Abstract

We describe a compact adaptive optical system using a spatial light modulator (SLM) as a single element to both measure and compensate optical aberrations. We used a low-cost, off-the-shelf twisted nematic liquid-crystal display (TNLCD) optimally configured to achieve maximum phase modulation with near constant transmittance. The TNLCD acts both as the microlens array of a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and as the aberration compensation element. This adaptive setup is easy to implement and offers great versatility.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. W.  Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University Press, New York 1998).
  2. R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, "Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).
  3. E. Dalimier and C. Dainty, "Comparative analysis of deformable mirrors for ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 13, 4275-4285 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-4275>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Vargas-Martin, P. M. Prieto and P. Artal, "Correction of the aberrations in the human eye with a liquid crystal spatial light modulator: limits to performance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2552-2562 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. D. Love, "Wave-front correction and production of Zernike modes with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 36, 1517-1524 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera and P. Artal, "Adaptive optics with a programmable phase modulator: applications in the human eye," Opt. Express 12, 4059-4071 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Seifert, J. Liesener and H.J. Tiziani, "The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor," Opt. Commun. 216, 313-319 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, L. S. Ong, Z. P. Fang and A. K. Asundi, "Efficient implementation of a spatial light modulator as a diffractive optical microlens array in a digital Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor," Appl. Opt. 45, 90-94 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. J. Tiziani, T. Haist, J. Liesener, M. Reicherter and L. Seifert, "Application of SLMs for optical metrology," Proc. SPIE 4457, 72-81 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines and S. Bará, "Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014037 (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. H. Southwell, "Wave-front estimation from wave-front slope measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 998-1006 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: "Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Durán, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and M. Fernández-Alonso, "Phase-only modulation with a twisted nematic liquid crystal display by means of equi-azimuth polarization states," Opt. Express 14, 5607-5616 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Bará, T. Mancebo and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Positioning tolerances for phase plates compensating aberrations of the human eye," Appl. Opt. 39, 3413-3420 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bará, and T. Mancebo, "Phase-plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 25, 236 - 238 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines and S. Bará, "A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers," J. Refract. Surg.  22, 275-284 (2006).
    [PubMed]

2007

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines and S. Bará, "Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014037 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

L. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, L. S. Ong, Z. P. Fang and A. K. Asundi, "Efficient implementation of a spatial light modulator as a diffractive optical microlens array in a digital Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor," Appl. Opt. 45, 90-94 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: "Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Durán, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and M. Fernández-Alonso, "Phase-only modulation with a twisted nematic liquid crystal display by means of equi-azimuth polarization states," Opt. Express 14, 5607-5616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines and S. Bará, "A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers," J. Refract. Surg.  22, 275-284 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005

2004

2003

L. Seifert, J. Liesener and H.J. Tiziani, "The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor," Opt. Commun. 216, 313-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

1997

1980

1971

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, "Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

Arines, J.

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines and S. Bará, "Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014037 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines and S. Bará, "A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers," J. Refract. Surg.  22, 275-284 (2006).
[PubMed]

Artal, P.

Asundi, A. K.

Bai, N.

Bará, S.

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines and S. Bará, "Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014037 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines and S. Bará, "A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers," J. Refract. Surg.  22, 275-284 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. Bará, T. Mancebo and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Positioning tolerances for phase plates compensating aberrations of the human eye," Appl. Opt. 39, 3413-3420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bará, and T. Mancebo, "Phase-plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 25, 236 - 238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Climent, V.

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines and S. Bará, "Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014037 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dainty, C.

Dalimier, E.

Duran, V.

V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: "Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Durán, V.

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines and S. Bará, "Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014037 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Durán, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and M. Fernández-Alonso, "Phase-only modulation with a twisted nematic liquid crystal display by means of equi-azimuth polarization states," Opt. Express 14, 5607-5616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Z. P.

Fernández, E. J.

Fernández-Alonso, M.

Jaroszewicz, Z.

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines and S. Bará, "Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014037 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: "Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lancis, J.

V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: "Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Durán, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and M. Fernández-Alonso, "Phase-only modulation with a twisted nematic liquid crystal display by means of equi-azimuth polarization states," Opt. Express 14, 5607-5616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Liesener, J.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener and H.J. Tiziani, "The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor," Opt. Commun. 216, 313-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Love, G. D.

Mancebo, T.

Manzanera, S.

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

Navarro, R.

P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines and S. Bará, "A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers," J. Refract. Surg.  22, 275-284 (2006).
[PubMed]

R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bará, and T. Mancebo, "Phase-plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 25, 236 - 238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ong, L. S.

Platt, B. C.

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, "Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

Prieto, P. M.

Rodríguez, P.

P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines and S. Bará, "A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers," J. Refract. Surg.  22, 275-284 (2006).
[PubMed]

Seifert, L.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener and H.J. Tiziani, "The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor," Opt. Commun. 216, 313-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shack, R. V.

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, "Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

Southwell, W. H.

Tajahuerce, E.

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines and S. Bará, "Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014037 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: "Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Durán, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and M. Fernández-Alonso, "Phase-only modulation with a twisted nematic liquid crystal display by means of equi-azimuth polarization states," Opt. Express 14, 5607-5616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiziani, H. J.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener and H.J. Tiziani, "The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor," Opt. Commun. 216, 313-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vargas-Martin, F.

Zhao, L.

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Phys.

V. Duran, J. Lancis, E. Tajahuerce, and Z. Jaroszewicz: "Equivalent retarder-rotator approach to on-state twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

V. Durán, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, Z. Jaroszewicz, J. Arines and S. Bará, "Efficient compensation of Zernike modes and eye aberration patterns using low-cost spatial light modulators," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014037 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, "Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

W. H. Southwell, "Wave-front estimation from wave-front slope measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 998-1006 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Refract. Surg.

P. Rodríguez, R. Navarro, J. Arines and S. Bará, "A New Calibration Set of Phase Plates for Ocular Aberrometers," J. Refract. Surg.  22, 275-284 (2006).
[PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

L. Seifert, J. Liesener and H.J. Tiziani, "The adaptive Shack-Hartmann sensor," Opt. Commun. 216, 313-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

H. J. Tiziani, T. Haist, J. Liesener, M. Reicherter and L. Seifert, "Application of SLMs for optical metrology," Proc. SPIE 4457, 72-81 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. W.  Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University Press, New York 1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram of the single SLM adaptive setup (see text for details).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for achieving phase-only modulation of a TNLCD. P: polarizer; QWP: a quarter-wave plate. In the above diagram, the x-axis coincides with the input molecular director of the liquid crystal cell. P1 and P2 are, respectively, the orientation of the polarizer and the analyzer. L1 and L2 are the angles of the slow axis of the quarter-wave plates with respect to x-axis.

Fig.3.
Fig.3.

Single SLM adaptive demonstration setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Grayscale representation of the four-level TNLCD patterns: (left) for generating a 9 × 9 diffractive microlens array; (right) for compensating the aberration produced by an artificial eye.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CCD images obtained at three consecutive time intervals in a typical demonstration run. Video file (4 MB) [Media 1]

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

A real time video of the performance of the system when compensating continuously varying amounts of defocus. Video file (1.9 MB) [Media 2]

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