Abstract

In this paper, we discuss the reconstruction and the recognition of partially occluded objects using photon counting integral imaging (II). Irradiance scenes are numerically reconstructed for the reference target in three-dimensional (3D) space. Photon counting scenes are estimated for unknown input objects using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of Poisson parameter. We propose nonlinear matched filtering in 3D space to recognize partially occluded targets. The recognition performance is substantially improved from the nonlinear matched filtering of elemental images without 3D reconstruction. The discrimination capability is analyzed in terms of Fisher ratio (FR) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007 (1)

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

2004 (6)

2001 (2)

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967-1981 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Duraffourg, J.-M. Merolla, J.-P. Goedgebuer, N. Butterlin, and W. Rhods, "Photon counting in the 1540-nm wavelength region with a Germanium avalanche photodiode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 75-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1990 (1)

E. A. Watson and G. M. Morris, "Comparison of infrared upconversion methods for photon-limited imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6075-6084 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. M. Morris, "Scene matching using photon-limited images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 1, 482-488 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Duraffourg, J.-M. Merolla, J.-P. Goedgebuer, N. Butterlin, and W. Rhods, "Photon counting in the 1540-nm wavelength region with a Germanium avalanche photodiode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 75-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. on Aerosp. Electron. Syst. (1)

A. Mahalanobis, R. R. Muise, S. R. Stanfill, and A. V. Nevel, "Design and application of quadratic correlation filters for target detection," IEEE Trans. on Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 40, 837-850 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. A. Watson and G. M. Morris, "Comparison of infrared upconversion methods for photon-limited imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6075-6084 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967-1981 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (1)

G. M. Morris, "Scene matching using photon-limited images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 1, 482-488 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optics and Photonics News (1)

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Time-multiplexed integral imaging for 3D sensing and display," Optics and Photonics News 15, 36-43 (2004).

Proceedings of the IEEE (1)

A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 94, 591- 607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. (1)

H. Kwon and N. M. Nasrabadi, "Kernel RX-algorithm: a nonlinear anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery," IEEE Trans. on Geosci.Remote Sens. 43, 388-397 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

F. Sadjadi, ed., Selected Papers on Automatic Target Recognition, (SPIE-CDROM, 1999).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics, (Jonh wiley & Sons, inc., 1985), Chap 9.

V. Vaish, R. Szeliski, C. L. Zitnick, S. B. Kang, and M. Levoy, "Reconstructing occluded surfaces using synthetic: stereo, focus and robust measures," Proceedings of the IEEE CVPR’06 (2006).

S. M. Kay, Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing (Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1993).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (4725 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (6431 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) II recording system, (b) II reconstruction model.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Elemental images for (a) reference target, (b) true-class target with partial occlusion, (c) false-class target.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Central image of elemental images in Fig. 2, (a) reference target, (b) true-class target with partial occlusion, (c) false-class target.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Movies of reconstructed images of the partially occluded true-class target, (a) d=30~50 mm (the movie file size: 4.61 MB) [Media 1] (b) d=66~80 mm (the movie file size: 6.27 MB) [Media 2].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Sample mean and error bars (standard deviation) for nonlinear matched filtering for, (a) elemental images without reconstruction, (b) reconstruction of input scenes in the 3D space.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of recognition performance between elemental images and 3D reconstruction, (a) Fisher ratios, ROC curves when (b) Np =500, (b) Np =100.

Equations (7)

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x ̂ A 1 N A n = 1 N A x n .
P d ( y ( i ) ; λ ( i ) ) = λ ( i ) y ( i ) e λ ( i ) y ( i ) ! , y ( i ) = 0 , 1 , 2 , ,
λ ( i ) = N P [ x ( i ) i = 1 N T x ( i ) ] ,
P d ( y 1 , , y N A ; λ A ) = n = 1 N A λ A y n e λ A y n ! .
λ ̂ A = 1 N A n = 1 N A y n .
C rs ( ν ) = i = 1 N T x r ( i ) y s ( i ) ( i = 1 N T x r ( i ) 2 ) 1 2 ( i = 1 N T y s ( i ) ) ν ,
D rs ( ν ) = d = 1 N d [ i Ω d x ̂ r ( i ; z d ) λ ̂ s ( i ; z d ) ( i Ω d x ̂ r ( i ; z d ) 2 ) 1 2 ( i Ω d λ ̂ s ( i ; z d ) ) ν ] ,

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