Abstract

We present 3D linear reconstructions of time-domain (TD) diffuse optical imaging differential data. We first compute the sensitivity matrix at different delay gates within the diffusion approximation for a homogeneous semi-infinite medium. The matrix is then inverted using spatially varying regularization. The performances of the method and the influence of a number of parameters are evaluated with simulated data and compared to continuous-wave (CW) imaging. In addition to the expected depth resolution provided by TD, we show improved lateral resolution and localization. The method is then applied to reconstructing phantom data consisting of an absorbing inclusion located at different depths within a scattering medium.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  35. D.A. Boas, and A.M. Dale, "Simulation study of magnetic resonance imaging-guided cortically constrained diffuse optical tomography of the human brain function," Appl. Opt. 44, 1957-1968 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. D. Comelli, A. assi, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "In vivo time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of the human forehead," Appl. Opt. 46, 1717-1725 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, "Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation", J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Comelli, A. assi, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "In vivo time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of the human forehead," Appl. Opt. 46, 1717-1725 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Selb, D.K. Joseph, and D.A. Boas, "Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (7)

D.A. Boas, and A.M. Dale, "Simulation study of magnetic resonance imaging-guided cortically constrained diffuse optical tomography of the human brain function," Appl. Opt. 44, 1957-1968 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye-bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.P. Gibson, J.C. Hebden, and S.R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50,R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Special section on Optics in Neuroscience, J. Biomed. Opt. 10 (2005).

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, "Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (078101), 1-4, (2005).

J. Selb, J.J. Stott, M.A. Franceschini, A.G. Sorenson and D.A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Montcel, R. Chabrier, P. Poulet, "Detection of cortical activation with time-resolved diffuse optical methods," Appl. Opt. 44, 1942-1947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, G. Zaccanti, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, and R. Cubeddu, "Phantom validation and in vivo application of an inversion procedure for retrieving the optical properties of diffusive layered media from time-resolved reflectance measurements," Opt. Lett. 29, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.A. Boas, K. Chen K, D. Grebert, and M.A. Franceschini, "Improving the diffuse optical imaging spatial resolution of the cerebral hemodynamic response to brain activation in humans," Opt. Lett. 29, 1506-1508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and Y. Yamada, "Optical tomographic mapping of cerebral haemodynamics by means of time-domain detection: methodology and phantom validation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1055-1078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

2002 (3)

F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, H. Zhao, and Y. Yamada, "Semi-three-dimensional algorithm for time-resolved diffuse optical tomography by use of the generalized pulse spectrum technique," Appl. Opt. 41, 7346-7358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, "Beyond the visible - imaging the human brain with light," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23,1-18 (2002).
[PubMed]

J.C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Yusof, N. Everdell, E.M.C. Hillman, D.T. Delpy, S.R. Arridge, T. Austin, J.H. Meek, J.S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

D.A. Boas, T.J. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J.J.A. Marota, and J.B. Mandeville, "The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics," Neuroimage 13, 76-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Carraresi, T.S.M. Shatir, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Accuracy of a perturbation model to predict the effect of scattering and absorbing inhomogeneities on photon migration," Appl. Opt. 40, 4622-4632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (4)

M. Schweiger and S.R. Arridge, "Application of temporal filters to time resolved data in optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1699-1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.R. Hintz, D.A. Benaron, J.P. van Houten, J.L. Duckworth, F.W.H. Liu, S.D. Spilman, D.K. Stevenson, W.-F. Cheong, "Stationary headband for clinical time-of-flight optical imaging at the bedside," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 361-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, XH. Ma, A.G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 193-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (3)

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayanagi, and H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using noninvasive NIR topography," Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gratton, P.M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D.C. Hood, "Shades of gray matter: noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation," Psychophysiology 32, 505-509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.R. Arridge, "Photon-measurement density functions. Part I: Analytical forms," Appl. Opt. 34,7395-7409 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S.R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D.T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

D.T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arridge, S.

D.T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S.R.

A.P. Gibson, J.C. Hebden, and S.R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50,R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Yusof, N. Everdell, E.M.C. Hillman, D.T. Delpy, S.R. Arridge, T. Austin, J.H. Meek, J.S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger and S.R. Arridge, "Application of temporal filters to time resolved data in optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1699-1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.R. Arridge, "Photon-measurement density functions. Part I: Analytical forms," Appl. Opt. 34,7395-7409 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S.R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D.T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, T.

J.C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Yusof, N. Everdell, E.M.C. Hillman, D.T. Delpy, S.R. Arridge, T. Austin, J.H. Meek, J.S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, A. H.

Bassi, A.

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, G. Zaccanti, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, and R. Cubeddu, "Phantom validation and in vivo application of an inversion procedure for retrieving the optical properties of diffusive layered media from time-resolved reflectance measurements," Opt. Lett. 29, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benaron, D.A.

S.R. Hintz, D.A. Benaron, J.P. van Houten, J.L. Duckworth, F.W.H. Liu, S.D. Spilman, D.K. Stevenson, W.-F. Cheong, "Stationary headband for clinical time-of-flight optical imaging at the bedside," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 361-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D.A.

J. Selb, D.K. Joseph, and D.A. Boas, "Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.A. Boas, and A.M. Dale, "Simulation study of magnetic resonance imaging-guided cortically constrained diffuse optical tomography of the human brain function," Appl. Opt. 44, 1957-1968 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J.J. Stott, M.A. Franceschini, A.G. Sorenson and D.A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.A. Boas, K. Chen K, D. Grebert, and M.A. Franceschini, "Improving the diffuse optical imaging spatial resolution of the cerebral hemodynamic response to brain activation in humans," Opt. Lett. 29, 1506-1508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.P. Culver, A.M. Siegel, J.J. Stott, and D.A. Boas, "Volumetric diffuse optical tomography of brain activity," Opt. Lett. 28, 2061-2063 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Barnett, J.P. Culver, A.G. Sorensen, A. Dale, and D.A. Boas, "Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with three-dimensional segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3095-3108, (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.A. Boas, T.J. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J.J.A. Marota, and J.B. Mandeville, "The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics," Neuroimage 13, 76-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carraresi, S.

Chabrier, R.

Chance, B.

V. Ntziachristos, XH. Ma, A.G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 193-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M.S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B.C. Wilson, "Time-resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-36 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

D.A. Boas, T.J. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J.J.A. Marota, and J.B. Mandeville, "The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics," Neuroimage 13, 76-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W.-F.

S.R. Hintz, D.A. Benaron, J.P. van Houten, J.L. Duckworth, F.W.H. Liu, S.D. Spilman, D.K. Stevenson, W.-F. Cheong, "Stationary headband for clinical time-of-flight optical imaging at the bedside," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 361-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cho, E.

G. Gratton, P.M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D.C. Hood, "Shades of gray matter: noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation," Psychophysiology 32, 505-509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comelli, D.

Cope, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S.R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D.T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corballis, P.M.

G. Gratton, P.M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D.C. Hood, "Shades of gray matter: noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation," Psychophysiology 32, 505-509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, "Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (078101), 1-4, (2005).

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, G. Zaccanti, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, and R. Cubeddu, "Phantom validation and in vivo application of an inversion procedure for retrieving the optical properties of diffusive layered media from time-resolved reflectance measurements," Opt. Lett. 29, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J.P.

Dale, A.

Dale, A.M.

Dam, J.S.

Del Bianco, S.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, "Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (078101), 1-4, (2005).

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, G. Zaccanti, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, and R. Cubeddu, "Phantom validation and in vivo application of an inversion procedure for retrieving the optical properties of diffusive layered media from time-resolved reflectance measurements," Opt. Lett. 29, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D.T.

J.C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Yusof, N. Everdell, E.M.C. Hillman, D.T. Delpy, S.R. Arridge, T. Austin, J.H. Meek, J.S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S.R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D.T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duckworth, J.L.

S.R. Hintz, D.A. Benaron, J.P. van Houten, J.L. Duckworth, F.W.H. Liu, S.D. Spilman, D.K. Stevenson, W.-F. Cheong, "Stationary headband for clinical time-of-flight optical imaging at the bedside," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 361-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eda, H.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Essenpreis, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S.R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D.T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everdell, N.

J.C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Yusof, N. Everdell, E.M.C. Hillman, D.T. Delpy, S.R. Arridge, T. Austin, J.H. Meek, J.S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabiani, M.

G. Gratton, P.M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D.C. Hood, "Shades of gray matter: noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation," Psychophysiology 32, 505-509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

Feng, T.C.

Filiaci, M.

Firbank, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S.R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D.T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M.A.

J. Selb, J.J. Stott, M.A. Franceschini, A.G. Sorenson and D.A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M.A. Franceschini, V. Toronov, M. Filiaci, E. Gratton, and S. Fantini, "On-line optical imaging of the human brain with 160 ms temporal resolution," Opt. Express 6, 49-57 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, F.

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and Y. Yamada, "Optical tomographic mapping of cerebral haemodynamics by means of time-domain detection: methodology and phantom validation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1055-1078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, H. Zhao, and Y. Yamada, "Semi-three-dimensional algorithm for time-resolved diffuse optical tomography by use of the generalized pulse spectrum technique," Appl. Opt. 41, 7346-7358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaudette, T.J.

D.A. Boas, T.J. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J.J.A. Marota, and J.B. Mandeville, "The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics," Neuroimage 13, 76-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, A.

J.C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Yusof, N. Everdell, E.M.C. Hillman, D.T. Delpy, S.R. Arridge, T. Austin, J.H. Meek, J.S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, A.P.

A.P. Gibson, J.C. Hebden, and S.R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50,R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glanzmann, T.

Gratton, E.

Gratton, G.

G. Gratton, P.M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D.C. Hood, "Shades of gray matter: noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation," Psychophysiology 32, 505-509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosenick, D.

Haskell, R.C.

Hebden, J.C.

A.P. Gibson, J.C. Hebden, and S.R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50,R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Yusof, N. Everdell, E.M.C. Hillman, D.T. Delpy, S.R. Arridge, T. Austin, J.H. Meek, J.S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E.M.C.

J.C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Yusof, N. Everdell, E.M.C. Hillman, D.T. Delpy, S.R. Arridge, T. Austin, J.H. Meek, J.S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hintz, S.R.

S.R. Hintz, D.A. Benaron, J.P. van Houten, J.L. Duckworth, F.W.H. Liu, S.D. Spilman, D.K. Stevenson, W.-F. Cheong, "Stationary headband for clinical time-of-flight optical imaging at the bedside," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 361-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hiraoka, M.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S.R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D.T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hood, D.C.

G. Gratton, P.M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D.C. Hood, "Shades of gray matter: noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation," Psychophysiology 32, 505-509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, Y.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayanagi, and H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using noninvasive NIR topography," Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joseph, D.K.

J. Selb, D.K. Joseph, and D.A. Boas, "Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kacprzak, M.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, "Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation", J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

Koizumi, H.

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayanagi, and H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using noninvasive NIR topography," Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebert, A.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, "Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation", J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye-bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, "Evaluation of optical properties of highly scattering media by moments of distributions of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 42, 5785-5790 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.W.H.

S.R. Hintz, D.A. Benaron, J.P. van Houten, J.L. Duckworth, F.W.H. Liu, S.D. Spilman, D.K. Stevenson, W.-F. Cheong, "Stationary headband for clinical time-of-flight optical imaging at the bedside," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 361-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ma, XH.

V. Ntziachristos, XH. Ma, A.G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 193-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, R.

Maki, A.

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayanagi, and H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using noninvasive NIR topography," Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandeville, J.B.

D.A. Boas, T.J. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J.J.A. Marota, and J.B. Mandeville, "The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics," Neuroimage 13, 76-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maniewski, R.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, "Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation", J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marota, J.J.A.

D.A. Boas, T.J. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J.J.A. Marota, and J.B. Mandeville, "The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics," Neuroimage 13, 76-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, "Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (078101), 1-4, (2005).

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, G. Zaccanti, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, and R. Cubeddu, "Phantom validation and in vivo application of an inversion procedure for retrieving the optical properties of diffusive layered media from time-resolved reflectance measurements," Opt. Lett. 29, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Carraresi, T.S.M. Shatir, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Accuracy of a perturbation model to predict the effect of scattering and absorbing inhomogeneities on photon migration," Appl. Opt. 40, 4622-4632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mayanagi, Y.

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayanagi, and H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using noninvasive NIR topography," Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAdams, M.S.

Meek, J.H.

J.C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Yusof, N. Everdell, E.M.C. Hillman, D.T. Delpy, S.R. Arridge, T. Austin, J.H. Meek, J.S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Möller, M.

Montcel, B.

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, XH. Ma, A.G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 193-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Obrig, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye-bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, "Beyond the visible - imaging the human brain with light," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23,1-18 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oda, I.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oda, M.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, Y.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M.S.

Pifferi, A.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, "Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (078101), 1-4, (2005).

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, G. Zaccanti, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, and R. Cubeddu, "Phantom validation and in vivo application of an inversion procedure for retrieving the optical properties of diffusive layered media from time-resolved reflectance measurements," Opt. Lett. 29, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulet, P.

Rinneberg, H

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye-bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

Sassaroli, A.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sawosz, P.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, "Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation", J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

M. Schweiger and S.R. Arridge, "Application of temporal filters to time resolved data in optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1699-1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selb, J.

J. Selb, D.K. Joseph, and D.A. Boas, "Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J.J. Stott, M.A. Franceschini, A.G. Sorenson and D.A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shatir, T.S.M.

Siegel, A.M.

Sorensen, A.G.

Sorenson, A.G.

J. Selb, J.J. Stott, M.A. Franceschini, A.G. Sorenson and D.A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spilman, S.D.

S.R. Hintz, D.A. Benaron, J.P. van Houten, J.L. Duckworth, F.W.H. Liu, S.D. Spilman, D.K. Stevenson, W.-F. Cheong, "Stationary headband for clinical time-of-flight optical imaging at the bedside," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 361-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, L.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, "Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (078101), 1-4, (2005).

Steinbrink, J.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye-bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, D.K.

S.R. Hintz, D.A. Benaron, J.P. van Houten, J.L. Duckworth, F.W.H. Liu, S.D. Spilman, D.K. Stevenson, W.-F. Cheong, "Stationary headband for clinical time-of-flight optical imaging at the bedside," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 361-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stott, J.J.

J. Selb, J.J. Stott, M.A. Franceschini, A.G. Sorenson and D.A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.P. Culver, A.M. Siegel, J.J. Stott, and D.A. Boas, "Volumetric diffuse optical tomography of brain activity," Opt. Lett. 28, 2061-2063 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strangman, G.

D.A. Boas, T.J. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J.J.A. Marota, and J.B. Mandeville, "The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics," Neuroimage 13, 76-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L.O.

Swartling, J.

Takada, M.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, M.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanikawa, Y.

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and Y. Yamada, "Optical tomographic mapping of cerebral haemodynamics by means of time-domain detection: methodology and phantom validation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1055-1078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, H. Zhao, and Y. Yamada, "Semi-three-dimensional algorithm for time-resolved diffuse optical tomography by use of the generalized pulse spectrum technique," Appl. Opt. 41, 7346-7358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, G. Zaccanti, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, and R. Cubeddu, "Phantom validation and in vivo application of an inversion procedure for retrieving the optical properties of diffusive layered media from time-resolved reflectance measurements," Opt. Lett. 29, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toricelli, A.

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, G. Zaccanti, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, and R. Cubeddu, "Phantom validation and in vivo application of an inversion procedure for retrieving the optical properties of diffusive layered media from time-resolved reflectance measurements," Opt. Lett. 29, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toronov, V.

Torricelli, A.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, "Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (078101), 1-4, (2005).

Tromberg, B.J.

Tsay, T.T.

Tsuchiya, Y.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsunazawa, Y.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van den Bergh, H.

van der Zee, P.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S.R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D.T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Houten, J.P.

S.R. Hintz, D.A. Benaron, J.P. van Houten, J.L. Duckworth, F.W.H. Liu, S.D. Spilman, D.K. Stevenson, W.-F. Cheong, "Stationary headband for clinical time-of-flight optical imaging at the bedside," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 361-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villringer, A.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye-bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, "Beyond the visible - imaging the human brain with light," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23,1-18 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye-bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, "Evaluation of optical properties of highly scattering media by moments of distributions of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 42, 5785-5790 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, Y.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wagnières, G.

Watanabe, E.

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayanagi, and H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using noninvasive NIR topography," Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B.C.

Wray, S.

D.T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J.

D.T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J.S.

J.C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Yusof, N. Everdell, E.M.C. Hillman, D.T. Delpy, S.R. Arridge, T. Austin, J.H. Meek, J.S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, Y.

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and Y. Yamada, "Optical tomographic mapping of cerebral haemodynamics by means of time-domain detection: methodology and phantom validation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1055-1078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, H. Zhao, and Y. Yamada, "Semi-three-dimensional algorithm for time-resolved diffuse optical tomography by use of the generalized pulse spectrum technique," Appl. Opt. 41, 7346-7358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, Y.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayanagi, and H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using noninvasive NIR topography," Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A.G.

V. Ntziachristos, XH. Ma, A.G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 193-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yusof, R.

J.C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Yusof, N. Everdell, E.M.C. Hillman, D.T. Delpy, S.R. Arridge, T. Austin, J.H. Meek, J.S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, "Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (078101), 1-4, (2005).

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, G. Zaccanti, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, and R. Cubeddu, "Phantom validation and in vivo application of an inversion procedure for retrieving the optical properties of diffusive layered media from time-resolved reflectance measurements," Opt. Lett. 29, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Carraresi, T.S.M. Shatir, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Accuracy of a perturbation model to predict the effect of scattering and absorbing inhomogeneities on photon migration," Appl. Opt. 40, 4622-4632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and Y. Yamada, "Optical tomographic mapping of cerebral haemodynamics by means of time-domain detection: methodology and phantom validation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1055-1078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, H. Zhao, and Y. Yamada, "Semi-three-dimensional algorithm for time-resolved diffuse optical tomography by use of the generalized pulse spectrum technique," Appl. Opt. 41, 7346-7358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zolek, N.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, "Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation", J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (12)

M.S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B.C. Wilson, "Time-resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-36 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Montcel, R. Chabrier, P. Poulet, "Detection of cortical activation with time-resolved diffuse optical methods," Appl. Opt. 44, 1942-1947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Swartling, J.S. Dam, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Comparison of spatially and temporally resolved diffuse-reflectance measurements systems for determination of biomedical optical properties," Appl. Opt. 42, 4612-4620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, H. Zhao, and Y. Yamada, "Semi-three-dimensional algorithm for time-resolved diffuse optical tomography by use of the generalized pulse spectrum technique," Appl. Opt. 41, 7346-7358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, "Evaluation of optical properties of highly scattering media by moments of distributions of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 42, 5785-5790 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, T. Glanzmann, G. Wagnières, and H. van den Bergh, "Investigation of two-layered turbid media with time-resolved reflectance," Appl. Opt. 37, 6852-6862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnett, J.P. Culver, A.G. Sorensen, A. Dale, and D.A. Boas, "Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with three-dimensional segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3095-3108, (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons," Appl. Opt. 43, 3037-3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.R. Arridge, "Photon-measurement density functions. Part I: Analytical forms," Appl. Opt. 34,7395-7409 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Carraresi, T.S.M. Shatir, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Accuracy of a perturbation model to predict the effect of scattering and absorbing inhomogeneities on photon migration," Appl. Opt. 40, 4622-4632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D.A. Boas, and A.M. Dale, "Simulation study of magnetic resonance imaging-guided cortically constrained diffuse optical tomography of the human brain function," Appl. Opt. 44, 1957-1968 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Comelli, A. assi, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "In vivo time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of the human forehead," Appl. Opt. 46, 1717-1725 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, and R. Maniewski, "Time-resolved optical imager for assessment of cerebral oxygenation", J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, D.K. Joseph, and D.A. Boas, "Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Special section on Optics in Neuroscience, J. Biomed. Opt. 10 (2005).

J. Selb, J.J. Stott, M.A. Franceschini, A.G. Sorenson and D.A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, "Beyond the visible - imaging the human brain with light," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23,1-18 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Phys. (1)

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayanagi, and H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using noninvasive NIR topography," Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (2)

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, H Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye-bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.A. Boas, T.J. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J.J.A. Marota, and J.B. Mandeville, "The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics," Neuroimage 13, 76-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

D.A. Boas, K. Chen K, D. Grebert, and M.A. Franceschini, "Improving the diffuse optical imaging spatial resolution of the cerebral hemodynamic response to brain activation in humans," Opt. Lett. 29, 1506-1508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.P. Culver, A.M. Siegel, J.J. Stott, and D.A. Boas, "Volumetric diffuse optical tomography of brain activity," Opt. Lett. 28, 2061-2063 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, G. Zaccanti, A. Pifferi, A. Toricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, and R. Cubeddu, "Phantom validation and in vivo application of an inversion procedure for retrieving the optical properties of diffusive layered media from time-resolved reflectance measurements," Opt. Lett. 29, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

S.R. Hintz, D.A. Benaron, J.P. van Houten, J.L. Duckworth, F.W.H. Liu, S.D. Spilman, D.K. Stevenson, W.-F. Cheong, "Stationary headband for clinical time-of-flight optical imaging at the bedside," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 361-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (7)

J.C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Yusof, N. Everdell, E.M.C. Hillman, D.T. Delpy, S.R. Arridge, T. Austin, J.H. Meek, J.S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S.R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, and D.T. Delpy, "A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859-1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and Y. Yamada, "Optical tomographic mapping of cerebral haemodynamics by means of time-domain detection: methodology and phantom validation," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1055-1078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger and S.R. Arridge, "Application of temporal filters to time resolved data in optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1699-1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.P. Gibson, J.C. Hebden, and S.R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50,R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, "Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (078101), 1-4, (2005).

Psychophysiology (1)

G. Gratton, P.M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D.C. Hood, "Shades of gray matter: noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation," Psychophysiology 32, 505-509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

V. Ntziachristos, XH. Ma, A.G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 193-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595-3602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) 3D representation of the modeled medium and probe. (b) Probe geometry. Three lateral locations of the inclusion commonly used in the following simulations are also displayed (c) Simulated TPSF for one source-detector pair, with the delay gates used in the reconstruction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sensitivity profiles of a single source-detector pair for the 8 delay gates presented in Fig. 1(c) in (a) a vertical plane along the source and detector and (b) a (x,y) plane located at depth 0.75 cm. The sensitivity is given per unit volume (cm3) and unit change in absorption (cm-1).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

CW and TD reconstructions of a point-like inclusion located at position 1 and at a depth z varying between 0.5 cm and 3 cm. The volumes show the contour of 80% of the maximum reconstructed change in absorption.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reconstructed depth of the COM as a function of the inclusion true depth, for a pointlike inclusion in position 1, for (a) different delay gate combinations (β=20), and (b) different threshold coefficients in the spatially varying regularization matrix L (gates 2 to 6 in Fig. 1(c)).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Depth of the COM for (a) a 1 cm deep and (b) a 2 cm deep inclusion reconstructed with TD data (5 gates) as a function of the inclusion lateral position.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Lateral error (cm) for a 1 cm deep inclusion (top) and a 2 cm deep inclusion (bottom) reconstructed with CW (left) and TD (right) data, as a function of the inclusion lateral position.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Lateral resolution (cm) for a 1cm deep inclusion (top) and a 2 cm deep inclusion (bottom) reconstructed with CW (left) and TD (right) data, as a function of the inclusion lateral position.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

CNR versus lateral resolution for a regularization parameter α varying between 10-4 and 10. CNR is given per unit volume (cm3) and unit change in absorption (cm-1) of the inclusion. Regularization parameters of 1, 10-2 and 10-4 are indicated on the plot.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Phantom reconstruction for three different depths of the glass sphere. The rendered volumes show the contours at 80% of the maximum absorption contrast. The small circles represent the top of the 7.5 mm radius sphere.

Equations (1)

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p A inv = L 1 B T ( B B T + α s max σ y 2 ) 1 ,

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