Abstract

A time-resolved mid-infrared upconversion technique based on sum-frequency generation was applied to measure pulse propagation in λ∼ 5.0 μm quantum cascade lasers operated in continuous wave at 30 K. The wavelength-dependent propagation delay of femtosecond mid-infrared pulses was measured to determine the total group-velocity dispersion. The material and waveguide dispersion were calculated and their contributions to the total group-velocity dispersion were found to be relatively small and constant. The small-signal gain dispersion was estimated from a measurement of the electroluminescence spectrum without a laser cavity, and was found to be the largest component of the total GVD. A negative group-velocity dispersion of β2 ( =d2β/d ω2) approximately - 4.6×10−6 ps2/μm was observed at the peak emission wavelength, and good agreement was found for the measured and calculated pulse-broadening.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. P. Agrawal, "Effect of gain dispersion on ultrashort pulse amplification," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1843-1849 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. A. Haus and Y. Silberberg, "Laser Mode Locking with Addition of Nonlinear Index," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1048-1060 (1986).
  3. W. Lu, L. Yan, and C. R. Menyuk, "Dispersion effects in an actively mode-locked inhomogeneously broadened laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1317-1324 (2002).
  4. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, and H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Svico, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 169-171 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Soibel and F. Capasso and C. Gmachl and M. L. Peabody and A. M. Sergent and R. Paiella and H. Y. Hwang and D. L. Sivco and A. Y. Cho and H. C. Liu and C. Jirauschek and F. X. Kärtner, "Active mode locking of broadband quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 844-851 (2004).
  6. R. Paiella and F. Capasso and C. Gmachl and D. L. Svico and J. N. Bailargeon and A. L. Hutchinson and A. Y. Cho, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Y. Wang and L. Diehl and A. Gordon and C. Jirauschek and F. X. K¨artner and A. Belyanin and D. Bour and S. Corzine and G. Hofler and M. Troccoli and J. Faist and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75, 031802-1-031802-4 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Shah, "Ultrafast Luminescence Spectroscopy Using Sum Frequency Generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276-288 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. P. Kesler and E. P. Ippen, "Femtosecond time-domain measurements of group velocity dispersion in Al-GaAs diode lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 640-642 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. P. Kesler and E. P. Ippen, "Femtosecond time-domain measurements of group velocity dispersion in diode lasers at 1.5 μm," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 616-619 (1992).
  13. R. Gordon and A. P. Heberle and J. R. A. Cleaver, "Measuring the above-threshold group-velocity dispersion and gain curvature of a semiconductor laser by pulse-propagation techniques," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 29-35 (1994).
  14. L. Diehl and D. Bour and S. Corzine and J. Zhu and G. Höfler and B. G. Lee and C. Y. Wang and M. Troccoli and F. Capasso, "Pulsed- and continuous-mode operation at high temperature of strained quantum-cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 2011151-2011515 (2006).
  15. L. Diehl and D. Bour and S. Corzine and J. Zhu and G. Höfler and M. Lončar and M. Troccoli and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 0411021-0411023 (2006).
  16. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, New York, 1985).
  17. R. Maulini and M. Beck and J. Faist and E. Gini, "Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659-1661 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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2006 (1)

L. Diehl and D. Bour and S. Corzine and J. Zhu and G. Höfler and M. Lončar and M. Troccoli and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 0411021-0411023 (2006).

2004 (1)

R. Maulini and M. Beck and J. Faist and E. Gini, "Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

W. Lu, L. Yan, and C. R. Menyuk, "Dispersion effects in an actively mode-locked inhomogeneously broadened laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1317-1324 (2002).

C. Gmachl and A. Straub and R. Colombelli and D. L. Sivco and F. Capasso and A. Y. Cho, "Minimal group refractive index dispersion and gain evolution in ultra-broad-band quantum cascade lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1671-1673 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, and H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Svico, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 169-171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Paiella and F. Capasso and C. Gmachl and D. L. Svico and J. N. Bailargeon and A. L. Hutchinson and A. Y. Cho, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Hofstetter and J. Faist, "Measurement of semiconductor laser gain and dispersion curves utilizing Fourier transforms of the Emission Spectra," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1372-1374 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

M. P. Kesler and E. P. Ippen, "Femtosecond time-domain measurements of group velocity dispersion in diode lasers at 1.5 μm," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 616-619 (1992).

1991 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, "Effect of gain dispersion on ultrashort pulse amplification," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1843-1849 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. P. Kesler and E. P. Ippen, "Femtosecond time-domain measurements of group velocity dispersion in Al-GaAs diode lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 640-642 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Shah, "Ultrafast Luminescence Spectroscopy Using Sum Frequency Generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276-288 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. A. Haus and Y. Silberberg, "Laser Mode Locking with Addition of Nonlinear Index," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1048-1060 (1986).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, and H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Svico, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 169-171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Diehl and D. Bour and S. Corzine and J. Zhu and G. Höfler and M. Lončar and M. Troccoli and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 0411021-0411023 (2006).

R. Maulini and M. Beck and J. Faist and E. Gini, "Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. P. Kesler and E. P. Ippen, "Femtosecond time-domain measurements of group velocity dispersion in Al-GaAs diode lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 640-642 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

G. P. Agrawal, "Effect of gain dispersion on ultrashort pulse amplification," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1843-1849 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus and Y. Silberberg, "Laser Mode Locking with Addition of Nonlinear Index," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1048-1060 (1986).

W. Lu, L. Yan, and C. R. Menyuk, "Dispersion effects in an actively mode-locked inhomogeneously broadened laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1317-1324 (2002).

J. Shah, "Ultrafast Luminescence Spectroscopy Using Sum Frequency Generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276-288 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Hofstetter and J. Faist, "Measurement of semiconductor laser gain and dispersion curves utilizing Fourier transforms of the Emission Spectra," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1372-1374 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl and A. Straub and R. Colombelli and D. L. Sivco and F. Capasso and A. Y. Cho, "Minimal group refractive index dispersion and gain evolution in ultra-broad-band quantum cascade lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1671-1673 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. P. Kesler and E. P. Ippen, "Femtosecond time-domain measurements of group velocity dispersion in diode lasers at 1.5 μm," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 616-619 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Science (1)

R. Paiella and F. Capasso and C. Gmachl and D. L. Svico and J. N. Bailargeon and A. L. Hutchinson and A. Y. Cho, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

C. Y. Wang and L. Diehl and A. Gordon and C. Jirauschek and F. X. K¨artner and A. Belyanin and D. Bour and S. Corzine and G. Hofler and M. Troccoli and J. Faist and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75, 031802-1-031802-4 (2007).

A. Soibel and F. Capasso and C. Gmachl and M. L. Peabody and A. M. Sergent and R. Paiella and H. Y. Hwang and D. L. Sivco and A. Y. Cho and H. C. Liu and C. Jirauschek and F. X. Kärtner, "Active mode locking of broadband quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 844-851 (2004).

L. Diehl and D. Bour and S. Corzine and J. Zhu and G. Höfler and B. G. Lee and C. Y. Wang and M. Troccoli and F. Capasso, "Pulsed- and continuous-mode operation at high temperature of strained quantum-cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 2011151-2011515 (2006).

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (WILEY, New York, 1989).

A. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Sausalito, California, 1986).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, New York, 1985).

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