Abstract

The design, fabrication and measurement of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) two-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonator are demonstrated in this study. The structure of the photonic crystal is comprised of silicon nano-rods arranged in a hexagonal lattice on an SOI wafer. The photonic crystal ring resonator allows for the simultaneous separation of light at wavelengths of 1.31 and 1.55μm. The device is fabricated by e-beam lithography. The measurement results confirm that a 1.31μm/1.55μm wavelength ring resonator filter with a nano-rod photonic crystal structure can be realized.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. S. Lo, H. K. Chiu, and C. C. Chen, "Fabricating low-loss hollow optical waveguides via amorphous silicon bonding using dilute KOH solvent," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17,2592-2594 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. C. Chen, H. D. Chien, and P. G. Luan, "Photonic Crystal Beam Splitters," Appl. Opt. 43, 6188-6190 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, "Laser emission from GaN photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116-1118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Goldring, U. Levy, and D. Mendlovic, "Highly dispersive micro-ring resonator based on one dimensional photonic crystal waveguide design an analysis," Opt. Express 15, 3156-3168 (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, and R. A. Soref, "Optical add-drop filters based on photonic crystal ring resonators," Opt. Express 15, 1823-1831 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Melloni, R. Costa, P. Monguzzi, and M. Martinelli, "Ring-resonator filters in silicon oxynitride technology for dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems," Opt. Lett. 28, 1567-1569 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. G. Rabus, M. Hamacher, U. Troppenz, and H. Heidrich, "High-Q channel-dropping filters using ring resonators with integrated SOAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1442-1444 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "Microring-reasonator-based add-drop filters in SiN:fabrication and analysis," Opt. Express 12, 1437-1442 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, "Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators," Opt. Lett. 22,4-6 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. C. Chen, C. Y. Chen, W. K. Wang, F. H. Huang, C. K. Lin, W. Y. Chiu, and Y. J. Chan, "Photonic crystal directional coupler formed by InAlGaAs nano-rods," Opt. Express 13, 38-43 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. S. Lo, M. S. Wang, and C. C. Chen, "Semiconductor hollow optical waveguides formed by omni-directional reflectors," Opt. Express 12, 6589-6593 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2007 (2)

2006 (1)

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, "Laser emission from GaN photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. S. Lo, H. K. Chiu, and C. C. Chen, "Fabricating low-loss hollow optical waveguides via amorphous silicon bonding using dilute KOH solvent," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17,2592-2594 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chen, C. Y. Chen, W. K. Wang, F. H. Huang, C. K. Lin, W. Y. Chiu, and Y. J. Chan, "Photonic crystal directional coupler formed by InAlGaAs nano-rods," Opt. Express 13, 38-43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

D. G. Rabus, M. Hamacher, U. Troppenz, and H. Heidrich, "High-Q channel-dropping filters using ring resonators with integrated SOAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1442-1444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, "Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators," Opt. Lett. 22,4-6 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrahami, Y.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbastathis, G.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

Chan, Y. J.

Chang, J. Y.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, "Laser emission from GaN photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, L. M.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, "Laser emission from GaN photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, "Laser emission from GaN photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lo, H. K. Chiu, and C. C. Chen, "Fabricating low-loss hollow optical waveguides via amorphous silicon bonding using dilute KOH solvent," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17,2592-2594 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chen, C. Y. Chen, W. K. Wang, F. H. Huang, C. K. Lin, W. Y. Chiu, and Y. J. Chan, "Photonic crystal directional coupler formed by InAlGaAs nano-rods," Opt. Express 13, 38-43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Lo, M. S. Wang, and C. C. Chen, "Semiconductor hollow optical waveguides formed by omni-directional reflectors," Opt. Express 12, 6589-6593 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Chen, H. D. Chien, and P. G. Luan, "Photonic Crystal Beam Splitters," Appl. Opt. 43, 6188-6190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, G. T.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, "Laser emission from GaN photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chien, H. D.

C. C. Chen, H. D. Chien, and P. G. Luan, "Photonic Crystal Beam Splitters," Appl. Opt. 43, 6188-6190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, H. K.

S. S. Lo, H. K. Chiu, and C. C. Chen, "Fabricating low-loss hollow optical waveguides via amorphous silicon bonding using dilute KOH solvent," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17,2592-2594 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, W. Y.

Chu, S. T.

C. B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, "Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators," Opt. Lett. 22,4-6 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J. I.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, "Laser emission from GaN photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Costa, R.

Fan, S.

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldring, D.

Hamacher, M.

D. G. Rabus, M. Hamacher, U. Troppenz, and H. Heidrich, "High-Q channel-dropping filters using ring resonators with integrated SOAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1442-1444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "Microring-reasonator-based add-drop filters in SiN:fabrication and analysis," Opt. Express 12, 1437-1442 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, "Channel drop filters in photonic crystals," Opt. Express 3,4-11 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, H.

D. G. Rabus, M. Hamacher, U. Troppenz, and H. Heidrich, "High-Q channel-dropping filters using ring resonators with integrated SOAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1442-1444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hou, C. H.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, "Laser emission from GaN photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. L.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, "Laser emission from GaN photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. H.

Ippen, E. P.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Laine, J. P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, "Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators," Opt. Lett. 22,4-6 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. C.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, "Laser emission from GaN photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levy, U.

Lin, C. K.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Little, C. B. E.

Lo, S. S.

S. S. Lo, H. K. Chiu, and C. C. Chen, "Fabricating low-loss hollow optical waveguides via amorphous silicon bonding using dilute KOH solvent," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17,2592-2594 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lo, M. S. Wang, and C. C. Chen, "Semiconductor hollow optical waveguides formed by omni-directional reflectors," Opt. Express 12, 6589-6593 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Royo, F.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luan, P. G.

C. C. Chen, H. D. Chien, and P. G. Luan, "Photonic Crystal Beam Splitters," Appl. Opt. 43, 6188-6190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

Melloni, A.

Mendlovic, D.

Monguzzi, P.

Nielson, G. N.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

Qiang, Z.

Rabus, D. G.

D. G. Rabus, M. Hamacher, U. Troppenz, and H. Heidrich, "High-Q channel-dropping filters using ring resonators with integrated SOAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1442-1444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P. T.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "Microring-reasonator-based add-drop filters in SiN:fabrication and analysis," Opt. Express 12, 1437-1442 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seneviratne, D.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

Soref, R. A.

Ting, Y. C.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, "Laser emission from GaN photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Troppenz, U.

D. G. Rabus, M. Hamacher, U. Troppenz, and H. Heidrich, "High-Q channel-dropping filters using ring resonators with integrated SOAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1442-1444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tuller, H. L.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

Wang, M. S.

Wang, W. K.

Watts, M. R.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "Microring-reasonator-based add-drop filters in SiN:fabrication and analysis," Opt. Express 12, 1437-1442 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. C. Chen, H. D. Chien, and P. G. Luan, "Photonic Crystal Beam Splitters," Appl. Opt. 43, 6188-6190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, "Laser emission from GaN photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116-1118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S. S. Lo, H. K. Chiu, and C. C. Chen, "Fabricating low-loss hollow optical waveguides via amorphous silicon bonding using dilute KOH solvent," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17,2592-2594 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Rabus, M. Hamacher, U. Troppenz, and H. Heidrich, "High-Q channel-dropping filters using ring resonators with integrated SOAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1442-1444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

O. Svelto, Principles of lasers, (Plenum Press, New York, 1989).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic SOI photonic crystal structure

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Bandgap simulation of circular rods arranged in a square and a hexagonal lattice.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Light propagation in the PC ring resonator simulated by the finite-difference time-domain method for wavelengths at (a) 1.31μm and (b) 1.55μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectra of the PC ring resonator simulated by the finite-difference time-domain method.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scanning electron microscopic images of the photonic crystal ring resonator.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measurement system of the directional coupler

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Optical spectra of the output ports (a) port 1 (b) port 2.

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