Abstract

The electric field distribution in electronic devices, particularly in the organic devices, was visualized by the optical second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging technique on the basis of electric field induced SHG (EFISHG). Two-dimensional SHG images from organic field effect transistor using pentacene were taken with a cooled CCD camera, and the SHG images showed the electric field was successfully visualized with a resolution of 1 µm. The SHG imaging method provides us a novel technique for visualizing the electric field distribution in actual devices under device operation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Lampert and P. Mark, Current Injection in Solid (Academic Press, New York, 1970).
  2. M. Nonnenmacher, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2921–2923 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. Burgi, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Noncontact potentiometry of polymer field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2913–2915 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. P. Puntambekar, P. V. Pesavento, and C. D. Frisbie, “Surface potential profiling and contact resistance measurements on operating pentacene thin-film transistors by Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5539–5541 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Second and third order hyperpolarizabilities of organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2666–2682 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Pretre, and P. Gunter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. Lupke, C. Meyer, C. Ohlhoff, H. Kurz, S. Lehmann, and G. Marowsky, “Optical second-harmonic generation as a probe of electric-field-induced perturbation of centrosymmetric media,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1997–1999 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Manaka, E. Lim, R. Tamura, D. Yamada, and M. Iwamoto, “Probing of the electric field distribution in organic field effect transistor channel by microscopic second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 072113 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. G. Laquindanum, R. E. Katz, A. J. Lovinger, and A. Dodabalapur, “Morphological origin of high mobility in pentacene thin-film transistors,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2542–2544 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y.-Y. Lin, D. J. Gundlach, S. Nelson, and T. N. Jackson, “Pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1325–1331 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Y. Lee, S. Roth, and Y. W. Park, “Anisotropic field effect mobility in single crystal pentacene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 252106 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Manaka, Y. Suzue, and M. Iwamoto, “Investigation of the electrostatic phenomena at pentacene/Metal interface by second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2818–2822 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. Karl, “Organic semiconductors,” Festköerperproblemes 14, 261–290 (1974).
  14. H. E. Katz, “Recent advances in semiconductor performance and printing processes for organic transistor-based electronics,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4748–4756 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

T. Manaka, E. Lim, R. Tamura, D. Yamada, and M. Iwamoto, “Probing of the electric field distribution in organic field effect transistor channel by microscopic second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 072113 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Lee, S. Roth, and Y. W. Park, “Anisotropic field effect mobility in single crystal pentacene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 252106 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. Manaka, Y. Suzue, and M. Iwamoto, “Investigation of the electrostatic phenomena at pentacene/Metal interface by second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2818–2822 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. E. Katz, “Recent advances in semiconductor performance and printing processes for organic transistor-based electronics,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4748–4756 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. P. Puntambekar, P. V. Pesavento, and C. D. Frisbie, “Surface potential profiling and contact resistance measurements on operating pentacene thin-film transistors by Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5539–5541 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

L. Burgi, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Noncontact potentiometry of polymer field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2913–2915 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Y.-Y. Lin, D. J. Gundlach, S. Nelson, and T. N. Jackson, “Pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1325–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. G. Laquindanum, R. E. Katz, A. J. Lovinger, and A. Dodabalapur, “Morphological origin of high mobility in pentacene thin-film transistors,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2542–2544 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

C. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Pretre, and P. Gunter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

M. Nonnenmacher, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2921–2923 (1991).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Second and third order hyperpolarizabilities of organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2666–2682 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

N. Karl, “Organic semiconductors,” Festköerperproblemes 14, 261–290 (1974).

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Second and third order hyperpolarizabilities of organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2666–2682 (1975).
[Crossref]

Bosshard, C.

C. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Pretre, and P. Gunter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
[Crossref]

Burgi, L.

L. Burgi, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Noncontact potentiometry of polymer field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2913–2915 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dodabalapur, A.

J. G. Laquindanum, R. E. Katz, A. J. Lovinger, and A. Dodabalapur, “Morphological origin of high mobility in pentacene thin-film transistors,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2542–2544 (1996).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

L. Burgi, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Noncontact potentiometry of polymer field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2913–2915 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frisbie, C. D.

K. P. Puntambekar, P. V. Pesavento, and C. D. Frisbie, “Surface potential profiling and contact resistance measurements on operating pentacene thin-film transistors by Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5539–5541 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gundlach, D. J.

Y.-Y. Lin, D. J. Gundlach, S. Nelson, and T. N. Jackson, “Pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1325–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gunter, P.

C. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Pretre, and P. Gunter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
[Crossref]

Inbasekaran, M.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwamoto, M.

T. Manaka, E. Lim, R. Tamura, D. Yamada, and M. Iwamoto, “Probing of the electric field distribution in organic field effect transistor channel by microscopic second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 072113 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Manaka, Y. Suzue, and M. Iwamoto, “Investigation of the electrostatic phenomena at pentacene/Metal interface by second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2818–2822 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jackson, T. N.

Y.-Y. Lin, D. J. Gundlach, S. Nelson, and T. N. Jackson, “Pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1325–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Karl, N.

N. Karl, “Organic semiconductors,” Festköerperproblemes 14, 261–290 (1974).

Katz, H. E.

H. E. Katz, “Recent advances in semiconductor performance and printing processes for organic transistor-based electronics,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4748–4756 (2004).
[Crossref]

Katz, R. E.

J. G. Laquindanum, R. E. Katz, A. J. Lovinger, and A. Dodabalapur, “Morphological origin of high mobility in pentacene thin-film transistors,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2542–2544 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kawase, T.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knopfle, G.

C. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Pretre, and P. Gunter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kurz, H.

Lampert, M. A.

M. A. Lampert and P. Mark, Current Injection in Solid (Academic Press, New York, 1970).

Laquindanum, J. G.

J. G. Laquindanum, R. E. Katz, A. J. Lovinger, and A. Dodabalapur, “Morphological origin of high mobility in pentacene thin-film transistors,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2542–2544 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

J. Y. Lee, S. Roth, and Y. W. Park, “Anisotropic field effect mobility in single crystal pentacene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 252106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lehmann, S.

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Second and third order hyperpolarizabilities of organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2666–2682 (1975).
[Crossref]

Lim, E.

T. Manaka, E. Lim, R. Tamura, D. Yamada, and M. Iwamoto, “Probing of the electric field distribution in organic field effect transistor channel by microscopic second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 072113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-Y.

Y.-Y. Lin, D. J. Gundlach, S. Nelson, and T. N. Jackson, “Pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1325–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lovinger, A. J.

J. G. Laquindanum, R. E. Katz, A. J. Lovinger, and A. Dodabalapur, “Morphological origin of high mobility in pentacene thin-film transistors,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2542–2544 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lupke, G.

Manaka, T.

T. Manaka, E. Lim, R. Tamura, D. Yamada, and M. Iwamoto, “Probing of the electric field distribution in organic field effect transistor channel by microscopic second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 072113 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Manaka, Y. Suzue, and M. Iwamoto, “Investigation of the electrostatic phenomena at pentacene/Metal interface by second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2818–2822 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mark, P.

M. A. Lampert and P. Mark, Current Injection in Solid (Academic Press, New York, 1970).

Marowsky, G.

Meyer, C.

Nelson, S.

Y.-Y. Lin, D. J. Gundlach, S. Nelson, and T. N. Jackson, “Pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1325–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nonnenmacher, M.

M. Nonnenmacher, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2921–2923 (1991).
[Crossref]

O’Boyle, M. P.

M. Nonnenmacher, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2921–2923 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ohlhoff, C.

Park, Y. W.

J. Y. Lee, S. Roth, and Y. W. Park, “Anisotropic field effect mobility in single crystal pentacene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 252106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pesavento, P. V.

K. P. Puntambekar, P. V. Pesavento, and C. D. Frisbie, “Surface potential profiling and contact resistance measurements on operating pentacene thin-film transistors by Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5539–5541 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pretre, P.

C. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Pretre, and P. Gunter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
[Crossref]

Puntambekar, K. P.

K. P. Puntambekar, P. V. Pesavento, and C. D. Frisbie, “Surface potential profiling and contact resistance measurements on operating pentacene thin-film transistors by Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5539–5541 (2003).
[Crossref]

Roth, S.

J. Y. Lee, S. Roth, and Y. W. Park, “Anisotropic field effect mobility in single crystal pentacene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 252106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shimoda, T.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirringhaus, H.

L. Burgi, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Noncontact potentiometry of polymer field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2913–2915 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzue, Y.

T. Manaka, Y. Suzue, and M. Iwamoto, “Investigation of the electrostatic phenomena at pentacene/Metal interface by second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2818–2822 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tamura, R.

T. Manaka, E. Lim, R. Tamura, D. Yamada, and M. Iwamoto, “Probing of the electric field distribution in organic field effect transistor channel by microscopic second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 072113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

M. Nonnenmacher, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2921–2923 (1991).
[Crossref]

Woo, E. P.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, W.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, D.

T. Manaka, E. Lim, R. Tamura, D. Yamada, and M. Iwamoto, “Probing of the electric field distribution in organic field effect transistor channel by microscopic second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 072113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Nonnenmacher, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2921–2923 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. Burgi, H. Sirringhaus, and R. H. Friend, “Noncontact potentiometry of polymer field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2913–2915 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. P. Puntambekar, P. V. Pesavento, and C. D. Frisbie, “Surface potential profiling and contact resistance measurements on operating pentacene thin-film transistors by Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5539–5541 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Manaka, E. Lim, R. Tamura, D. Yamada, and M. Iwamoto, “Probing of the electric field distribution in organic field effect transistor channel by microscopic second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 072113 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Lee, S. Roth, and Y. W. Park, “Anisotropic field effect mobility in single crystal pentacene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 252106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (2)

H. E. Katz, “Recent advances in semiconductor performance and printing processes for organic transistor-based electronics,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4748–4756 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. G. Laquindanum, R. E. Katz, A. J. Lovinger, and A. Dodabalapur, “Morphological origin of high mobility in pentacene thin-film transistors,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2542–2544 (1996).
[Crossref]

Festköerperproblemes (1)

N. Karl, “Organic semiconductors,” Festköerperproblemes 14, 261–290 (1974).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

Y.-Y. Lin, D. J. Gundlach, S. Nelson, and T. N. Jackson, “Pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1325–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Pretre, and P. Gunter, “Second-order polarizabilities of nitropyridine derivatives determined with electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation and a solvatochromic method: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1594–1605 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Second and third order hyperpolarizabilities of organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2666–2682 (1975).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Manaka, Y. Suzue, and M. Iwamoto, “Investigation of the electrostatic phenomena at pentacene/Metal interface by second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2818–2822 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290, 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. A. Lampert and P. Mark, Current Injection in Solid (Academic Press, New York, 1970).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic images of the sample strucrure and electrical connection. (b) Optical setup for the SHG imaging.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SHG profiles along the pentacene FET channel obtained using (a) 20× and (b) 50× objective lens. Two-dimensional intensity distrubution of fundamental light at a focal point using (c) 20× and (d) 50× objectives.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) SHG image from the channel of pentacene FET under the application of negative pulse. Channel region lies between two gold electrodes, and edges of the electrode are indicated by dashed lines. SHG emission was observed at the edge of the drain electrode. (b) Microscopic image of the channel between two electrodes. This picture was taken under the illumination of visible light.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Top figure represents the in-plane component of the in-plane electric field distribution in pentacene layer. Bottom one shows the line scan of the SHG intensity profile across the channel. Open squares and filled diamonds, respectively, represent SHG intensity profile at line scan A and B as shown in Fig. 3.

Equations (2)

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I ( 2 ω ) χ ( 3 ) ( 2 ω ; 0 , ω , ω ) E ( 0 ) E ( ω ) E ( ω ) 2
I 2 ω ( x ) E ( ξ ) I ω ( x ξ ) d ξ 2

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