Abstract

The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) gain efficiencies were measured in the LP08 and LP01 modes of a higher-order-mode optical fiber. Gain efficiencies CB of 0.0085 and 0.20 (m-W)-1 were measured for the LP08 and LP01 modes at 1083 nm, respectively. CB is inversely proportional to the optical effective area Aeff and the same core-localized acoustic phonon seeds the SBS process in each case. An acoustic modal analysis and a distributed phenomenological model are presented to facilitate the data analysis and interpretation. The LP08 mode exhibits a threshold power-length product of 2.5 kW-m.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Liem, et al., "100-W single-frequency master-oscillator fiber power amplifier," Opt. Lett. 28, 1537 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. S. Wong, et al., "Breaking the limit of maximum effective area for robust single-mode propagation in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30. 2855 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Ming-Jun Li, et al., "Al/Ge co-doped large mode area fiber with high SBS threshold," Opt. Express 15. 8290 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Ramachandran et al., "Light propagation with ultralarge modal areas in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 1797 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. M. Fini and S. Ramachandran, "Natural bend-distortion immunity of higher-order-mode large-mode-area fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 748 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. D. Mermelstein, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, " SBS Gain Efficiency Measurements in a 1714 µm2 Effective Area LP08 Higher Order Optical Fiber," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuS1.
  7. M. O. van Deventer and A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 585 (1994)
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. P. Agrawal, Non-Linear Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 1995).
  9. Y. Koyamada,  et al., "Simulating and designing Brillouin Gain Spectrum in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 631 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. L. Fabelinskii, Molecular Scattering of Light, (Plenum Press, 1968).
  12. E. Peral and A. Yariv, "Degradation of modulation and noise characteristics of semiconductor lasers after propagation in optical fiber due to phase shift induced by stimulated Brillouin scattering" IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 35, 1185 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Kobyakov, et al., "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold," Opt. Express 14, 5388 (2005).
  14. Courtesy of James Hou, Sonix Inc., Springfield, VA.
  15. See Ref. [8], the refractive index n=1.48, the Pockel’s coefficient p12=0.27, c is the speed of light in vacuum, λ=1083 nm is the wavelength, ρ=2221 kg/m3 is the density, VS=5661 m/s is the sound speed and the phonon FWHM is 123 MHz for the LP08 mode and 105 MHz for the LP01 mode.
  16. R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering," Appl. Opt. 11, 2489-2494 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

W. S. Wong, et al., "Breaking the limit of maximum effective area for robust single-mode propagation in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30. 2855 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kobyakov, et al., "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold," Opt. Express 14, 5388 (2005).

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

E. Peral and A. Yariv, "Degradation of modulation and noise characteristics of semiconductor lasers after propagation in optical fiber due to phase shift induced by stimulated Brillouin scattering" IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 35, 1185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. O. van Deventer and A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 585 (1994)
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. W. Boyd et al., "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Elect. (1)

E. Peral and A. Yariv, "Degradation of modulation and noise characteristics of semiconductor lasers after propagation in optical fiber due to phase shift induced by stimulated Brillouin scattering" IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 35, 1185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. O. van Deventer and A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 585 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Y. Koyamada,  et al., "Simulating and designing Brillouin Gain Spectrum in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Ming-Jun Li, et al., "Al/Ge co-doped large mode area fiber with high SBS threshold," Opt. Express 15. 8290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kobyakov, et al., "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold," Opt. Express 14, 5388 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. W. Boyd et al., "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

I. L. Fabelinskii, Molecular Scattering of Light, (Plenum Press, 1968).

G. P. Agrawal, Non-Linear Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 1995).

Courtesy of James Hou, Sonix Inc., Springfield, VA.

See Ref. [8], the refractive index n=1.48, the Pockel’s coefficient p12=0.27, c is the speed of light in vacuum, λ=1083 nm is the wavelength, ρ=2221 kg/m3 is the density, VS=5661 m/s is the sound speed and the phonon FWHM is 123 MHz for the LP08 mode and 105 MHz for the LP01 mode.

M. D. Mermelstein, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, " SBS Gain Efficiency Measurements in a 1714 µm2 Effective Area LP08 Higher Order Optical Fiber," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuS1.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the HOM fiber refractive index profile Δn, the intensity profiles of the LP08 [blue] and LP01 [red] modes and a near field image of the LP08 intensity pattern. The peak intensities have been normalized to one.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental arrangement for measuring the SBS spectra of the HOM fiber. Shown is the last LMA fiber stage of a three stage MOPA, the mode transformer MT, diagnostic tap and the LP08 HOM module with the LPG. The LPG is removed for the LP01 experiment.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Backscatter spectra of the LP08 mode at the indicated peak input powers PP [W]. Inset shows extracted SBS reflectivities RSBS vs. single pass gain G data points and a two-parameter fit to the phenomenological equation for RSBS. The center wavelength λ 0 is 1082.74 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Backscatter spectra of the LP01 mode at the indicated peak input powers PP [W]. Inset shows extracted SBS reflectivities RSBS vs. single pass gain G data points and a two-parameter fit to the phenomenological equation for RSBS. The center wavelength λ 0 is 1082.74 nm. The small change in center wavelength is related to the laser temperature setting.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Heterodyne spectra of SBS radiation and seed laser local oscillator for the LP08 and LP01 modes. A spectral offset is introduced for clarity and the resolution bandwidth is 3.0 MHz.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic diagram showing thermal Brillouin scattering of the LP08 and LP01 modes by a core-localized acoustic phonon with a density fluctuation ρ(r), the electric field distributions E(r), the optical index profile n(r) and the acoustic index profile N(r)=VSi02/V(r) where VSi02 is the sound speed in silica.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Acoustic index as a function radius in the HOM fiber in the central region of the fiber. Also shown is a ‘time-of-flight’ image of the fiber preform taken with a scanning acoustic microscope. The sound speed in silica is 5944 m/s [9].

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The acousto-optic overlap integral Γ m,n as a function of the acoustic frequency f.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Plots of the intensity distributions and the two acoustic eigenfunctions exhibiting the maximum overlap integral for the LP08 and LP01 modes of the HOM fiber.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Brillouin amplifier model for the SBS generation from a distributed thermal Brillouin source in the low SBS reflectivity limit.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Plot of SBS reflectivities for the LP08 and LP01 modes as a function of pump powershowing the 0.01% and 1% reflectivity SBS thresholds for a 20 m length of HOM fiber.

Equations (11)

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A eff = E n 2 ( r ) 2 E n 4 ( r )
2 ρ ( r ) + ( 2 π Λ 0 ) 2 · N ( r ) 2 · ρ ( r ) = ( 2 π Λ 0 ) 2 N eff 2 · ρ ( r )
2 π · N eff Λ 0 = 4 π · n eff λ 0 ,
f m = 2 · n eff · V SiO 2 N eff m · λ 0 .
Γ m , n = ρ m ( r ) · E n ( r ) 2 2 ρ m ( r ) 2 · E n ( r ) 4 .
d P P dz = C B · P P · P S α · P P β · P P
d P S dz = C B · P P · P S + α · P s η · β S · P P
R SBS = η · β S · L · ( e G 1 ) G .
C B · ( A eff or A m , n ao ) = γ · g B
g B = 2 π n 7 p 12 2 c λ 0 2 ρ V S Δ ν ph ,
P th = ln ( R SBS η β S · γ g B A eff P th ) · A eff γ g B L

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