Abstract

We investigate the ability of the conditioned particle image velocimetry technique (CPIV) to derive the actual flame front position in turbulent premixed flames. In CPIV, the flame front shape is deduced from the step in the particle number density in PIV images caused by the steep temperature increase in the reaction zone of premixed flames. In a validation experiment the true flame front position is deduced for comparison from simultaneous heat release measurements using planar LIF measurements of OH and CH2O. It is found that CPIV yields nearly the same spatial position as the heat release measurements or the steepest slope in the OH distribution. Furthermore, statistical quantities, derived from the extracted flame front shape, like the spatially resolved turbulent flux, the flame surface density and the flame front curvature are compared, showing negligible differences between the applied methods.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Cabra, T. Myhrvold, J. Y. Chen, R. W. Dibble, A. N. Karpetis, and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Laser Raman-Rayleigh-LIF Measurements and Numerical Modeling Results of a Lifted Turbulent H2/N2 Jet Flame in a Vitiated Coflow," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1881-1888 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Frank and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Rayleigh, Raman, and LIF measurements in turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 759-766 (1998).
  3. J. Hult, M. Richter, J. Nygren, M. Aldén, A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, and B. Johansson, "Application of a High-Repetition-Rate Laser Diagnostic System for Single-Cycle-Resolved Imaging in Internal Combustion Engines," Appl. Opt. 41, 5002-5014 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. D. Carter, and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous measurements of NO, OH, and the major species in turbulent flames," Opt. Lett. 19, 299-301 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. D. Carter, J. M. Donbar, and J. F. Driscoll, "Simultaneous CH planar laser-induced fluorescence and particle imaging velocimetry in turbulent nonpremixed flames," Appl. Phys. B 66, 129-132 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Löffler, S. Pfadler, F. Beyrau, A. Leipertz, F. Dinkelacker, Y. Huai, and A. Sadiki, "Experimental determination of the sub-grid scale scalar flux in a non-reacting jet-flow," Flow Turbul. Combust., doi:10.1007/s10494-007-9102-6 (2007).
  7. A. Leipertz, G. Kowalewski, and S. Kampmann, "Measurement of gas temperature and temperature structures in premixed flames by using laser Rayleigh techniques," in Temperature: Its measurement and control in Science and Industry, (Am. Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), pp. 685-690.
  8. D. Most, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous Two-dimensional Flow Velocity and Gas Temperature Measurements using a Combined Particle Image Velocimetry and Filtered Rayleigh Scattering Technique," Appl. Opt. 40, 5379-5387 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Hofmann, and A. Leipertz, "Temperature field measurements in a sooting flame by filtered Rayleigh scattering," Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 945-950 (1996).
  10. M. G. Allen, R. D. Howe, and R. K. Hanson, "Digital imaging of reaction zones in hydrocarbon-air flames using planar laser-induced fluorescence of CH and C2," Opt. Lett. 11, 126 - 128 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Tanahashi, S. Murakami, G.-M. Choi, Y. Fukuchi, and T. Miyauchi, "Simultaneous CH-OH PLIF and stereoscopic PIV measurements of turbulent premixed flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1665-1672 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, "Single-shot laser-induced fluorescence imaging of formaldehyde with XeF excimer excitation," Appl. Phys. B 70, 733-735 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Aldén, "Development of improved PLIF CH detection using an Alexandrite laser for single-shot investigation of turbulent and lean flames " Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727-735 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. W. H. Armstrong and K. N. C. Bray, "Premixed turbulent combustion flowfield measurements using PIV and LST and their application to flamelet modelling of engine combustion," SAE Paper 922322 (1992).
  15. E. J. Stevens, K. N. C. Bray, and B. Lecordier, "Velocity and Scalar statistics for premixed turbulent stagnation flames using PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 949-955 (1998).
  16. S. Pfadler, A. Leipertz, F. Dinkelacker, J. Wäsle, A. Winkler, and T. Sattelmayer, "Two-dimensional direct measurement of the turbulent flux in turbulent premixed swirl flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1337-1344 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. H. Paul, and H. N. Najm, "Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of flame heat release rate," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 43-50 (1998).
  18. S. Pfadler, M. Czichos, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of turbulent transport mechanisms in premixed flames by conditioned PIV techniques," in European Combustion Meeting 2005, (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, 2005), paper 113.
  19. S. Pfadler, M. Löffler, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of the conditioned turbulence and temperature field of a premixed Bunsen burner by planar laser Rayleigh scattering and stereo particle image velocimetry," Exp. Fluids 39, 375-384 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. O. Ayoola, R. Balachandran, J. H. Frank, E. Mastorakos, and C. F. Kaminski, "Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames," Combust. Flame 144, 1-16 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. N. Najm, P. H. Paul, C. J. Mueller, and P. S. Wyckoff, "On the adequacy of certain experimental observables as measurements of flame burning rate," Combust. Flame 113, 312-332 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. E. Harrington, and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of formaldehyde in a methane/air diffusion flame," Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 196-202 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Pfadler, F. Beyrau, M. Löffler, and A. Leipertz, "Application of a beam homogenizer to planar laser diagnostics," Opt. Express 14, 10171-10180 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, "Simultaneous single-shot laser-based imaging of formaldehyde, OH and temperature in turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 279-286 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Veynante, J. M. Duclos, and J. Piana, "Experimental analysis of flamelet models for premixed turbulent combustion," Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1249-1256 (1994).
  26. F. Mokhtarian, and A. Mackworth, "Scale-based description and recognition of planar curves and two-dimensional shapes," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 34-43 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Aldén, "Development of improved PLIF CH detection using an Alexandrite laser for single-shot investigation of turbulent and lean flames " Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727-735 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pfadler, A. Leipertz, F. Dinkelacker, J. Wäsle, A. Winkler, and T. Sattelmayer, "Two-dimensional direct measurement of the turbulent flux in turbulent premixed swirl flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1337-1344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. O. Ayoola, R. Balachandran, J. H. Frank, E. Mastorakos, and C. F. Kaminski, "Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames," Combust. Flame 144, 1-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pfadler, F. Beyrau, M. Löffler, and A. Leipertz, "Application of a beam homogenizer to planar laser diagnostics," Opt. Express 14, 10171-10180 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. Pfadler, M. Löffler, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of the conditioned turbulence and temperature field of a premixed Bunsen burner by planar laser Rayleigh scattering and stereo particle image velocimetry," Exp. Fluids 39, 375-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanahashi, S. Murakami, G.-M. Choi, Y. Fukuchi, and T. Miyauchi, "Simultaneous CH-OH PLIF and stereoscopic PIV measurements of turbulent premixed flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1665-1672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. Cabra, T. Myhrvold, J. Y. Chen, R. W. Dibble, A. N. Karpetis, and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Laser Raman-Rayleigh-LIF Measurements and Numerical Modeling Results of a Lifted Turbulent H2/N2 Jet Flame in a Vitiated Coflow," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1881-1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, M. Richter, J. Nygren, M. Aldén, A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, and B. Johansson, "Application of a High-Repetition-Rate Laser Diagnostic System for Single-Cycle-Resolved Imaging in Internal Combustion Engines," Appl. Opt. 41, 5002-5014 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, "Single-shot laser-induced fluorescence imaging of formaldehyde with XeF excimer excitation," Appl. Phys. B 70, 733-735 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, "Simultaneous single-shot laser-based imaging of formaldehyde, OH and temperature in turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

J. H. Frank and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Rayleigh, Raman, and LIF measurements in turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 759-766 (1998).

C. D. Carter, J. M. Donbar, and J. F. Driscoll, "Simultaneous CH planar laser-induced fluorescence and particle imaging velocimetry in turbulent nonpremixed flames," Appl. Phys. B 66, 129-132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Najm, P. H. Paul, C. J. Mueller, and P. S. Wyckoff, "On the adequacy of certain experimental observables as measurements of flame burning rate," Combust. Flame 113, 312-332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Paul, and H. N. Najm, "Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of flame heat release rate," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 43-50 (1998).

E. J. Stevens, K. N. C. Bray, and B. Lecordier, "Velocity and Scalar statistics for premixed turbulent stagnation flames using PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 949-955 (1998).

1996 (1)

D. Hofmann, and A. Leipertz, "Temperature field measurements in a sooting flame by filtered Rayleigh scattering," Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 945-950 (1996).

1994 (2)

C. D. Carter, and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous measurements of NO, OH, and the major species in turbulent flames," Opt. Lett. 19, 299-301 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Veynante, J. M. Duclos, and J. Piana, "Experimental analysis of flamelet models for premixed turbulent combustion," Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1249-1256 (1994).

1993 (1)

J. E. Harrington, and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of formaldehyde in a methane/air diffusion flame," Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 196-202 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

M. G. Allen, R. D. Howe, and R. K. Hanson, "Digital imaging of reaction zones in hydrocarbon-air flames using planar laser-induced fluorescence of CH and C2," Opt. Lett. 11, 126 - 128 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Mokhtarian, and A. Mackworth, "Scale-based description and recognition of planar curves and two-dimensional shapes," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 34-43 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aldén, M.

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Aldén, "Development of improved PLIF CH detection using an Alexandrite laser for single-shot investigation of turbulent and lean flames " Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727-735 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, M. Richter, J. Nygren, M. Aldén, A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, and B. Johansson, "Application of a High-Repetition-Rate Laser Diagnostic System for Single-Cycle-Resolved Imaging in Internal Combustion Engines," Appl. Opt. 41, 5002-5014 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, M. G.

Ayoola, B. O.

B. O. Ayoola, R. Balachandran, J. H. Frank, E. Mastorakos, and C. F. Kaminski, "Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames," Combust. Flame 144, 1-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X. S.

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Aldén, "Development of improved PLIF CH detection using an Alexandrite laser for single-shot investigation of turbulent and lean flames " Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727-735 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R.

B. O. Ayoola, R. Balachandran, J. H. Frank, E. Mastorakos, and C. F. Kaminski, "Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames," Combust. Flame 144, 1-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, R. S.

R. Cabra, T. Myhrvold, J. Y. Chen, R. W. Dibble, A. N. Karpetis, and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Laser Raman-Rayleigh-LIF Measurements and Numerical Modeling Results of a Lifted Turbulent H2/N2 Jet Flame in a Vitiated Coflow," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1881-1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Rayleigh, Raman, and LIF measurements in turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 759-766 (1998).

C. D. Carter, and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous measurements of NO, OH, and the major species in turbulent flames," Opt. Lett. 19, 299-301 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beyrau, F.

Böckle, S.

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, "Simultaneous single-shot laser-based imaging of formaldehyde, OH and temperature in turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, "Single-shot laser-induced fluorescence imaging of formaldehyde with XeF excimer excitation," Appl. Phys. B 70, 733-735 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bray, K. N. C.

E. J. Stevens, K. N. C. Bray, and B. Lecordier, "Velocity and Scalar statistics for premixed turbulent stagnation flames using PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 949-955 (1998).

Cabra, R.

R. Cabra, T. Myhrvold, J. Y. Chen, R. W. Dibble, A. N. Karpetis, and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Laser Raman-Rayleigh-LIF Measurements and Numerical Modeling Results of a Lifted Turbulent H2/N2 Jet Flame in a Vitiated Coflow," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1881-1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C. D.

C. D. Carter, J. M. Donbar, and J. F. Driscoll, "Simultaneous CH planar laser-induced fluorescence and particle imaging velocimetry in turbulent nonpremixed flames," Appl. Phys. B 66, 129-132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Carter, and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous measurements of NO, OH, and the major species in turbulent flames," Opt. Lett. 19, 299-301 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. Y.

R. Cabra, T. Myhrvold, J. Y. Chen, R. W. Dibble, A. N. Karpetis, and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Laser Raman-Rayleigh-LIF Measurements and Numerical Modeling Results of a Lifted Turbulent H2/N2 Jet Flame in a Vitiated Coflow," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1881-1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, G.-M.

M. Tanahashi, S. Murakami, G.-M. Choi, Y. Fukuchi, and T. Miyauchi, "Simultaneous CH-OH PLIF and stereoscopic PIV measurements of turbulent premixed flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1665-1672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, M.

Dibble, R. W.

R. Cabra, T. Myhrvold, J. Y. Chen, R. W. Dibble, A. N. Karpetis, and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Laser Raman-Rayleigh-LIF Measurements and Numerical Modeling Results of a Lifted Turbulent H2/N2 Jet Flame in a Vitiated Coflow," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1881-1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dinkelacker, F.

S. Pfadler, A. Leipertz, F. Dinkelacker, J. Wäsle, A. Winkler, and T. Sattelmayer, "Two-dimensional direct measurement of the turbulent flux in turbulent premixed swirl flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1337-1344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pfadler, M. Löffler, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of the conditioned turbulence and temperature field of a premixed Bunsen burner by planar laser Rayleigh scattering and stereo particle image velocimetry," Exp. Fluids 39, 375-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Donbar, J. M.

C. D. Carter, J. M. Donbar, and J. F. Driscoll, "Simultaneous CH planar laser-induced fluorescence and particle imaging velocimetry in turbulent nonpremixed flames," Appl. Phys. B 66, 129-132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, J. F.

C. D. Carter, J. M. Donbar, and J. F. Driscoll, "Simultaneous CH planar laser-induced fluorescence and particle imaging velocimetry in turbulent nonpremixed flames," Appl. Phys. B 66, 129-132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duclos, J. M.

D. Veynante, J. M. Duclos, and J. Piana, "Experimental analysis of flamelet models for premixed turbulent combustion," Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1249-1256 (1994).

Frank, J. H.

B. O. Ayoola, R. Balachandran, J. H. Frank, E. Mastorakos, and C. F. Kaminski, "Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames," Combust. Flame 144, 1-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Rayleigh, Raman, and LIF measurements in turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 759-766 (1998).

Fukuchi, Y.

M. Tanahashi, S. Murakami, G.-M. Choi, Y. Fukuchi, and T. Miyauchi, "Simultaneous CH-OH PLIF and stereoscopic PIV measurements of turbulent premixed flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1665-1672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

Harrington, J. E.

J. E. Harrington, and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of formaldehyde in a methane/air diffusion flame," Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 196-202 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D.

D. Hofmann, and A. Leipertz, "Temperature field measurements in a sooting flame by filtered Rayleigh scattering," Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 945-950 (1996).

Howe, R. D.

Hult, J.

Hultqvist, A.

Johansson, B.

Kaminski, C. F.

B. O. Ayoola, R. Balachandran, J. H. Frank, E. Mastorakos, and C. F. Kaminski, "Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames," Combust. Flame 144, 1-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karpetis, A. N.

R. Cabra, T. Myhrvold, J. Y. Chen, R. W. Dibble, A. N. Karpetis, and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Laser Raman-Rayleigh-LIF Measurements and Numerical Modeling Results of a Lifted Turbulent H2/N2 Jet Flame in a Vitiated Coflow," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1881-1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kazenwadel, J.

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, "Single-shot laser-induced fluorescence imaging of formaldehyde with XeF excimer excitation," Appl. Phys. B 70, 733-735 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, "Simultaneous single-shot laser-based imaging of formaldehyde, OH and temperature in turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, J.

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Aldén, "Development of improved PLIF CH detection using an Alexandrite laser for single-shot investigation of turbulent and lean flames " Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727-735 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kunzelmann, T.

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, "Single-shot laser-induced fluorescence imaging of formaldehyde with XeF excimer excitation," Appl. Phys. B 70, 733-735 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, "Simultaneous single-shot laser-based imaging of formaldehyde, OH and temperature in turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lecordier, B.

E. J. Stevens, K. N. C. Bray, and B. Lecordier, "Velocity and Scalar statistics for premixed turbulent stagnation flames using PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 949-955 (1998).

Leipertz, A.

S. Pfadler, A. Leipertz, F. Dinkelacker, J. Wäsle, A. Winkler, and T. Sattelmayer, "Two-dimensional direct measurement of the turbulent flux in turbulent premixed swirl flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1337-1344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Aldén, "Development of improved PLIF CH detection using an Alexandrite laser for single-shot investigation of turbulent and lean flames " Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727-735 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pfadler, F. Beyrau, M. Löffler, and A. Leipertz, "Application of a beam homogenizer to planar laser diagnostics," Opt. Express 14, 10171-10180 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pfadler, M. Löffler, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of the conditioned turbulence and temperature field of a premixed Bunsen burner by planar laser Rayleigh scattering and stereo particle image velocimetry," Exp. Fluids 39, 375-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Most, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous Two-dimensional Flow Velocity and Gas Temperature Measurements using a Combined Particle Image Velocimetry and Filtered Rayleigh Scattering Technique," Appl. Opt. 40, 5379-5387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofmann, and A. Leipertz, "Temperature field measurements in a sooting flame by filtered Rayleigh scattering," Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 945-950 (1996).

Li, Z. S.

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Aldén, "Development of improved PLIF CH detection using an Alexandrite laser for single-shot investigation of turbulent and lean flames " Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727-735 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linvin, M.

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Aldén, "Development of improved PLIF CH detection using an Alexandrite laser for single-shot investigation of turbulent and lean flames " Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727-735 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, M.

S. Pfadler, F. Beyrau, M. Löffler, and A. Leipertz, "Application of a beam homogenizer to planar laser diagnostics," Opt. Express 14, 10171-10180 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pfadler, M. Löffler, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of the conditioned turbulence and temperature field of a premixed Bunsen burner by planar laser Rayleigh scattering and stereo particle image velocimetry," Exp. Fluids 39, 375-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mackworth, A.

F. Mokhtarian, and A. Mackworth, "Scale-based description and recognition of planar curves and two-dimensional shapes," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 34-43 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mastorakos, E.

B. O. Ayoola, R. Balachandran, J. H. Frank, E. Mastorakos, and C. F. Kaminski, "Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames," Combust. Flame 144, 1-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyauchi, T.

M. Tanahashi, S. Murakami, G.-M. Choi, Y. Fukuchi, and T. Miyauchi, "Simultaneous CH-OH PLIF and stereoscopic PIV measurements of turbulent premixed flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1665-1672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mokhtarian, F.

F. Mokhtarian, and A. Mackworth, "Scale-based description and recognition of planar curves and two-dimensional shapes," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 34-43 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Most, D.

Mueller, C. J.

H. N. Najm, P. H. Paul, C. J. Mueller, and P. S. Wyckoff, "On the adequacy of certain experimental observables as measurements of flame burning rate," Combust. Flame 113, 312-332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, S.

M. Tanahashi, S. Murakami, G.-M. Choi, Y. Fukuchi, and T. Miyauchi, "Simultaneous CH-OH PLIF and stereoscopic PIV measurements of turbulent premixed flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1665-1672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Myhrvold, T.

R. Cabra, T. Myhrvold, J. Y. Chen, R. W. Dibble, A. N. Karpetis, and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Laser Raman-Rayleigh-LIF Measurements and Numerical Modeling Results of a Lifted Turbulent H2/N2 Jet Flame in a Vitiated Coflow," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1881-1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Najm, H. N.

H. N. Najm, P. H. Paul, C. J. Mueller, and P. S. Wyckoff, "On the adequacy of certain experimental observables as measurements of flame burning rate," Combust. Flame 113, 312-332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Paul, and H. N. Najm, "Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of flame heat release rate," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 43-50 (1998).

Nygren, J.

Paul, P. H.

H. N. Najm, P. H. Paul, C. J. Mueller, and P. S. Wyckoff, "On the adequacy of certain experimental observables as measurements of flame burning rate," Combust. Flame 113, 312-332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Paul, and H. N. Najm, "Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of flame heat release rate," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 43-50 (1998).

Pfadler, S.

S. Pfadler, A. Leipertz, F. Dinkelacker, J. Wäsle, A. Winkler, and T. Sattelmayer, "Two-dimensional direct measurement of the turbulent flux in turbulent premixed swirl flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1337-1344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pfadler, F. Beyrau, M. Löffler, and A. Leipertz, "Application of a beam homogenizer to planar laser diagnostics," Opt. Express 14, 10171-10180 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pfadler, M. Löffler, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of the conditioned turbulence and temperature field of a premixed Bunsen burner by planar laser Rayleigh scattering and stereo particle image velocimetry," Exp. Fluids 39, 375-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Piana, J.

D. Veynante, J. M. Duclos, and J. Piana, "Experimental analysis of flamelet models for premixed turbulent combustion," Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1249-1256 (1994).

Richter, M.

Sattelmayer, T.

S. Pfadler, A. Leipertz, F. Dinkelacker, J. Wäsle, A. Winkler, and T. Sattelmayer, "Two-dimensional direct measurement of the turbulent flux in turbulent premixed swirl flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1337-1344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, C.

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, "Single-shot laser-induced fluorescence imaging of formaldehyde with XeF excimer excitation," Appl. Phys. B 70, 733-735 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, "Simultaneous single-shot laser-based imaging of formaldehyde, OH and temperature in turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.-I.

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, "Simultaneous single-shot laser-based imaging of formaldehyde, OH and temperature in turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, "Single-shot laser-induced fluorescence imaging of formaldehyde with XeF excimer excitation," Appl. Phys. B 70, 733-735 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, K. C.

J. E. Harrington, and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of formaldehyde in a methane/air diffusion flame," Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 196-202 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, E. J.

E. J. Stevens, K. N. C. Bray, and B. Lecordier, "Velocity and Scalar statistics for premixed turbulent stagnation flames using PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 949-955 (1998).

Tanahashi, M.

M. Tanahashi, S. Murakami, G.-M. Choi, Y. Fukuchi, and T. Miyauchi, "Simultaneous CH-OH PLIF and stereoscopic PIV measurements of turbulent premixed flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1665-1672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Veynante, D.

D. Veynante, J. M. Duclos, and J. Piana, "Experimental analysis of flamelet models for premixed turbulent combustion," Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1249-1256 (1994).

Wäsle, J.

S. Pfadler, A. Leipertz, F. Dinkelacker, J. Wäsle, A. Winkler, and T. Sattelmayer, "Two-dimensional direct measurement of the turbulent flux in turbulent premixed swirl flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1337-1344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, A.

S. Pfadler, A. Leipertz, F. Dinkelacker, J. Wäsle, A. Winkler, and T. Sattelmayer, "Two-dimensional direct measurement of the turbulent flux in turbulent premixed swirl flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1337-1344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, J.

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, "Simultaneous single-shot laser-based imaging of formaldehyde, OH and temperature in turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wyckoff, P. S.

H. N. Najm, P. H. Paul, C. J. Mueller, and P. S. Wyckoff, "On the adequacy of certain experimental observables as measurements of flame burning rate," Combust. Flame 113, 312-332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zetterberg, J.

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Aldén, "Development of improved PLIF CH detection using an Alexandrite laser for single-shot investigation of turbulent and lean flames " Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727-735 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

C. D. Carter, J. M. Donbar, and J. F. Driscoll, "Simultaneous CH planar laser-induced fluorescence and particle imaging velocimetry in turbulent nonpremixed flames," Appl. Phys. B 66, 129-132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, and C. Schulz, "Single-shot laser-induced fluorescence imaging of formaldehyde with XeF excimer excitation," Appl. Phys. B 70, 733-735 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. E. Harrington, and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of formaldehyde in a methane/air diffusion flame," Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 196-202 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (2)

B. O. Ayoola, R. Balachandran, J. H. Frank, E. Mastorakos, and C. F. Kaminski, "Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames," Combust. Flame 144, 1-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Najm, P. H. Paul, C. J. Mueller, and P. S. Wyckoff, "On the adequacy of certain experimental observables as measurements of flame burning rate," Combust. Flame 113, 312-332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (1)

S. Pfadler, M. Löffler, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of the conditioned turbulence and temperature field of a premixed Bunsen burner by planar laser Rayleigh scattering and stereo particle image velocimetry," Exp. Fluids 39, 375-384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

F. Mokhtarian, and A. Mackworth, "Scale-based description and recognition of planar curves and two-dimensional shapes," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 34-43 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Combust. Inst. (10)

S. Böckle, J. Kazenwadel, T. Kunzelmann, D.-I. Shin, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, "Simultaneous single-shot laser-based imaging of formaldehyde, OH and temperature in turbulent flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Veynante, J. M. Duclos, and J. Piana, "Experimental analysis of flamelet models for premixed turbulent combustion," Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1249-1256 (1994).

E. J. Stevens, K. N. C. Bray, and B. Lecordier, "Velocity and Scalar statistics for premixed turbulent stagnation flames using PIV," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 949-955 (1998).

S. Pfadler, A. Leipertz, F. Dinkelacker, J. Wäsle, A. Winkler, and T. Sattelmayer, "Two-dimensional direct measurement of the turbulent flux in turbulent premixed swirl flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1337-1344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Paul, and H. N. Najm, "Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of flame heat release rate," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 43-50 (1998).

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Aldén, "Development of improved PLIF CH detection using an Alexandrite laser for single-shot investigation of turbulent and lean flames " Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727-735 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Cabra, T. Myhrvold, J. Y. Chen, R. W. Dibble, A. N. Karpetis, and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Laser Raman-Rayleigh-LIF Measurements and Numerical Modeling Results of a Lifted Turbulent H2/N2 Jet Flame in a Vitiated Coflow," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 1881-1888 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank and R. S. Barlow, "Simultaneous Rayleigh, Raman, and LIF measurements in turbulent premixed methane-air flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 759-766 (1998).

D. Hofmann, and A. Leipertz, "Temperature field measurements in a sooting flame by filtered Rayleigh scattering," Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 945-950 (1996).

M. Tanahashi, S. Murakami, G.-M. Choi, Y. Fukuchi, and T. Miyauchi, "Simultaneous CH-OH PLIF and stereoscopic PIV measurements of turbulent premixed flames," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1665-1672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

N. W. H. Armstrong and K. N. C. Bray, "Premixed turbulent combustion flowfield measurements using PIV and LST and their application to flamelet modelling of engine combustion," SAE Paper 922322 (1992).

M. Löffler, S. Pfadler, F. Beyrau, A. Leipertz, F. Dinkelacker, Y. Huai, and A. Sadiki, "Experimental determination of the sub-grid scale scalar flux in a non-reacting jet-flow," Flow Turbul. Combust., doi:10.1007/s10494-007-9102-6 (2007).

A. Leipertz, G. Kowalewski, and S. Kampmann, "Measurement of gas temperature and temperature structures in premixed flames by using laser Rayleigh techniques," in Temperature: Its measurement and control in Science and Industry, (Am. Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), pp. 685-690.

S. Pfadler, M. Czichos, F. Dinkelacker, and A. Leipertz, "Measurement of turbulent transport mechanisms in premixed flames by conditioned PIV techniques," in European Combustion Meeting 2005, (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, 2005), paper 113.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Burner set-up.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

PIV raw image with intensity histogram after spatial filtering (the plotted line shows the flame front position).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental set-up.

Fig. 4:
Fig. 4:

OH-LIF.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CH2O-LIF.

Fig. 6:
Fig. 6:

Position of the heat release.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Normalized temperature distribution.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Flame normal profiles (left: extracted from simultaneous Rayleigh-LIF experiment, right: extracted from simultaneous LIF-CPIV experiment).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Flame surface density derived from OH-LIF with radial profile views taken 20 and 30 mm downstream the stabilizing wire.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Flame surface density derived from CPIV with radial profile views taken 20 and 30 mm downstream the stabilizing wire.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Flame front curvature along the flame surface for a single shot binarized image (segments with constant positive or negative curvature are labeled with capitals).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Flame front curvature statistics derived from OH-LIF and CPIV.

Fig.13.
Fig.13.

Favre averaged radial turbulent flux ρ ̅ u rad c ˜ derived from OH-LIF with radial profile views taken 20 and 30 mm downstream the stabilizing wire.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Favre averaged radial turbulent flux ρ ̅ u rad c ˜ derived from CPIV with radial profile views taken 20 and 30 mm downstream the stabilizing wire.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Single-shot image of the simultaneous measurement of flow and heat release field in a turbulent premixed V-shaped methane-air flame.

Equations (1)

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κ = x ˙ y ̈ y ˙ x ̈ ( x ˙ 2 + y ˙ 2 ) 3 2 = 1 r m

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