Abstract

In this paper, we propose a novel method for measuring the coma aberrations of lithographic projection optics based on relative image displacements at multiple illumination settings. The measurement accuracy of coma can be improved because the phase-shifting gratings are more sensitive to the aberrations than the binary gratings used in the TAMIS technique, and the impact of distortion on displacements of aerial image can be eliminated when the relative image displacements are measured. The PROLITH simulation results show that, the measurement accuracy of coma increases by more than 25% under conventional illumination, and the measurement accuracy of primary coma increases by more than 20% under annular illumination, compared with the TAMIS technique.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Wang, X. Wang, and M. Ma, “Measurement technique for in situ characterizing aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6086–6093 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  2. M. Ma, X. Wang, and F. Wang, “Aberration measurement of projection optics in lithographic tools based on two-beam interference theory,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8200–8208 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Graeupner, R. Garreis, A. Goehnermeiter, T. Heil, M. Lowisch, and D. Flagello, “Impact of wavefront errors on low k1 processes at extreme high NA,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 119–130 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. G. Flagello, J. Mulkens, and C. Wagner, “Optical lithography into the millennium: sensitivity to aberrations, vibration and polarization,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 172–183 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. Chen, C. M. Huang, F. J. Shiu, C. S. Kuo, S. C. Fu, C. T. Ho, C. Wang, and J. H. Tsai, “The influence of coma effect on scanner overlay,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 280–285 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Sung, M. Pitchumani, and E. G. Johnson, “Aberration measurement of photolithographic lenses by use of hybrid diffractive photomasks,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1987–1995 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Saito, H. Watanabe, and Y. Okuda, “Evaluation of coma aberration in projection lens by various measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3334, 297–308 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Wang, X. Wang, M. Ma, D. Zhang, W. Shi, and J. Hu, “Aberration measurement of projection optics in lithographic tools by use of an alternating phase-shifting mask,” Appl. Opt. 45, 281–287 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Nomura and T. Sato, “Techniques for measuring aberrations in lenses used in photolithography with printed patterns,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2800–2807 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Nomura, K. Tawarayama, and T. Kohno, “Aberration measurement from specific photolithographic images: a different approach,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1136–1147 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. P. Krik, G. Kunkel, and A. K. Wong, “Aberration measurement using in situ two-beam interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 8–14 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. M. Garza, W. Conley, B. Roman, M. Schippers, J. Foster, J. Baselmans, K. Cummings, and D. Flagello, “Ring test aberration determination & device lithography correlation” Proc. SPIE 4346, 36–44 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. R. Farrar, A. L. Smith, D. Busath, and D. Taitano, “In-situ measurement of lens aberrations,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 18–29 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. van der Laan, M. Dierichs, H. van Greevenbroek, E. McCoo, F. Stoffels, R. Pongers, and R. Willekers, “Aerial image measurement methods for fast aberration set-up and illumination pupil verification,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 394–407 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. van der Laan and M. H. Moers, “Method of measuring aberration in an optical imaging system,” U.S. patent 6,646,729 (11 November 2003).
  16. F. Wang, X. Wang, M. Ma, D. Zhang, W. Shi, and J. Hu, “Coma measurement using a PSM and transmission image sensor,” Optik 117, 21–25 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th edition, (Pergamon, 1999), chap. 9.

2006 (4)

2003 (3)

H. van der Laan and M. H. Moers, “Method of measuring aberration in an optical imaging system,” U.S. patent 6,646,729 (11 November 2003).

J. Sung, M. Pitchumani, and E. G. Johnson, “Aberration measurement of photolithographic lenses by use of hybrid diffractive photomasks,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1987–1995 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Graeupner, R. Garreis, A. Goehnermeiter, T. Heil, M. Lowisch, and D. Flagello, “Impact of wavefront errors on low k1 processes at extreme high NA,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. J. Chen, C. M. Huang, F. J. Shiu, C. S. Kuo, S. C. Fu, C. T. Ho, C. Wang, and J. H. Tsai, “The influence of coma effect on scanner overlay,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 280–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. P. Krik, G. Kunkel, and A. K. Wong, “Aberration measurement using in situ two-beam interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 8–14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Garza, W. Conley, B. Roman, M. Schippers, J. Foster, J. Baselmans, K. Cummings, and D. Flagello, “Ring test aberration determination & device lithography correlation” Proc. SPIE 4346, 36–44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. van der Laan, M. Dierichs, H. van Greevenbroek, E. McCoo, F. Stoffels, R. Pongers, and R. Willekers, “Aerial image measurement methods for fast aberration set-up and illumination pupil verification,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 394–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

N. R. Farrar, A. L. Smith, D. Busath, and D. Taitano, “In-situ measurement of lens aberrations,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 18–29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Nomura, K. Tawarayama, and T. Kohno, “Aberration measurement from specific photolithographic images: a different approach,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1136–1147 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Flagello, J. Mulkens, and C. Wagner, “Optical lithography into the millennium: sensitivity to aberrations, vibration and polarization,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 172–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

T. Saito, H. Watanabe, and Y. Okuda, “Evaluation of coma aberration in projection lens by various measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3334, 297–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baselmans, J.

C. M. Garza, W. Conley, B. Roman, M. Schippers, J. Foster, J. Baselmans, K. Cummings, and D. Flagello, “Ring test aberration determination & device lithography correlation” Proc. SPIE 4346, 36–44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th edition, (Pergamon, 1999), chap. 9.

Busath, D.

N. R. Farrar, A. L. Smith, D. Busath, and D. Taitano, “In-situ measurement of lens aberrations,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 18–29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. J.

J. J. Chen, C. M. Huang, F. J. Shiu, C. S. Kuo, S. C. Fu, C. T. Ho, C. Wang, and J. H. Tsai, “The influence of coma effect on scanner overlay,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 280–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Conley, W.

C. M. Garza, W. Conley, B. Roman, M. Schippers, J. Foster, J. Baselmans, K. Cummings, and D. Flagello, “Ring test aberration determination & device lithography correlation” Proc. SPIE 4346, 36–44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cummings, K.

C. M. Garza, W. Conley, B. Roman, M. Schippers, J. Foster, J. Baselmans, K. Cummings, and D. Flagello, “Ring test aberration determination & device lithography correlation” Proc. SPIE 4346, 36–44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dierichs, M.

H. van der Laan, M. Dierichs, H. van Greevenbroek, E. McCoo, F. Stoffels, R. Pongers, and R. Willekers, “Aerial image measurement methods for fast aberration set-up and illumination pupil verification,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 394–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Farrar, N. R.

N. R. Farrar, A. L. Smith, D. Busath, and D. Taitano, “In-situ measurement of lens aberrations,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 18–29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flagello, D.

P. Graeupner, R. Garreis, A. Goehnermeiter, T. Heil, M. Lowisch, and D. Flagello, “Impact of wavefront errors on low k1 processes at extreme high NA,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Garza, W. Conley, B. Roman, M. Schippers, J. Foster, J. Baselmans, K. Cummings, and D. Flagello, “Ring test aberration determination & device lithography correlation” Proc. SPIE 4346, 36–44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flagello, D. G.

D. G. Flagello, J. Mulkens, and C. Wagner, “Optical lithography into the millennium: sensitivity to aberrations, vibration and polarization,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 172–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foster, J.

C. M. Garza, W. Conley, B. Roman, M. Schippers, J. Foster, J. Baselmans, K. Cummings, and D. Flagello, “Ring test aberration determination & device lithography correlation” Proc. SPIE 4346, 36–44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fu, S. C.

J. J. Chen, C. M. Huang, F. J. Shiu, C. S. Kuo, S. C. Fu, C. T. Ho, C. Wang, and J. H. Tsai, “The influence of coma effect on scanner overlay,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 280–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Garreis, R.

P. Graeupner, R. Garreis, A. Goehnermeiter, T. Heil, M. Lowisch, and D. Flagello, “Impact of wavefront errors on low k1 processes at extreme high NA,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garza, C. M.

C. M. Garza, W. Conley, B. Roman, M. Schippers, J. Foster, J. Baselmans, K. Cummings, and D. Flagello, “Ring test aberration determination & device lithography correlation” Proc. SPIE 4346, 36–44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goehnermeiter, A.

P. Graeupner, R. Garreis, A. Goehnermeiter, T. Heil, M. Lowisch, and D. Flagello, “Impact of wavefront errors on low k1 processes at extreme high NA,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Graeupner, P.

P. Graeupner, R. Garreis, A. Goehnermeiter, T. Heil, M. Lowisch, and D. Flagello, “Impact of wavefront errors on low k1 processes at extreme high NA,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heil, T.

P. Graeupner, R. Garreis, A. Goehnermeiter, T. Heil, M. Lowisch, and D. Flagello, “Impact of wavefront errors on low k1 processes at extreme high NA,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C. T.

J. J. Chen, C. M. Huang, F. J. Shiu, C. S. Kuo, S. C. Fu, C. T. Ho, C. Wang, and J. H. Tsai, “The influence of coma effect on scanner overlay,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 280–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Huang, C. M.

J. J. Chen, C. M. Huang, F. J. Shiu, C. S. Kuo, S. C. Fu, C. T. Ho, C. Wang, and J. H. Tsai, “The influence of coma effect on scanner overlay,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 280–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, E. G.

Kohno, T.

Krik, J. P.

J. P. Krik, G. Kunkel, and A. K. Wong, “Aberration measurement using in situ two-beam interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 8–14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kunkel, G.

J. P. Krik, G. Kunkel, and A. K. Wong, “Aberration measurement using in situ two-beam interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 8–14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. S.

J. J. Chen, C. M. Huang, F. J. Shiu, C. S. Kuo, S. C. Fu, C. T. Ho, C. Wang, and J. H. Tsai, “The influence of coma effect on scanner overlay,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 280–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lowisch, M.

P. Graeupner, R. Garreis, A. Goehnermeiter, T. Heil, M. Lowisch, and D. Flagello, “Impact of wavefront errors on low k1 processes at extreme high NA,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, M.

McCoo, E.

H. van der Laan, M. Dierichs, H. van Greevenbroek, E. McCoo, F. Stoffels, R. Pongers, and R. Willekers, “Aerial image measurement methods for fast aberration set-up and illumination pupil verification,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 394–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moers, M. H.

H. van der Laan and M. H. Moers, “Method of measuring aberration in an optical imaging system,” U.S. patent 6,646,729 (11 November 2003).

Mulkens, J.

D. G. Flagello, J. Mulkens, and C. Wagner, “Optical lithography into the millennium: sensitivity to aberrations, vibration and polarization,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 172–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, H.

Okuda, Y.

T. Saito, H. Watanabe, and Y. Okuda, “Evaluation of coma aberration in projection lens by various measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3334, 297–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pitchumani, M.

Pongers, R.

H. van der Laan, M. Dierichs, H. van Greevenbroek, E. McCoo, F. Stoffels, R. Pongers, and R. Willekers, “Aerial image measurement methods for fast aberration set-up and illumination pupil verification,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 394–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roman, B.

C. M. Garza, W. Conley, B. Roman, M. Schippers, J. Foster, J. Baselmans, K. Cummings, and D. Flagello, “Ring test aberration determination & device lithography correlation” Proc. SPIE 4346, 36–44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saito, T.

T. Saito, H. Watanabe, and Y. Okuda, “Evaluation of coma aberration in projection lens by various measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3334, 297–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

Schippers, M.

C. M. Garza, W. Conley, B. Roman, M. Schippers, J. Foster, J. Baselmans, K. Cummings, and D. Flagello, “Ring test aberration determination & device lithography correlation” Proc. SPIE 4346, 36–44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

Shiu, F. J.

J. J. Chen, C. M. Huang, F. J. Shiu, C. S. Kuo, S. C. Fu, C. T. Ho, C. Wang, and J. H. Tsai, “The influence of coma effect on scanner overlay,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 280–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. L.

N. R. Farrar, A. L. Smith, D. Busath, and D. Taitano, “In-situ measurement of lens aberrations,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 18–29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stoffels, F.

H. van der Laan, M. Dierichs, H. van Greevenbroek, E. McCoo, F. Stoffels, R. Pongers, and R. Willekers, “Aerial image measurement methods for fast aberration set-up and illumination pupil verification,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 394–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sung, J.

Taitano, D.

N. R. Farrar, A. L. Smith, D. Busath, and D. Taitano, “In-situ measurement of lens aberrations,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 18–29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tawarayama, K.

Tsai, J. H.

J. J. Chen, C. M. Huang, F. J. Shiu, C. S. Kuo, S. C. Fu, C. T. Ho, C. Wang, and J. H. Tsai, “The influence of coma effect on scanner overlay,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 280–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van der Laan, H.

H. van der Laan and M. H. Moers, “Method of measuring aberration in an optical imaging system,” U.S. patent 6,646,729 (11 November 2003).

H. van der Laan, M. Dierichs, H. van Greevenbroek, E. McCoo, F. Stoffels, R. Pongers, and R. Willekers, “Aerial image measurement methods for fast aberration set-up and illumination pupil verification,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 394–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Greevenbroek, H.

H. van der Laan, M. Dierichs, H. van Greevenbroek, E. McCoo, F. Stoffels, R. Pongers, and R. Willekers, “Aerial image measurement methods for fast aberration set-up and illumination pupil verification,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 394–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, C.

D. G. Flagello, J. Mulkens, and C. Wagner, “Optical lithography into the millennium: sensitivity to aberrations, vibration and polarization,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 172–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

J. J. Chen, C. M. Huang, F. J. Shiu, C. S. Kuo, S. C. Fu, C. T. Ho, C. Wang, and J. H. Tsai, “The influence of coma effect on scanner overlay,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 280–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Wang, X.

Watanabe, H.

T. Saito, H. Watanabe, and Y. Okuda, “Evaluation of coma aberration in projection lens by various measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3334, 297–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Willekers, R.

H. van der Laan, M. Dierichs, H. van Greevenbroek, E. McCoo, F. Stoffels, R. Pongers, and R. Willekers, “Aerial image measurement methods for fast aberration set-up and illumination pupil verification,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 394–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th edition, (Pergamon, 1999), chap. 9.

Wong, A. K.

J. P. Krik, G. Kunkel, and A. K. Wong, “Aberration measurement using in situ two-beam interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 8–14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

Appl. Opt. (6)

chap. 9 (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th edition, (Pergamon, 1999), chap. 9.

Optik (1)

F. Wang, X. Wang, M. Ma, D. Zhang, W. Shi, and J. Hu, “Coma measurement using a PSM and transmission image sensor,” Optik 117, 21–25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (8)

T. Saito, H. Watanabe, and Y. Okuda, “Evaluation of coma aberration in projection lens by various measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3334, 297–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Graeupner, R. Garreis, A. Goehnermeiter, T. Heil, M. Lowisch, and D. Flagello, “Impact of wavefront errors on low k1 processes at extreme high NA,” Proc. SPIE 5040, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Flagello, J. Mulkens, and C. Wagner, “Optical lithography into the millennium: sensitivity to aberrations, vibration and polarization,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 172–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, C. M. Huang, F. J. Shiu, C. S. Kuo, S. C. Fu, C. T. Ho, C. Wang, and J. H. Tsai, “The influence of coma effect on scanner overlay,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 280–285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Krik, G. Kunkel, and A. K. Wong, “Aberration measurement using in situ two-beam interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 8–14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Garza, W. Conley, B. Roman, M. Schippers, J. Foster, J. Baselmans, K. Cummings, and D. Flagello, “Ring test aberration determination & device lithography correlation” Proc. SPIE 4346, 36–44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Farrar, A. L. Smith, D. Busath, and D. Taitano, “In-situ measurement of lens aberrations,” Proc. SPIE 4000, 18–29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. van der Laan, M. Dierichs, H. van Greevenbroek, E. McCoo, F. Stoffels, R. Pongers, and R. Willekers, “Aerial image measurement methods for fast aberration set-up and illumination pupil verification,” Proc. SPIE 4346, 394–407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. van der Laan and M. H. Moers, “Method of measuring aberration in an optical imaging system,” U.S. patent 6,646,729 (11 November 2003).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch map of the novel mark

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sensitivities of Z7 versus NA and partial coherence. (a) The present technique, conventional illumination. (b) The present technique, annular illumination. (c) The TAMIS technique, conventional illumination. (d) The TAMIS technique, annular illumination.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sensitivities of Z14 versus NA and partial coherence. (a) The present technique, conventional illumination. (b) The present technique, annular illumination. (c) The TAMIS technique, conventional illumination. (d) The TAMIS technique, annular illumination.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Simulation Results of the Sensitivities of Z7 and the measurement accuracy

Tables Icon

Table 2. Simulation Results of the Sensitivities of Z14 and the measurement accuracy

Equations (19)

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t ( x ) = n = + δ ( x 2 n p ) * [ rect ( x + p 2 p 2 ) rect ( x p 2 p 2 ) ] , n Z ,
U ( f x ) = j 2 n = + δ ( f x n 2 p ) sin c ( p f x 2 ) sin ( π p f x ) , n Z ,
t ( x ) = n = + δ ( x n p ) * rect ( x p 2 ) , n Z .
U ( f x ) = 1 2 n = + δ ( f x n p ) sin c ( p f x 2 ) , n Z .
W ( ρ , θ ) = n = 1 Z n · R n ( ρ , θ ) , n Z
= Z 1 + Z 2 ρ cos θ + Z 3 ρ sin θ + Z 4 ( 2 ρ 2 1 ) + Z 5 ρ 2 cos 2 θ +
Z 6 ρ 2 sin 2 θ + Z 7 ( 3 ρ 2 2 ) + ρ cos θ + Z 8 ( 3 ρ 2 2 ) ρ sin θ + +
Z 14 ( 10 ρ 4 12 ρ 2 + 3 ) ρ cos θ + Z 15 ( 10 ρ 4 12 ρ 2 + 3 ) ρ sin θ +
W X ( ρ ) = Z 2 ρ + Z 7 ( 3 ρ 3 2 ρ ) + Z 14 ( 10 ρ 5 12 ρ 3 + 3 ρ ) ,
W Y ( ρ ) = Z 3 ρ + Z 8 ( 3 ρ 3 2 ρ ) + Z 15 ( 10 ρ 5 12 ρ 3 + 3 ρ ) .
Δ X = Δ X A Δ X B ,
Δ Y = Δ Y C Δ Y D ,
Δ X Z 7 3 ρ 3 + Z 14 ( 10 ρ 5 12 ρ 3 ) ,
Δ Y Z 8 3 ρ 3 + Z 15 ( 10 ρ 5 12 ρ 3 ) .
Δ X ( N A , σ ) = S 1 ( N A , σ ) Z 7 + S 2 ( N A , σ ) Z 14 ,
S 1 ( N A , σ ) = Δ X ( N A , σ ) Z 7 ,
S 2 ( N A , σ ) = Δ X ( N A , σ ) Z 14 .
[ Δ X ( N A 1 , σ 1 ) Δ X ( N A 2 , σ 2 ) ] = [ Δ X ( N A 1 , σ 1 ) Z 7 Δ X ( N A 1 , σ 1 ) Z 14 Δ X ( N A 2 , σ 2 ) Z 7 Δ X ( N A 2 , σ 2 ) Z 14 ] [ Z 7 Z 14 ] .
M A O A S max S min ,

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