Abstract

Phase measurements on self-assembled three-dimensional photonic crystals show that the group velocity of light can flip from small positive (slow) to negative (superluminal) values in samples of a few μm size. This phenomenon takes place in a narrow spectral range around the second-order stop band and follows from coupling to weakly dispersive photonic bands associated with multiple Bragg diffraction. The observations are well accounted for by theoretical calculations of the phase delay and of photonic states in the finite-sized systems.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich and A. Dogariu, "Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation," Nature 406, 277-279 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Dogariu, A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, L. J. Wang and R. Trebino, "Optical pulse propagation through metallic nano-apertures," Appl. Phys. B 74, S69-S73 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a ‘fast-light’ optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Nimtz, "Superluminal speed of information?," Nature 429, 6987 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E.H. El Boudouti, N. Fettouhi, A. Akjouj, B. Djafari-Rouhani, J. O. Vasseur, L. Dobrzynski and J. Zemmouri, "Experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of photonic bandgaps and selective transmission in serial loop structures," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1102-1113 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically Induced Transparency: Propagation Dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
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  13. Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNabb, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
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  16. Yu. A. Vlasov, S. Petit, G. Klein, B. Honerlage and C. Hirlimann, "Femtosecond measurements of the time of flight of photons in a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. E 60, 1030-1035 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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  18. G. von Freymann, S. John, S. Wong, V. Kitaev and G. A. Ozin, "Measurement of group velocity dispersion for finite size three-dimensional photonic crystals in the near-infrared spectral region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. J. F. Galisteo-López, E. Palacios-Lidón, E. Castillo-Martinez and C. López, "Optical study of the pseudogap in thickness and orientation controlled artificial opals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115109 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Galli, F. Marabelli, G. Guizzetti, "Direct measurement of refractive-index dispersion of transparent media by white-light interferometry," Appl. Opt. 42, 3910-3914 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and M. Agio, "Optical properties and diffraction effects in opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036603 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan and C. M. Soukoulis, "Existence of a Photonic Gap in Periodic Dielectric Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152-3155 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturn and D. J. Norris, "On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals," Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. D. R. Solli, C. F. McCormick, C. Ropers, J. J. Morehead, R. Y. Chiao and J. M. Hickmann, "Demonstration of superluminal effects in an absorptionless, nonreflective system," Phys. Rev. Lett 91, 143906 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. F. García-Santamaría, M. Ibisate, I. Rodríguez, F. Meseguer and C. López, "Photonic bands engineering in opals by growth of Si/Ge multilayer shells," Adv. Mater. 15, 788-792 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Notice that the calculations of Fig. 4 are done for a non-relaxed FCC lattice, while those in Fig. 1(d) include material dispersion and a small in-plane relaxation in order to compare with the experiments.
  34. L. Bechger, P. Lodahl and W. L. Vos, "Directional fluorescence spectra of laser dye in opal and inverse opal photonic crystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9980-9988 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Scharrer, A. Yamilov, X. H. Wu, H. Cao and R. P. H. Chang, "Ultraviolet lasing in high-order bands of three-dimensional ZnO photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (4)

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Galli, M. Patrini, A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and C. López, "Effective refractive index and group velocity determination of three-dimensional photonic crystals by means of white light interferometry," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and M. Agio, "Optical properties and diffraction effects in opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Scharrer, A. Yamilov, X. H. Wu, H. Cao and R. P. H. Chang, "Ultraviolet lasing in high-order bands of three-dimensional ZnO photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

L. Bechger, P. Lodahl and W. L. Vos, "Directional fluorescence spectra of laser dye in opal and inverse opal photonic crystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9980-9988 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. von Freymann, S. John, S. Wong, V. Kitaev and G. A. Ozin, "Measurement of group velocity dispersion for finite size three-dimensional photonic crystals in the near-infrared spectral region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. García-Santamaría, J. F. Galisteo-López, P. V. Braun and C. López, "Optical diffraction and high-energy features in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 71, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, D. Comoretto, "Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNabb, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

J. F. Galisteo-López and C. López, "High-energy optical response of artificial opals," Phys. Rev. B 70, 035108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Nimtz, "Superluminal speed of information?," Nature 429, 6987 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E.H. El Boudouti, N. Fettouhi, A. Akjouj, B. Djafari-Rouhani, J. O. Vasseur, L. Dobrzynski and J. Zemmouri, "Experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of photonic bandgaps and selective transmission in serial loop structures," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1102-1113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (7)

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a ‘fast-light’ optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and Slow Light Propagation in a Room-Temperature Solid," Science 301, 20-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. López, "Materials aspects of photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1679-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Galisteo-López, E. Palacios-Lidón, E. Castillo-Martinez and C. López, "Optical study of the pseudogap in thickness and orientation controlled artificial opals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, F. Marabelli, G. Guizzetti, "Direct measurement of refractive-index dispersion of transparent media by white-light interferometry," Appl. Opt. 42, 3910-3914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, C. F. McCormick, C. Ropers, J. J. Morehead, R. Y. Chiao and J. M. Hickmann, "Demonstration of superluminal effects in an absorptionless, nonreflective system," Phys. Rev. Lett 91, 143906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. García-Santamaría, M. Ibisate, I. Rodríguez, F. Meseguer and C. López, "Photonic bands engineering in opals by growth of Si/Ge multilayer shells," Adv. Mater. 15, 788-792 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Dogariu, A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, L. J. Wang and R. Trebino, "Optical pulse propagation through metallic nano-apertures," Appl. Phys. B 74, S69-S73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturn and D. J. Norris, "On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals," Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich and A. Dogariu, "Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation," Nature 406, 277-279 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

Yu. A. Vlasov, S. Petit, G. Klein, B. Honerlage and C. Hirlimann, "Femtosecond measurements of the time of flight of photons in a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. E 60, 1030-1035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Imhof, W. L. Vos, R. Sprik and A. Lagendijk, "Large dispersive effects near the band edges of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2942-2945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically Induced Transparency: Propagation Dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwiat and R. Y. Chiao, "Measurement of the Single-Photon Tunneling Time," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708-711 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan and C. M. Soukoulis, "Existence of a Photonic Gap in Periodic Dielectric Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152-3155 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

S. Chu and S. Wong, "Linear pulse propagation in an absorbing medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 738-741 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Agio, M.

A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and M. Agio, "Optical properties and diffraction effects in opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akjouj, A.

E.H. El Boudouti, N. Fettouhi, A. Akjouj, B. Djafari-Rouhani, J. O. Vasseur, L. Dobrzynski and J. Zemmouri, "Experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of photonic bandgaps and selective transmission in serial loop structures," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1102-1113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Galli, M. Patrini, A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and C. López, "Effective refractive index and group velocity determination of three-dimensional photonic crystals by means of white light interferometry," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and M. Agio, "Optical properties and diffraction effects in opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, D. Comoretto, "Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Balestreri, A.

A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and M. Agio, "Optical properties and diffraction effects in opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Galli, M. Patrini, A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and C. López, "Effective refractive index and group velocity determination of three-dimensional photonic crystals by means of white light interferometry," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bechger, L.

L. Bechger, P. Lodahl and W. L. Vos, "Directional fluorescence spectra of laser dye in opal and inverse opal photonic crystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9980-9988 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, M. S.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and Slow Light Propagation in a Room-Temperature Solid," Science 301, 20-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bo, X. Z.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturn and D. J. Norris, "On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals," Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and Slow Light Propagation in a Room-Temperature Solid," Science 301, 20-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Braun, P. V.

F. García-Santamaría, J. F. Galisteo-López, P. V. Braun and C. López, "Optical diffraction and high-energy features in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 71, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

M. Scharrer, A. Yamilov, X. H. Wu, H. Cao and R. P. H. Chang, "Ultraviolet lasing in high-order bands of three-dimensional ZnO photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Castillo-Martinez, E.

J. F. Galisteo-López, E. Palacios-Lidón, E. Castillo-Martinez and C. López, "Optical study of the pseudogap in thickness and orientation controlled artificial opals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C.T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan and C. M. Soukoulis, "Existence of a Photonic Gap in Periodic Dielectric Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152-3155 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. P. H.

M. Scharrer, A. Yamilov, X. H. Wu, H. Cao and R. P. H. Chang, "Ultraviolet lasing in high-order bands of three-dimensional ZnO photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, R. Y.

D. R. Solli, C. F. McCormick, C. Ropers, J. J. Morehead, R. Y. Chiao and J. M. Hickmann, "Demonstration of superluminal effects in an absorptionless, nonreflective system," Phys. Rev. Lett 91, 143906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwiat and R. Y. Chiao, "Measurement of the Single-Photon Tunneling Time," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708-711 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

S. Chu and S. Wong, "Linear pulse propagation in an absorbing medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 738-741 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Comoretto, D.

E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, D. Comoretto, "Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, I. S.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Djafari-Rouhani, B.

E.H. El Boudouti, N. Fettouhi, A. Akjouj, B. Djafari-Rouhani, J. O. Vasseur, L. Dobrzynski and J. Zemmouri, "Experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of photonic bandgaps and selective transmission in serial loop structures," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1102-1113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dobrzynski, L.

E.H. El Boudouti, N. Fettouhi, A. Akjouj, B. Djafari-Rouhani, J. O. Vasseur, L. Dobrzynski and J. Zemmouri, "Experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of photonic bandgaps and selective transmission in serial loop structures," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1102-1113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

A. Dogariu, A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, L. J. Wang and R. Trebino, "Optical pulse propagation through metallic nano-apertures," Appl. Phys. B 74, S69-S73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich and A. Dogariu, "Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation," Nature 406, 277-279 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

El Boudouti, E.H.

E.H. El Boudouti, N. Fettouhi, A. Akjouj, B. Djafari-Rouhani, J. O. Vasseur, L. Dobrzynski and J. Zemmouri, "Experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of photonic bandgaps and selective transmission in serial loop structures," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1102-1113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fettouhi, N.

E.H. El Boudouti, N. Fettouhi, A. Akjouj, B. Djafari-Rouhani, J. O. Vasseur, L. Dobrzynski and J. Zemmouri, "Experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of photonic bandgaps and selective transmission in serial loop structures," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1102-1113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Galisteo-López, J. F.

F. García-Santamaría, J. F. Galisteo-López, P. V. Braun and C. López, "Optical diffraction and high-energy features in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 71, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Galisteo-López and C. López, "High-energy optical response of artificial opals," Phys. Rev. B 70, 035108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Galisteo-López, E. Palacios-Lidón, E. Castillo-Martinez and C. López, "Optical study of the pseudogap in thickness and orientation controlled artificial opals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Galisteo-López, J.F.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Galli, M. Patrini, A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and C. López, "Effective refractive index and group velocity determination of three-dimensional photonic crystals by means of white light interferometry," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Galli, M. Patrini, A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and C. López, "Effective refractive index and group velocity determination of three-dimensional photonic crystals by means of white light interferometry," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, D. Comoretto, "Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, F. Marabelli, G. Guizzetti, "Direct measurement of refractive-index dispersion of transparent media by white-light interferometry," Appl. Opt. 42, 3910-3914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Santamaría, F.

F. García-Santamaría, J. F. Galisteo-López, P. V. Braun and C. López, "Optical diffraction and high-energy features in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 71, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. García-Santamaría, M. Ibisate, I. Rodríguez, F. Meseguer and C. López, "Photonic bands engineering in opals by growth of Si/Ge multilayer shells," Adv. Mater. 15, 788-792 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a ‘fast-light’ optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guizzetti, G.

Hamann, H. F.

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNabb, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically Induced Transparency: Propagation Dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hau, L. V.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hickmann, J. M.

D. R. Solli, C. F. McCormick, C. Ropers, J. J. Morehead, R. Y. Chiao and J. M. Hickmann, "Demonstration of superluminal effects in an absorptionless, nonreflective system," Phys. Rev. Lett 91, 143906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirlimann, C.

Yu. A. Vlasov, S. Petit, G. Klein, B. Honerlage and C. Hirlimann, "Femtosecond measurements of the time of flight of photons in a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. E 60, 1030-1035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan and C. M. Soukoulis, "Existence of a Photonic Gap in Periodic Dielectric Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152-3155 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honerlage, B.

Yu. A. Vlasov, S. Petit, G. Klein, B. Honerlage and C. Hirlimann, "Femtosecond measurements of the time of flight of photons in a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. E 60, 1030-1035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ibisate, M.

F. García-Santamaría, M. Ibisate, I. Rodríguez, F. Meseguer and C. López, "Photonic bands engineering in opals by growth of Si/Ge multilayer shells," Adv. Mater. 15, 788-792 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Imhof, A.

A. Imhof, W. L. Vos, R. Sprik and A. Lagendijk, "Large dispersive effects near the band edges of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2942-2945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jain, M.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically Induced Transparency: Propagation Dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, S.

G. von Freymann, S. John, S. Wong, V. Kitaev and G. A. Ozin, "Measurement of group velocity dispersion for finite size three-dimensional photonic crystals in the near-infrared spectral region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasapi, A.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically Induced Transparency: Propagation Dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitaev, V.

G. von Freymann, S. John, S. Wong, V. Kitaev and G. A. Ozin, "Measurement of group velocity dispersion for finite size three-dimensional photonic crystals in the near-infrared spectral region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klein, G.

Yu. A. Vlasov, S. Petit, G. Klein, B. Honerlage and C. Hirlimann, "Femtosecond measurements of the time of flight of photons in a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. E 60, 1030-1035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmich, A.

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich and A. Dogariu, "Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation," Nature 406, 277-279 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwiat, P. G.

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwiat and R. Y. Chiao, "Measurement of the Single-Photon Tunneling Time," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708-711 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagendijk, A.

A. Imhof, W. L. Vos, R. Sprik and A. Lagendijk, "Large dispersive effects near the band edges of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2942-2945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lepeshkin, N. N.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and Slow Light Propagation in a Room-Temperature Solid," Science 301, 20-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linke, R. A.

A. Dogariu, A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, L. J. Wang and R. Trebino, "Optical pulse propagation through metallic nano-apertures," Appl. Phys. B 74, S69-S73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lodahl, P.

L. Bechger, P. Lodahl and W. L. Vos, "Directional fluorescence spectra of laser dye in opal and inverse opal photonic crystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9980-9988 (2005).
[CrossRef]

López, C.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Galli, M. Patrini, A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and C. López, "Effective refractive index and group velocity determination of three-dimensional photonic crystals by means of white light interferometry," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. García-Santamaría, J. F. Galisteo-López, P. V. Braun and C. López, "Optical diffraction and high-energy features in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 71, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Galisteo-López and C. López, "High-energy optical response of artificial opals," Phys. Rev. B 70, 035108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. López, "Materials aspects of photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1679-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. García-Santamaría, M. Ibisate, I. Rodríguez, F. Meseguer and C. López, "Photonic bands engineering in opals by growth of Si/Ge multilayer shells," Adv. Mater. 15, 788-792 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Galisteo-López, E. Palacios-Lidón, E. Castillo-Martinez and C. López, "Optical study of the pseudogap in thickness and orientation controlled artificial opals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marabelli, F.

E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, D. Comoretto, "Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, F. Marabelli, G. Guizzetti, "Direct measurement of refractive-index dispersion of transparent media by white-light interferometry," Appl. Opt. 42, 3910-3914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCormick, C. F.

D. R. Solli, C. F. McCormick, C. Ropers, J. J. Morehead, R. Y. Chiao and J. M. Hickmann, "Demonstration of superluminal effects in an absorptionless, nonreflective system," Phys. Rev. Lett 91, 143906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNabb, S. J.

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNabb, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meseguer, F.

F. García-Santamaría, M. Ibisate, I. Rodríguez, F. Meseguer and C. López, "Photonic bands engineering in opals by growth of Si/Ge multilayer shells," Adv. Mater. 15, 788-792 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morehead, J. J.

D. R. Solli, C. F. McCormick, C. Ropers, J. J. Morehead, R. Y. Chiao and J. M. Hickmann, "Demonstration of superluminal effects in an absorptionless, nonreflective system," Phys. Rev. Lett 91, 143906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nahata, A.

A. Dogariu, A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, L. J. Wang and R. Trebino, "Optical pulse propagation through metallic nano-apertures," Appl. Phys. B 74, S69-S73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neifeld, M. A.

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a ‘fast-light’ optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nimtz, G.

G. Nimtz, "Superluminal speed of information?," Nature 429, 6987 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Norris, D. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturn and D. J. Norris, "On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals," Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Boyle, M.

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNabb, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozin, G. A.

G. von Freymann, S. John, S. Wong, V. Kitaev and G. A. Ozin, "Measurement of group velocity dispersion for finite size three-dimensional photonic crystals in the near-infrared spectral region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palacios-Lidón, E.

J. F. Galisteo-López, E. Palacios-Lidón, E. Castillo-Martinez and C. López, "Optical study of the pseudogap in thickness and orientation controlled artificial opals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patrini, M.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Galli, M. Patrini, A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and C. López, "Effective refractive index and group velocity determination of three-dimensional photonic crystals by means of white light interferometry," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pavarini, E.

E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, D. Comoretto, "Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

Yu. A. Vlasov, S. Petit, G. Klein, B. Honerlage and C. Hirlimann, "Femtosecond measurements of the time of flight of photons in a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. E 60, 1030-1035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, I.

F. García-Santamaría, M. Ibisate, I. Rodríguez, F. Meseguer and C. López, "Photonic bands engineering in opals by growth of Si/Ge multilayer shells," Adv. Mater. 15, 788-792 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

D. R. Solli, C. F. McCormick, C. Ropers, J. J. Morehead, R. Y. Chiao and J. M. Hickmann, "Demonstration of superluminal effects in an absorptionless, nonreflective system," Phys. Rev. Lett 91, 143906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scharrer, M.

M. Scharrer, A. Yamilov, X. H. Wu, H. Cao and R. P. H. Chang, "Ultraviolet lasing in high-order bands of three-dimensional ZnO photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soci, C.

E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, D. Comoretto, "Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solli, D. R.

D. R. Solli, C. F. McCormick, C. Ropers, J. J. Morehead, R. Y. Chiao and J. M. Hickmann, "Demonstration of superluminal effects in an absorptionless, nonreflective system," Phys. Rev. Lett 91, 143906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan and C. M. Soukoulis, "Existence of a Photonic Gap in Periodic Dielectric Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152-3155 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprik, R.

A. Imhof, W. L. Vos, R. Sprik and A. Lagendijk, "Large dispersive effects near the band edges of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2942-2945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, A. M.

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwiat and R. Y. Chiao, "Measurement of the Single-Photon Tunneling Time," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708-711 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenner, M. D.

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a ‘fast-light’ optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturn, J. C.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturn and D. J. Norris, "On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals," Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

A. Dogariu, A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, L. J. Wang and R. Trebino, "Optical pulse propagation through metallic nano-apertures," Appl. Phys. B 74, S69-S73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vasseur, J. O.

E.H. El Boudouti, N. Fettouhi, A. Akjouj, B. Djafari-Rouhani, J. O. Vasseur, L. Dobrzynski and J. Zemmouri, "Experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of photonic bandgaps and selective transmission in serial loop structures," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1102-1113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturn and D. J. Norris, "On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals," Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Yu. A.

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNabb, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu. A. Vlasov, S. Petit, G. Klein, B. Honerlage and C. Hirlimann, "Femtosecond measurements of the time of flight of photons in a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. E 60, 1030-1035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

G. von Freymann, S. John, S. Wong, V. Kitaev and G. A. Ozin, "Measurement of group velocity dispersion for finite size three-dimensional photonic crystals in the near-infrared spectral region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vos, W. L.

L. Bechger, P. Lodahl and W. L. Vos, "Directional fluorescence spectra of laser dye in opal and inverse opal photonic crystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9980-9988 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Imhof, W. L. Vos, R. Sprik and A. Lagendijk, "Large dispersive effects near the band edges of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2942-2945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

A. Dogariu, A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, L. J. Wang and R. Trebino, "Optical pulse propagation through metallic nano-apertures," Appl. Phys. B 74, S69-S73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich and A. Dogariu, "Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation," Nature 406, 277-279 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whittaker, D. M.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S.

G. von Freymann, S. John, S. Wong, V. Kitaev and G. A. Ozin, "Measurement of group velocity dispersion for finite size three-dimensional photonic crystals in the near-infrared spectral region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu and S. Wong, "Linear pulse propagation in an absorbing medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 738-741 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. H.

M. Scharrer, A. Yamilov, X. H. Wu, H. Cao and R. P. H. Chang, "Ultraviolet lasing in high-order bands of three-dimensional ZnO photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamilov, A.

M. Scharrer, A. Yamilov, X. H. Wu, H. Cao and R. P. H. Chang, "Ultraviolet lasing in high-order bands of three-dimensional ZnO photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G.Y.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically Induced Transparency: Propagation Dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zemmouri, J.

E.H. El Boudouti, N. Fettouhi, A. Akjouj, B. Djafari-Rouhani, J. O. Vasseur, L. Dobrzynski and J. Zemmouri, "Experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of photonic bandgaps and selective transmission in serial loop structures," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1102-1113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

C. López, "Materials aspects of photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1679-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. García-Santamaría, M. Ibisate, I. Rodríguez, F. Meseguer and C. López, "Photonic bands engineering in opals by growth of Si/Ge multilayer shells," Adv. Mater. 15, 788-792 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Dogariu, A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, L. J. Wang and R. Trebino, "Optical pulse propagation through metallic nano-apertures," Appl. Phys. B 74, S69-S73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. von Freymann, S. John, S. Wong, V. Kitaev and G. A. Ozin, "Measurement of group velocity dispersion for finite size three-dimensional photonic crystals in the near-infrared spectral region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Scharrer, A. Yamilov, X. H. Wu, H. Cao and R. P. H. Chang, "Ultraviolet lasing in high-order bands of three-dimensional ZnO photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E.H. El Boudouti, N. Fettouhi, A. Akjouj, B. Djafari-Rouhani, J. O. Vasseur, L. Dobrzynski and J. Zemmouri, "Experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of photonic bandgaps and selective transmission in serial loop structures," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1102-1113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

L. Bechger, P. Lodahl and W. L. Vos, "Directional fluorescence spectra of laser dye in opal and inverse opal photonic crystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9980-9988 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (6)

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich and A. Dogariu, "Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation," Nature 406, 277-279 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturn and D. J. Norris, "On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals," Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNabb, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a ‘fast-light’ optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Nimtz, "Superluminal speed of information?," Nature 429, 6987 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Galli, M. Patrini, A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and C. López, "Effective refractive index and group velocity determination of three-dimensional photonic crystals by means of white light interferometry," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, "Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures," Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610-2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Galisteo-López and C. López, "High-energy optical response of artificial opals," Phys. Rev. B 70, 035108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. García-Santamaría, J. F. Galisteo-López, P. V. Braun and C. López, "Optical diffraction and high-energy features in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 71, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Pavarini, L. C. Andreani, C. Soci, M. Galli, F. Marabelli, D. Comoretto, "Band structure and optical properties of opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Galisteo-López, E. Palacios-Lidón, E. Castillo-Martinez and C. López, "Optical study of the pseudogap in thickness and orientation controlled artificial opals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani and M. Agio, "Optical properties and diffraction effects in opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Vlasov, S. Petit, G. Klein, B. Honerlage and C. Hirlimann, "Femtosecond measurements of the time of flight of photons in a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. E 60, 1030-1035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett (1)

D. R. Solli, C. F. McCormick, C. Ropers, J. J. Morehead, R. Y. Chiao and J. M. Hickmann, "Demonstration of superluminal effects in an absorptionless, nonreflective system," Phys. Rev. Lett 91, 143906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

A. Imhof, W. L. Vos, R. Sprik and A. Lagendijk, "Large dispersive effects near the band edges of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2942-2945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan and C. M. Soukoulis, "Existence of a Photonic Gap in Periodic Dielectric Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152-3155 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically Induced Transparency: Propagation Dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu and S. Wong, "Linear pulse propagation in an absorbing medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 738-741 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Notice that the calculations of Fig. 4 are done for a non-relaxed FCC lattice, while those in Fig. 1(d) include material dispersion and a small in-plane relaxation in order to compare with the experiments.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Transmission for opals made from 705 nm spheres having an increasing thickness. (b,c) Absolute phase in transmission for opals of increasing thickness made from 505 and 705 nm spheres, respectively. (d) Calculated phase for the 705 nm spheres sample.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Difference between the absolute phase delay for two sample thicknesses, before and after the phase flip has taken place, from 6 to 7 layers in the calculation (black curve) and 7 to 8 in the experiment (blue and red curves).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Group index as a function of reduced frequency for samples made of 705 nm spheres, with increasing number of layers: (a) experimental, (b) calculated results.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Band structure along the ΓL direction for an artificial opal made from spheres of refractive index 1.59 (left panel). Calculated phase for a sample having an increasing number of layers, from 1 to 20, left to right (right panel). Grey boxes indicate the spectral regions where only diffraction bands are found in the dispersion relation. Inset shows the phase difference between the two edges of the second order pseudogap (taken from a/λ=1.14 to 1.23).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Left and right panels show dispersion relations for opals having 4 and 5 (111) layers, obtained with a supercell method (the hexagonal Brillouin zone with symmetry points is shown in the inset). Bands reminiscent of normal dispersion are highlighted with red semi-transparent lines. Central panel shows calculated phase for the same structures.

Equations (1)

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n g = c ν g = c D

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