Abstract

We demonstrate the generation of broadband THz pulses by optical rectification in GaP waveguides pumped by high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers. The dispersion of the GaP emitter can be controlled via the geometry of the waveguide; the peak frequency of the emitted THz radiation is tuned by varying the waveguide cross-section. Most importantly, the use of a waveguide for the THz emission increases the coherent buildup length of the THz pulses and offers scalability to higher power; this was investigated by pumping a GaP waveguide emitter with a high power Yb-doped fiber laser system. A 25-MHz-repetition-rate pulse train of THz radiation with 120 µW average power was achieved using 14 W optical power, which represents the highest average power for a broadband THz source pumped by fiber lasers to date.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Loffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, "Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters," Opt. Express 13, 5353 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. -L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "High-power source of THz radiation based on orientation-patterned GaAs pumped by a fiber laser," Opt. Express 14, 4439 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S.  Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, "Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm," Opt. Commun. 261,114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  19. Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, "7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown, "Full-vectorial finite-difference analysis of microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 10, 853 (2002).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

K. -L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hemann, "Generation of 1.5 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, "Imaging with terahertz radiation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Generation of radially polarized terahertz pulses via velocity-mismatched optical rectification," Opt. Lett 32, 433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a Yb-doped fiber laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Shah and M. Fermann, "High-power ultrashort-pulse fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 552 (2007).

J. I. Nishizawa, K. Suto, T. Tanabe, K. Saito, T. Kimura, and Y. Oyama, "THz generation from GaP rod-type waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs Using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, "Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, "7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Almasi, G.

Bandulet, H. C.

Beigang, R.

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S.  Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, "Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm," Opt. Commun. 261,114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bessho, T.

A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a Yb-doped fiber laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs Using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, F.

Bliss, D.

Brown, E. R.

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, and M. Kemp, "Terahertz Frequency Sensing and Imaging: A Time of Reckoning Future Applications?" Proc. IEEE 93, 1722-1743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, "Imaging with terahertz radiation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. Q.

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Generation of radially polarized terahertz pulses via velocity-mismatched optical rectification," Opt. Lett 32, 433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 14, 7909 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deibel, J.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, "Imaging with terahertz radiation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Divin, C. J.

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Generation of radially polarized terahertz pulses via velocity-mismatched optical rectification," Opt. Lett 32, 433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 14, 7909 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, "Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M.

L. Shah and M. Fermann, "High-power ultrashort-pulse fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 552 (2007).

Fermann, M. E.

G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "High-power source of THz radiation based on orientation-patterned GaAs pumped by a fiber laser," Opt. Express 14, 4439 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, "Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galvanauskas, A.

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Generation of radially polarized terahertz pulses via velocity-mismatched optical rectification," Opt. Lett 32, 433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 14, 7909 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunter, P.

Hahn, T.

Harris, J. S.

Harvey, J. D.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, "Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haugen, H. K.

Hebling, J.

K. -L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almasi, and J. Hebling, "Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification," Opt. Express 13, 5762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemann, F. A.

Hirosumi, T.

A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a Yb-doped fiber laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs Using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M. C.

K. -L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Imeshev, G.

Jacob, F.

Kemp, M.

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, and M. Kemp, "Terahertz Frequency Sensing and Imaging: A Time of Reckoning Future Applications?" Proc. IEEE 93, 1722-1743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

Kimura, T.

J. I. Nishizawa, K. Suto, T. Tanabe, K. Saito, T. Kimura, and Y. Oyama, "THz generation from GaP rod-type waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kozma, I.

Kruglov, V. I.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, "Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhl, J.

Limpert, J.

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S.  Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, "Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm," Opt. Commun. 261,114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. H.

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Generation of radially polarized terahertz pulses via velocity-mismatched optical rectification," Opt. Lett 32, 433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 14, 7909 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loffler, T.

Lynch, C.

Matthäus, G.

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S.  Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, "Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm," Opt. Commun. 261,114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, "Imaging with terahertz radiation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

Nagai, M.

A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a Yb-doped fiber laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs Using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

K. -L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, J. I.

J. I. Nishizawa, K. Suto, T. Tanabe, K. Saito, T. Kimura, and Y. Oyama, "THz generation from GaP rod-type waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S.  Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, "Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm," Opt. Commun. 261,114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Generation of radially polarized terahertz pulses via velocity-mismatched optical rectification," Opt. Lett 32, 433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 14, 7909 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notni, G.

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S.  Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, "Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm," Opt. Commun. 261,114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohtake, H.

A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a Yb-doped fiber laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs Using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oyama, Y.

J. I. Nishizawa, K. Suto, T. Tanabe, K. Saito, T. Kimura, and Y. Oyama, "THz generation from GaP rod-type waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, T.

Pepper, M.

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, and M. Kemp, "Terahertz Frequency Sensing and Imaging: A Time of Reckoning Future Applications?" Proc. IEEE 93, 1722-1743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

Reid, M.

Riedle, E.

Riehemann, S.

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S.  Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, "Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm," Opt. Commun. 261,114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

Saito, K.

J. I. Nishizawa, K. Suto, T. Tanabe, K. Saito, T. Kimura, and Y. Oyama, "THz generation from GaP rod-type waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

Sakai, K.

Schneider, A.

Schreiber, T.

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S.  Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, "Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm," Opt. Commun. 261,114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

L. Shah and M. Fermann, "High-power ultrashort-pulse fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 552 (2007).

Sharma, G.

Stepanov, A.

Stillhart, M.

Sugiura, T.

A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a Yb-doped fiber laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs Using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suto, K.

J. I. Nishizawa, K. Suto, T. Tanabe, K. Saito, T. Kimura, and Y. Oyama, "THz generation from GaP rod-type waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Syouji, A.

Tanabe, T.

J. I. Nishizawa, K. Suto, T. Tanabe, K. Saito, T. Kimura, and Y. Oyama, "THz generation from GaP rod-type waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a Yb-doped fiber laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs Using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, B. C.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, "Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomson, M.

Tiedje, H. F.

Torosyan, G.

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S.  Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, "Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm," Opt. Commun. 261,114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S.  Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, "Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm," Opt. Commun. 261,114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Williamson, S. L.

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Generation of radially polarized terahertz pulses via velocity-mismatched optical rectification," Opt. Lett 32, 433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 14, 7909 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woolard, D. L.

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, and M. Kemp, "Terahertz Frequency Sensing and Imaging: A Time of Reckoning Future Applications?" Proc. IEEE 93, 1722-1743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, "7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. X.

Yeh, K. -L.

K. -L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a Yb-doped fiber laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs Using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Zhang, X. C.

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, "7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Zhu, Z.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. -L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs Using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, "7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Shah and M. Fermann, "High-power ultrashort-pulse fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 552 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. I. Nishizawa, K. Suto, T. Tanabe, K. Saito, T. Kimura, and Y. Oyama, "THz generation from GaP rod-type waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S.  Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, "Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm," Opt. Commun. 261,114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

A. Schneider, M. Stillhart, and P. Gunter, "High efficiency generation and detection of terahertz pulses using laser pulses at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Express 14,5376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "High-power source of THz radiation based on orientation-patterned GaAs pumped by a fiber laser," Opt. Express 14, 4439 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hemann, "Generation of 1.5 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 14, 7909 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Loffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, "Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters," Opt. Express 13, 5353 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almasi, and J. Hebling, "Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification," Opt. Express 13, 5762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown, "Full-vectorial finite-difference analysis of microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 10, 853 (2002).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett (1)

G. Q. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, "Generation of radially polarized terahertz pulses via velocity-mismatched optical rectification," Opt. Lett 32, 433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, "Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, and M. Kemp, "Terahertz Frequency Sensing and Imaging: A Time of Reckoning Future Applications?" Proc. IEEE 93, 1722-1743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, "Imaging with terahertz radiation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, (Academic, Boston, 1991).

D. Mittleman, ed., Sensing with Teraherz Radiation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of the terahertz generation inside a thick, bulk GaP crystal. Generation near the entrance face (first ellipse) quickly diffracts and is a negligible contribution to the final emitted beam.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The GaP waveguide emitters for broadband THz generation used in this study. The waveguide dimensions and crystal orientations of two GaP waveguides are shown in the figure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The dependence of THz indices on frequency. The solid black curve denotes the refractive index of bulk GaP. Four curves represent the calculated effective indices of the fundamental mode for GaP waveguides with different cross-sections. The dashed curve represents the group index of GaP at 1.064 µm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup for THz wave generation and detection. HWP: half-wave plate, HDPE: high density polyethylene

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured THz temporal waveforms from two GaP waveguide emitters.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured THz spectra from two emitters. Insets are the computed coherent length for two GaP waveguide emitters used in the experiments.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of THz power scaling between a 1 mm bulk GaP and the 6 mm long GaP waveguide emitter with 1 mm×0.7 mm cross-section. In the experiment, a commercially available Yb-doped fiber laser system (Clark-MXR Impulse) was used to pump these two samples.

Equations (1)

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L c = λ T H z ( 2 n T H z n g ) ,

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