Abstract

The robustness and prolongation of multiple filamentation (MF) for femtosecond laser propagation in air are investigated experimentally and numerically. It is shown that the number, pattern, propagation distance, and spatial stability of MF can be controlled by a variable-aperture on-axis pinhole. The random MF pattern can be optimized to a deterministic pattern. In our numerical simulations, we configured double filaments to principlly simulate the experimental MF interactions. It is experimentally and numerically demonstrated that the pinhole can reduce the modulational instability of MF and is favorable for a more stable MF evolution.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Fibich and B. Ilan, “Deterministic vectorial effects lead to multiple filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 840–842 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Fibich, S. Eisenmann, B. Ilan, and A. Zigler, “Control of multiple filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1772–1774 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, J. Y. Zhong, C. Z. Zang, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Fluorescence measurement and acoustic diagnostics of plasma channels in air,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 299–303 (2006).
  22. W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arévalo, J. -F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2602–2604 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express, 14, 773–778 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-773.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 025003 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamatov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, “Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Quantum Electron. 29, 911–915 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, “Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femotosecond laser pulses in air: Prefocused versus free propagation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, J. Y. Zhong, C. Z. Zang, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Fluorescence measurement and acoustic diagnostics of plasma channels in air,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 299–303 (2006).

T. T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (7)

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, “Deterministic vectorial effects lead to multiple filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 840–842 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, G. Fibich, and B. Ilan, “Multiple filamentation induced by input-beam ellipticity,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1126–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fibich, S. Eisenmann, B. Ilan, and A. Zigler, “Control of multiple filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1772–1774 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing multiple femtosecond filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (6)

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. -C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamatov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, “Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Quantum Electron. 29, 911–915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. -B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. Esarey, P. Sprangle, J. Krall, and A. Ting, “Self-focusing and guiding of short laser pulses in ionizing gases and plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1879–1914 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Las. Optoelektron. 29, 51–53 (1997).

1995 (1)

Aközbek, N.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

André, Y. -B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J. -P. Wolf, Y. -B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. -B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arévalo, E.

Becker, A.

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourayou, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, A.

Brodeur, A.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamatov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, “Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Quantum Electron. 29, 911–915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. L.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. Y.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. -C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arévalo, J. -F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2602–2604 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamatov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, “Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Quantum Electron. 29, 911–915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiron, A.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. -B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Comtois, D.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. -C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing multiple femtosecond filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desparois, A.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. -C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

Dubietis, A.

Eisenmann, S.

G. Fibich, S. Eisenmann, B. Ilan, and A. Zigler, “Control of multiple filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1772–1774 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, “Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation,” Opt. Express15, 2779–2784 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-6-2779.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esarey, E.

E. Esarey, P. Sprangle, J. Krall, and A. Ting, “Self-focusing and guiding of short laser pulses in ionizing gases and plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1879–1914 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferland, B.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fibich, G.

Franco, M.

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing multiple femtosecond filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J. -P. Wolf, Y. -B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. -B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gravel, J. -F.

W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arévalo, J. -F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2602–2604 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, “Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femotosecond laser pulses in air: Prefocused versus free propagation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, J. Y. Zhong, C. Z. Zang, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Fluorescence measurement and acoustic diagnostics of plasma channels in air,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 299–303 (2006).

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express, 14, 773–778 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-773.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosseini, S. A.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ilan, B.

Jiang, Z.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. -C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, “Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femotosecond laser pulses in air: Prefocused versus free propagation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, J. Y. Zhong, C. Z. Zang, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Fluorescence measurement and acoustic diagnostics of plasma channels in air,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 299–303 (2006).

Johnston, T. W.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. -C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamatov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, “Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Quantum Electron. 29, 911–915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J. -P. Wolf, Y. -B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Katzir, Y.

S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, “Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation,” Opt. Express15, 2779–2784 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-6-2779.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. -C.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. -C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O. G.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamatov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, “Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Quantum Electron. 29, 911–915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krall, J.

E. Esarey, P. Sprangle, J. Krall, and A. Ting, “Self-focusing and guiding of short laser pulses in ionizing gases and plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1879–1914 (1997).
[CrossRef]

La Fontaine, B.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. -C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lamouroux, B.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. -B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. J.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. T.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express, 14, 773–778 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-773.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ling, W. J.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express, 14, 773–778 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-773.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arévalo, J. -F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2602–2604 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Liu, Y. Q.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, “Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femotosecond laser pulses in air: Prefocused versus free propagation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Louzon, E.

S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, “Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation,” Opt. Express15, 2779–2784 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-6-2779.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, “Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femotosecond laser pulses in air: Prefocused versus free propagation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express, 14, 773–778 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-773.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Méchain, G.

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing multiple femtosecond filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Méjean, G.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mercure, H. P.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. -C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mondelain, D.

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing multiple femtosecond filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J. -P. Wolf, Y. -B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. -B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niedermeier, S.

Nikolov, S.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Las. Optoelektron. 29, 51–53 (1997).

Palchan, T.

S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, “Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation,” Opt. Express15, 2779–2784 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-6-2779.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panov, N. A.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pépin, H.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. -C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing multiple femtosecond filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J. -P. Wolf, Y. -B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B. S.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. -B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rairoux, P.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Las. Optoelektron. 29, 51–53 (1997).

Rodriguez, M.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J. -P. Wolf, Y. -B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ronneberger, F.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Las. Optoelektron. 29, 51–53 (1997).

Roy, G.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J. -P. Wolf, Y. -B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Las. Optoelektron. 29, 51–53 (1997).

Schillinger, H.

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Las. Optoelektron. 29, 51–53 (1997).

Sheng, Z. M.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sivan, Y.

S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, “Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation,” Opt. Express15, 2779–2784 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-6-2779.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprangle, P.

E. Esarey, P. Sprangle, J. Krall, and A. Ting, “Self-focusing and guiding of short laser pulses in ionizing gases and plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1879–1914 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Stein, B.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Las. Optoelektron. 29, 51–53 (1997).

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamatov, M. P.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamatov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, “Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Quantum Electron. 29, 911–915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamošauskas, G.

Teng, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

Ting, A.

E. Esarey, P. Sprangle, J. Krall, and A. Ting, “Self-focusing and guiding of short laser pulses in ionizing gases and plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1879–1914 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J. -P. Wolf, Y. -B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. -B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. -C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. H.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, “Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femotosecond laser pulses in air: Prefocused versus free propagation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, J. Y. Zhong, C. Z. Zang, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Fluorescence measurement and acoustic diagnostics of plasma channels in air,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 299–303 (2006).

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express, 14, 773–778 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-773.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wedekind, C.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Las. Optoelektron. 29, 51–53 (1997).

Wei, Z. Y.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, J. Y. Zhong, C. Z. Zang, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Fluorescence measurement and acoustic diagnostics of plasma channels in air,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 299–303 (2006).

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express, 14, 773–778 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-773.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, C.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Las. Optoelektron. 29, 51–53 (1997).

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J. -P. Wolf, Y. -B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Las. Optoelektron. 29, 51–53 (1997).

Wolf, J. P.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J. -P.

Wöste, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J. -P. Wolf, Y. -B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Las. Optoelektron. 29, 51–53 (1997).

Wright, E. M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xi, T. T.

T. T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express, 14, 773–778 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-773.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, J. Y. Zhong, C. Z. Zang, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Fluorescence measurement and acoustic diagnostics of plasma channels in air,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 299–303 (2006).

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J. -P. Wolf, Y. -B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X. H.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, “Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femotosecond laser pulses in air: Prefocused versus free propagation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express, 14, 773–778 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-773.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zang, C. Z.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, J. Y. Zhong, C. Z. Zang, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Fluorescence measurement and acoustic diagnostics of plasma channels in air,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 299–303 (2006).

Zhang, J.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, J. Y. Zhong, C. Z. Zang, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Fluorescence measurement and acoustic diagnostics of plasma channels in air,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 299–303 (2006).

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, “Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femotosecond laser pulses in air: Prefocused versus free propagation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express, 14, 773–778 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-773.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, “Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femotosecond laser pulses in air: Prefocused versus free propagation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, J. Y. Zhong, C. Z. Zang, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Fluorescence measurement and acoustic diagnostics of plasma channels in air,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 299–303 (2006).

Zheng, Z. Y.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, “Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femotosecond laser pulses in air: Prefocused versus free propagation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express, 14, 773–778 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-773.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, J. Y.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, “Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femotosecond laser pulses in air: Prefocused versus free propagation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, J. Y. Zhong, C. Z. Zang, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Fluorescence measurement and acoustic diagnostics of plasma channels in air,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 299–303 (2006).

Zigler, A.

G. Fibich, S. Eisenmann, B. Ilan, and A. Zigler, “Control of multiple filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1772–1774 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, “Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation,” Opt. Express15, 2779–2784 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-6-2779.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, J. Y. Zhong, C. Z. Zang, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Fluorescence measurement and acoustic diagnostics of plasma channels in air,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 299–303 (2006).

Appl. Phys. B (3)

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. -F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Esarey, P. Sprangle, J. Krall, and A. Ting, “Self-focusing and guiding of short laser pulses in ionizing gases and plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1879–1914 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Las. Optoelektron. (1)

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Las. Optoelektron. 29, 51–53 (1997).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. -C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, and V. P. Kandidov, “Competition of multiple filaments during the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, X. Lu, Z. Jin, Z. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhong, and Y. Q. Liu, “Characteristics of multiple filaments generated by femotosecond laser pulses in air: Prefocused versus free propagation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 066402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. -B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing multiple femtosecond filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple filamentation of terawatt laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Xi, X. Lu, and J. Zhang, “Interaction of light filaments generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 025003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electron. (1)

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, M. P. Tamatov, A. Brodeur, and S. L. Chin, “Nucleation and random movement of filaments in the propagation of high-power laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Quantum Electron. 29, 911–915 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. -B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. -P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. Eisenmann, E. Louzon, Y. Katzir, T. Palchan, A. Zigler, Y. Sivan, and G. Fibich, “Control of the filamentation distance and pattern in long-range atmospheric propagation,” Opt. Express15, 2779–2784 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-6-2779.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, X. Lu, T. T. Xi, Y. T. Li, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Spatial evolution of multiple filaments in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express, 14, 773–778 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-773.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. Z0=190 cm is the position of the pinhole. The insert shows the copper pinhole.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A typical profile of the plasma channel with laser energy of 35 mJ. The position of the arrow is the geometrical focus.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The filaments propagation distance from the lens versus the diameter of the pinhole.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Typical traverse filamentation patterns at Z=520 cm (a) and Z=690 cm (b) versus the diameter of the pinhole.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The energy fluence distribution (fluenceiso=1.65) of the configured double filaments along the propagation direction when the insert diaphragm diameter is ∞ (without pinhole) (a); 0.4 mm (b); 0.6 mm (c); 0.8 mm (d); 1.0 mm (e); 1.2 mm (f); 1.4 mm (g); 1.6 mm (h); 1.8 mm (i); 2.0 mm (j) at the initial distance (corresponding to z0=190 cm in the experiment); 0.6 mm at the distance of 5 cm (k) and 10 cm (l) from the initial distance.

Metrics