Abstract

A simple method to evaluate the nonlinear propagation regimes in gases is demonstrated. The principle is to focus ultrashort laser pulses into a gas cell, vary the input pulse power and measure the transmission through a pinhole placed at the output. The resulting transmission curve yields an intuitive signature of various nonlinear propagation regimes. Going from low powers to higher, one first observes a brief decrease in the transmission due to nonlinear moving focus. Then, a sharp rise occurs, indicating the starting of the filamentation process. When the power increases further, the transmission saturates and eventually decreases due to the beginning of multi-filamentation. As a result, this method gives a quick and sensitive measurement of pulse energies required to have single and multiple filaments.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond laser filamentation in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13, 5750-5755 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nurhuda and E. van Groesen, "Effects of delayed Kerr nonlinearity and ionization on the filamentary ultrashort laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 71, (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Mechain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fibich, S. Eisenmann, B. Ilan, and A. Zigler, "Control of multiple filamentation in air," Opt. Lett. 29, 1772-1774 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, "Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 331-339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, "Light bullets from femtosecond filamentation," Eur. Phys. J. D. 27, 159-167 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2, in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1975 (1)

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: Theory," Prog. Quantum. Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Andre, Y. B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berge, L.

Biegert, J.

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient," Opt. Lett. 30, 2657-2659 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakraborty, H. S.

Chang, R. S. F.

Chernev, P.

Chin, S. L.

Couairon, A.

H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, "Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments," Opt. Lett. 31, 3662-3664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient," Opt. Lett. 30, 2657-2659 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Mechain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, "Light bullets from femtosecond filamentation," Eur. Phys. J. D. 27, 159-167 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, S. Tzortzakis, L. Berge, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Infrared femtosecond light filaments in air: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1117-1131 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D'Amico, C.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond laser filamentation in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Djeu, N.

Eisenmann, S.

Fay, A. T.

Fibich, G.

Franco, M.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond laser filamentation in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient," Opt. Lett. 30, 2657-2659 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Mechain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, S. Tzortzakis, L. Berge, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Infrared femtosecond light filaments in air: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1117-1131 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2, in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Freey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

Gaeta, A. L.

Grange, R.

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, "Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 331-339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2, in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

Hagan, T.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haiml, M.

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, "Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 331-339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C. P.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Houard, A.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond laser filamentation in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilan, B.

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient," Opt. Lett. 30, 2657-2659 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, "Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 331-339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, M.

Kornelis, W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lange, R.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2, in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: Theory," Prog. Quantum. Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mechain, G.

G. Mechain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Méjean, G.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond laser filamentation in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient," Opt. Lett. 30, 2657-2659 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Mechain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, S. Tzortzakis, L. Berge, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Infrared femtosecond light filaments in air: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1117-1131 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2, in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2, in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nurhuda, M.

M. Nurhuda and E. van Groesen, "Effects of delayed Kerr nonlinearity and ionization on the filamentary ultrashort laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 71, (2005).
[CrossRef]

O'Shea, P.

Petrov, V.

Prade, B.

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond laser filamentation in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mechain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, S. Tzortzakis, L. Berge, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Infrared femtosecond light filaments in air: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1117-1131 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2, in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ripoche, J.-F.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2, in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shimoji, Y.

Trebino, R.

Tzortzakis, S.

van Groesen, E.

M. Nurhuda and E. van Groesen, "Effects of delayed Kerr nonlinearity and ionization on the filamentary ultrashort laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 71, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wille, E.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woste, L.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zigler, A.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, "Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 331-339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D. (1)

A. Couairon, "Light bullets from femtosecond filamentation," Eur. Phys. J. D. 27, 159-167 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2, in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. Nurhuda and E. van Groesen, "Effects of delayed Kerr nonlinearity and ionization on the filamentary ultrashort laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 71, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. D'Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond laser filamentation in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mechain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum. Electron. (1)

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: Theory," Prog. Quantum. Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, G. Yu, E. Salmon, E. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Freey, Y. B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The P-scan setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A typical experimental P-Scan data (for air). Regions I through IV indicate linear propagation, moving focus, filamentation and multi-filamentation, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The simulated pulse intensity vs propagation distance for two different input energies in air. With the higher input energy, the filamentation is manifest in the intensity plateau.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

P-scan experiment and simulation for air. The agreement is very well until the multi-filament regime.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Left: P-Scan in air at 1 bar, input pulse width 125fs. Right: P-Scan in argon at 1 bar, input pulse width 50fs.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of P-scan results for different gases. All measurements are done for atmospheric pressure. The power is calculated taking into account the measured intensity profile.

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