrani, A. E. Willner, and V. Kumar, “Analytical interference model for 2-dimentional (time-wavelength) asynchronous O-CDMA systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper FG7. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2004-FG7

Kumar and D. Patil, “Stability and throughput analysis of CDMAALOHA with finite number of users and code sharing,” Telecommunication Systems (a Baltzer Science Journal) 8, 257–275 (1997)

NLANR, “Traffic traces from an OC48 link,” www.nlanr.net (2005)

R. Omrani and P. V. Kumar, “Improved constructions and bounds for 2-D optical orthogonal codes,” International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), (2005)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) O-CDMA network: The nodes are connected by transmit and receive (upstream, downstream) fibers to a passive star coupler to enable a shared medium LAN, (b) Block diagram of an Interference Avoidance(IA) network interface card (NIC)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Upper: link after the decoder of user of interest. Lower: the data is transmitted such that the autocorrelation is in the chip time with least interference

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The normalized network throughput vs. normalized offered load for Aloha-CDMA and transmission scheduling. (a) Simulated traffic (b) Real traces of traffic from OC44 link. The throughput of the network does not collapse in high loads The traffic model is Poisson arrivals with exponentially distributed packet lengths.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Bit pattern of 10110 for single user (b) 3 users (c) 6 users, (d) eye diagram of the correlation for single user (b) eye diagram of multiple user using transmission scheduling (c) random case eye diagram

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) BER vs. received optical power of user 1 for increasing number of users, (b) performance of an O-CDMA system for increasing number of users with transmission scheduling, aloha-CDMA, and worst case

Metrics