Abstract

Sidestream Dark Field (SDF) imaging, a stroboscopic LED ring-based imaging modality, is introduced for clinical observation of the microcirculation. SDF imaging is validated by comparison to Orthogonal Polarization Spectral imaging. Nailfold capillary diameters and red blood cell velocities were measured using both techniques and equal quantitative results were obtained. An image quality system was developed to quantitatively compare the quality of sublingually-acquired microcirculatory images using OPS and SDF imaging. Venular contrast, sharpness, and quality were shown to be comparable for OPS and SDF imaging. However, capillary contrast and quality were shown to be significantly higher using SDF imaging. Venular granularity, in addition, was more clearly observable using SDF imaging.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007

S. Trzeciak, R. P. Dellinger, J. E. Parrillo, M. Guglielmi, J. Bajaj, N. L. Abate, R. C. Arnold, S. Colilla, S. Zanotti, and S. M. Hollenberg, "Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival," Ann. Emerg. Med. 49, 88-98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Boerma, P. H. J. van der Voort, P. E. Spronk, and C. Ince, "Relationship between sublingual and intestinal microcirculatory perfusion in patients with abdominal sepsis," Crit. Care Med. 35, 1055-1060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. H. Lindeboom, K. R. Mathura, I. H. Aartman, F. Kroon, and C. Ince, "The influence of the application of platelet enriched plasmas in oral mucosal wound healing," Clin. Oral Impl. Res. 18, 133-139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Turek, V. Cerný, and R. Pařízková, "Noninvasive in vivo assessment of the skeletal muscle and small intestine serous surface microcirculation in rat: sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging," Physiol. Res. 56 (2007).

V. Cerný, Z. Turek, and R. Pařízková, "Orthogonal Polarization Spectral imaging: a review," Physiol. Res. 56 (2007).

2005

C. Ince, "Sidestream dark field imaging: an improved technique to observe sublingual microcirculation," Crit. Care 9, Suppl. 1, 72 (2005).

M. Heger, J. F. Beek, K. Stenback, D. J. Faber, and M. J.C. van Gemert, "Darkfield orthogonal polarized spectral imaging for studying endovascular laser-tissue interactions in vivo - a preliminary study," Opt. Express 13, 702-715 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ince, "The microcirculation is the motor of sepsis," Crit. Care 9, Suppl. 4, 13-19 (2005).

2004

Y. Sakr, M. J. Dubois, D. de Backer, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, "Persistent microcirculatory alterations are associated with organ failure and death in patients with septic shock," Crit. Care Med. 32, 1825-1831 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, M. J. Dubois, Y. Sakr, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular alterations in patients with acute severe heart failure and cardiogenic shock," Am. Heart J. 147, 91-99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Pennings, G. J. Bouma, and C. Ince, "Direct observation of the human cerebral microcirculation during aneurysm surgery reveals increased arteriolar contractility," Stroke 35, 1284-1288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

P. E. Spronk, C. Ince, M. J. Gardien, K. R. Mathura, H. M. Oudemans-van Straaten, and D. F. Zandstra, "Nitroglycerin in septic shock after intravascular volume resuscitation," Lancet 360, 1395-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lindert, J. Werner, M. Redlin, H. Kuppe, H. Habazettl, and A. R. Pries, "OPS imaging of human microcirculation: a short technical report," J. Vasc. Res. 39, 368-372 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, J. C. Preiser, M. J. Dubois, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular blood flow is altered in patients with sepsis," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 166, 98-104 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

K. R. Mathura, G. J. Bouma, and C. Ince, "Abnormal microcirculation in brain tumors during surgery," Lancet 358, 1698-1699 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Mathura, K. C. Vollebergt, K. Boer, J. C. de Graaf, D. T. Ubbink, and C. Ince, "Comparison of OPS imaging and conventional capillary microscopy to study the human microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 74-78 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000

H. A. Lehr, F. Bittinger, and C. J. Kirkpatrick, "Microcirculatory dysfunction in sepsis: a pathogenetic basis for therapy?" J. Pathol. 190, 373-386 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nat. Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

T. K. Bergersen, M. Eriksen, and L. Walloe, "Effect of local warming on hand and finger artery blood velocities," Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 269, 325-330 (1995).

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, "Comparing methods of measurement: why plotting difference against standard method is misleading," Lancet 346, 1085-1087 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

D. R. Dantzker, "Adequacy of tissue oxygenation," Crit. Care Med. 21, Suppl. 2, 40-43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. G. Ellis, M. L. Ellsworth, R. N. Pittman, and W. L. Burgess, "Application of image analysis for evaluation of red blood cell dynamics in capillaries," Microvasc. Res. 44, 214-225 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

D. W. Slaaf, G. J. Tangelder, R. S. Reneman, K. Jager, and A. Bollinger, "A versatile incident illuminator for intravital microscopy," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 6, 391-397 (1987).
[PubMed]

1986

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, "Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement," Lancet 1, 307-310 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

B. Fagrell, A. Fronek, and M. Intaglietta, "A microscope-television system for studying flow velocity in human skin capillaries," Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 233, 318-321 (1977).

Aartman, I. H.

J. A. H. Lindeboom, K. R. Mathura, I. H. Aartman, F. Kroon, and C. Ince, "The influence of the application of platelet enriched plasmas in oral mucosal wound healing," Clin. Oral Impl. Res. 18, 133-139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Abate, N. L.

S. Trzeciak, R. P. Dellinger, J. E. Parrillo, M. Guglielmi, J. Bajaj, N. L. Abate, R. C. Arnold, S. Colilla, S. Zanotti, and S. M. Hollenberg, "Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival," Ann. Emerg. Med. 49, 88-98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Altman, D. G.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, "Comparing methods of measurement: why plotting difference against standard method is misleading," Lancet 346, 1085-1087 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, "Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement," Lancet 1, 307-310 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, R. C.

S. Trzeciak, R. P. Dellinger, J. E. Parrillo, M. Guglielmi, J. Bajaj, N. L. Abate, R. C. Arnold, S. Colilla, S. Zanotti, and S. M. Hollenberg, "Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival," Ann. Emerg. Med. 49, 88-98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atasever, B.

J. G. G. Dobbe, G. J. Streekstra, B. Atasever, R. van Zijderveld, and C. Ince, "Measurement of functional microcirculatory geometry and velocity distributions using automated image analysis," submitted toMicrocirculation.

Bajaj, J.

S. Trzeciak, R. P. Dellinger, J. E. Parrillo, M. Guglielmi, J. Bajaj, N. L. Abate, R. C. Arnold, S. Colilla, S. Zanotti, and S. M. Hollenberg, "Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival," Ann. Emerg. Med. 49, 88-98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beek, J. F.

Bergersen, T. K.

T. K. Bergersen, M. Eriksen, and L. Walloe, "Effect of local warming on hand and finger artery blood velocities," Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 269, 325-330 (1995).

Bin Yunus, E.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

Bittinger, F.

H. A. Lehr, F. Bittinger, and C. J. Kirkpatrick, "Microcirculatory dysfunction in sepsis: a pathogenetic basis for therapy?" J. Pathol. 190, 373-386 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bland, J. M.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, "Comparing methods of measurement: why plotting difference against standard method is misleading," Lancet 346, 1085-1087 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, "Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement," Lancet 1, 307-310 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boer, K.

K. R. Mathura, K. C. Vollebergt, K. Boer, J. C. de Graaf, D. T. Ubbink, and C. Ince, "Comparison of OPS imaging and conventional capillary microscopy to study the human microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 74-78 (2001).
[PubMed]

Boerma, C.

D. de Backer, S. Hollenberg, C. Boerma, P. T. Goedhart, G. Büchele, G. Ospina-Tascon, I. Dobbe, and C. Ince, "How to evaluate the microcirculation? Report of a round table conference," Crit. Care (in press).

Boerma, E. C.

E. C. Boerma, P. H. J. van der Voort, P. E. Spronk, and C. Ince, "Relationship between sublingual and intestinal microcirculatory perfusion in patients with abdominal sepsis," Crit. Care Med. 35, 1055-1060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bollinger, A.

D. W. Slaaf, G. J. Tangelder, R. S. Reneman, K. Jager, and A. Bollinger, "A versatile incident illuminator for intravital microscopy," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 6, 391-397 (1987).
[PubMed]

Bouma, G. J.

F. Pennings, G. J. Bouma, and C. Ince, "Direct observation of the human cerebral microcirculation during aneurysm surgery reveals increased arteriolar contractility," Stroke 35, 1284-1288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Mathura, G. J. Bouma, and C. Ince, "Abnormal microcirculation in brain tumors during surgery," Lancet 358, 1698-1699 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nat. Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Büchele, G.

D. de Backer, S. Hollenberg, C. Boerma, P. T. Goedhart, G. Büchele, G. Ospina-Tascon, I. Dobbe, and C. Ince, "How to evaluate the microcirculation? Report of a round table conference," Crit. Care (in press).

Burgess, W. L.

C. G. Ellis, M. L. Ellsworth, R. N. Pittman, and W. L. Burgess, "Application of image analysis for evaluation of red blood cell dynamics in capillaries," Microvasc. Res. 44, 214-225 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canales, H.

A. Dubin, E. V. S. Kanoore, M. Pozo, G. Murias, C. Canullán, E. Martins, G. Ferrara, H. Canales, M. Laporte, E. Estenssoro, and C. Ince, "Persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia," Crit. Care Med. (in press).

Canullán, C.

A. Dubin, E. V. S. Kanoore, M. Pozo, G. Murias, C. Canullán, E. Martins, G. Ferrara, H. Canales, M. Laporte, E. Estenssoro, and C. Ince, "Persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia," Crit. Care Med. (in press).

Cerný, V.

Z. Turek, V. Cerný, and R. Pařízková, "Noninvasive in vivo assessment of the skeletal muscle and small intestine serous surface microcirculation in rat: sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging," Physiol. Res. 56 (2007).

V. Cerný, Z. Turek, and R. Pařízková, "Orthogonal Polarization Spectral imaging: a review," Physiol. Res. 56 (2007).

Colilla, S.

S. Trzeciak, R. P. Dellinger, J. E. Parrillo, M. Guglielmi, J. Bajaj, N. L. Abate, R. C. Arnold, S. Colilla, S. Zanotti, and S. M. Hollenberg, "Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival," Ann. Emerg. Med. 49, 88-98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Creteur, J.

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, M. J. Dubois, Y. Sakr, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular alterations in patients with acute severe heart failure and cardiogenic shock," Am. Heart J. 147, 91-99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakr, M. J. Dubois, D. de Backer, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, "Persistent microcirculatory alterations are associated with organ failure and death in patients with septic shock," Crit. Care Med. 32, 1825-1831 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, J. C. Preiser, M. J. Dubois, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular blood flow is altered in patients with sepsis," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 166, 98-104 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dantzker, D. R.

D. R. Dantzker, "Adequacy of tissue oxygenation," Crit. Care Med. 21, Suppl. 2, 40-43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Day, N. P. J.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

de Backer, D.

Y. Sakr, M. J. Dubois, D. de Backer, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, "Persistent microcirculatory alterations are associated with organ failure and death in patients with septic shock," Crit. Care Med. 32, 1825-1831 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, M. J. Dubois, Y. Sakr, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular alterations in patients with acute severe heart failure and cardiogenic shock," Am. Heart J. 147, 91-99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, J. C. Preiser, M. J. Dubois, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular blood flow is altered in patients with sepsis," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 166, 98-104 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. de Backer, S. Hollenberg, C. Boerma, P. T. Goedhart, G. Büchele, G. Ospina-Tascon, I. Dobbe, and C. Ince, "How to evaluate the microcirculation? Report of a round table conference," Crit. Care (in press).

de Graaf, J. C.

K. R. Mathura, K. C. Vollebergt, K. Boer, J. C. de Graaf, D. T. Ubbink, and C. Ince, "Comparison of OPS imaging and conventional capillary microscopy to study the human microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 74-78 (2001).
[PubMed]

Dellinger, R. P.

S. Trzeciak, R. P. Dellinger, J. E. Parrillo, M. Guglielmi, J. Bajaj, N. L. Abate, R. C. Arnold, S. Colilla, S. Zanotti, and S. M. Hollenberg, "Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival," Ann. Emerg. Med. 49, 88-98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dobbe, I.

D. de Backer, S. Hollenberg, C. Boerma, P. T. Goedhart, G. Büchele, G. Ospina-Tascon, I. Dobbe, and C. Ince, "How to evaluate the microcirculation? Report of a round table conference," Crit. Care (in press).

Dobbe, J. G. G.

J. G. G. Dobbe, G. J. Streekstra, B. Atasever, R. van Zijderveld, and C. Ince, "Measurement of functional microcirculatory geometry and velocity distributions using automated image analysis," submitted toMicrocirculation.

Dondorp, A. M.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

Dubin, A.

A. Dubin, E. V. S. Kanoore, M. Pozo, G. Murias, C. Canullán, E. Martins, G. Ferrara, H. Canales, M. Laporte, E. Estenssoro, and C. Ince, "Persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia," Crit. Care Med. (in press).

Dubois, M. J.

Y. Sakr, M. J. Dubois, D. de Backer, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, "Persistent microcirculatory alterations are associated with organ failure and death in patients with septic shock," Crit. Care Med. 32, 1825-1831 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, M. J. Dubois, Y. Sakr, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular alterations in patients with acute severe heart failure and cardiogenic shock," Am. Heart J. 147, 91-99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, J. C. Preiser, M. J. Dubois, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular blood flow is altered in patients with sepsis," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 166, 98-104 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellis, C. G.

C. G. Ellis, M. L. Ellsworth, R. N. Pittman, and W. L. Burgess, "Application of image analysis for evaluation of red blood cell dynamics in capillaries," Microvasc. Res. 44, 214-225 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellsworth, M. L.

C. G. Ellis, M. L. Ellsworth, R. N. Pittman, and W. L. Burgess, "Application of image analysis for evaluation of red blood cell dynamics in capillaries," Microvasc. Res. 44, 214-225 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eriksen, M.

T. K. Bergersen, M. Eriksen, and L. Walloe, "Effect of local warming on hand and finger artery blood velocities," Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 269, 325-330 (1995).

Estenssoro, E.

A. Dubin, E. V. S. Kanoore, M. Pozo, G. Murias, C. Canullán, E. Martins, G. Ferrara, H. Canales, M. Laporte, E. Estenssoro, and C. Ince, "Persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia," Crit. Care Med. (in press).

Faber, D. J.

Fagrell, B.

B. Fagrell, A. Fronek, and M. Intaglietta, "A microscope-television system for studying flow velocity in human skin capillaries," Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 233, 318-321 (1977).

Faiz, M. A.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

Ferrara, G.

A. Dubin, E. V. S. Kanoore, M. Pozo, G. Murias, C. Canullán, E. Martins, G. Ferrara, H. Canales, M. Laporte, E. Estenssoro, and C. Ince, "Persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia," Crit. Care Med. (in press).

Fronek, A.

B. Fagrell, A. Fronek, and M. Intaglietta, "A microscope-television system for studying flow velocity in human skin capillaries," Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 233, 318-321 (1977).

Gardien, M. J.

P. E. Spronk, C. Ince, M. J. Gardien, K. R. Mathura, H. M. Oudemans-van Straaten, and D. F. Zandstra, "Nitroglycerin in septic shock after intravascular volume resuscitation," Lancet 360, 1395-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghose, A.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

Goedhart, P. T.

D. de Backer, S. Hollenberg, C. Boerma, P. T. Goedhart, G. Büchele, G. Ospina-Tascon, I. Dobbe, and C. Ince, "How to evaluate the microcirculation? Report of a round table conference," Crit. Care (in press).

Groner, W.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nat. Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guglielmi, M.

S. Trzeciak, R. P. Dellinger, J. E. Parrillo, M. Guglielmi, J. Bajaj, N. L. Abate, R. C. Arnold, S. Colilla, S. Zanotti, and S. M. Hollenberg, "Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival," Ann. Emerg. Med. 49, 88-98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Habazettl, H.

J. Lindert, J. Werner, M. Redlin, H. Kuppe, H. Habazettl, and A. R. Pries, "OPS imaging of human microcirculation: a short technical report," J. Vasc. Res. 39, 368-372 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanson, J.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

Harris, A. G.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nat. Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, M.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

Heger, M.

Hollenberg, S.

D. de Backer, S. Hollenberg, C. Boerma, P. T. Goedhart, G. Büchele, G. Ospina-Tascon, I. Dobbe, and C. Ince, "How to evaluate the microcirculation? Report of a round table conference," Crit. Care (in press).

Hollenberg, S. M.

S. Trzeciak, R. P. Dellinger, J. E. Parrillo, M. Guglielmi, J. Bajaj, N. L. Abate, R. C. Arnold, S. Colilla, S. Zanotti, and S. M. Hollenberg, "Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival," Ann. Emerg. Med. 49, 88-98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ince, C.

J. A. H. Lindeboom, K. R. Mathura, I. H. Aartman, F. Kroon, and C. Ince, "The influence of the application of platelet enriched plasmas in oral mucosal wound healing," Clin. Oral Impl. Res. 18, 133-139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Boerma, P. H. J. van der Voort, P. E. Spronk, and C. Ince, "Relationship between sublingual and intestinal microcirculatory perfusion in patients with abdominal sepsis," Crit. Care Med. 35, 1055-1060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ince, "The microcirculation is the motor of sepsis," Crit. Care 9, Suppl. 4, 13-19 (2005).

C. Ince, "Sidestream dark field imaging: an improved technique to observe sublingual microcirculation," Crit. Care 9, Suppl. 1, 72 (2005).

F. Pennings, G. J. Bouma, and C. Ince, "Direct observation of the human cerebral microcirculation during aneurysm surgery reveals increased arteriolar contractility," Stroke 35, 1284-1288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Spronk, C. Ince, M. J. Gardien, K. R. Mathura, H. M. Oudemans-van Straaten, and D. F. Zandstra, "Nitroglycerin in septic shock after intravascular volume resuscitation," Lancet 360, 1395-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Mathura, G. J. Bouma, and C. Ince, "Abnormal microcirculation in brain tumors during surgery," Lancet 358, 1698-1699 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Mathura, K. C. Vollebergt, K. Boer, J. C. de Graaf, D. T. Ubbink, and C. Ince, "Comparison of OPS imaging and conventional capillary microscopy to study the human microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 74-78 (2001).
[PubMed]

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nat. Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubin, E. V. S. Kanoore, M. Pozo, G. Murias, C. Canullán, E. Martins, G. Ferrara, H. Canales, M. Laporte, E. Estenssoro, and C. Ince, "Persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia," Crit. Care Med. (in press).

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

J. G. G. Dobbe, G. J. Streekstra, B. Atasever, R. van Zijderveld, and C. Ince, "Measurement of functional microcirculatory geometry and velocity distributions using automated image analysis," submitted toMicrocirculation.

D. de Backer, S. Hollenberg, C. Boerma, P. T. Goedhart, G. Büchele, G. Ospina-Tascon, I. Dobbe, and C. Ince, "How to evaluate the microcirculation? Report of a round table conference," Crit. Care (in press).

Intaglietta, M.

B. Fagrell, A. Fronek, and M. Intaglietta, "A microscope-television system for studying flow velocity in human skin capillaries," Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 233, 318-321 (1977).

Jager, K.

D. W. Slaaf, G. J. Tangelder, R. S. Reneman, K. Jager, and A. Bollinger, "A versatile incident illuminator for intravital microscopy," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 6, 391-397 (1987).
[PubMed]

Kanoore, E. V. S.

A. Dubin, E. V. S. Kanoore, M. Pozo, G. Murias, C. Canullán, E. Martins, G. Ferrara, H. Canales, M. Laporte, E. Estenssoro, and C. Ince, "Persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia," Crit. Care Med. (in press).

Kirkpatrick, C. J.

H. A. Lehr, F. Bittinger, and C. J. Kirkpatrick, "Microcirculatory dysfunction in sepsis: a pathogenetic basis for therapy?" J. Pathol. 190, 373-386 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kroon, F.

J. A. H. Lindeboom, K. R. Mathura, I. H. Aartman, F. Kroon, and C. Ince, "The influence of the application of platelet enriched plasmas in oral mucosal wound healing," Clin. Oral Impl. Res. 18, 133-139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuppe, H.

J. Lindert, J. Werner, M. Redlin, H. Kuppe, H. Habazettl, and A. R. Pries, "OPS imaging of human microcirculation: a short technical report," J. Vasc. Res. 39, 368-372 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laporte, M.

A. Dubin, E. V. S. Kanoore, M. Pozo, G. Murias, C. Canullán, E. Martins, G. Ferrara, H. Canales, M. Laporte, E. Estenssoro, and C. Ince, "Persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia," Crit. Care Med. (in press).

Lehr, H. A.

H. A. Lehr, F. Bittinger, and C. J. Kirkpatrick, "Microcirculatory dysfunction in sepsis: a pathogenetic basis for therapy?" J. Pathol. 190, 373-386 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Limmathurotsakul, D.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

Lindeboom, J. A. H.

J. A. H. Lindeboom, K. R. Mathura, I. H. Aartman, F. Kroon, and C. Ince, "The influence of the application of platelet enriched plasmas in oral mucosal wound healing," Clin. Oral Impl. Res. 18, 133-139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lindert, J.

J. Lindert, J. Werner, M. Redlin, H. Kuppe, H. Habazettl, and A. R. Pries, "OPS imaging of human microcirculation: a short technical report," J. Vasc. Res. 39, 368-372 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martins, E.

A. Dubin, E. V. S. Kanoore, M. Pozo, G. Murias, C. Canullán, E. Martins, G. Ferrara, H. Canales, M. Laporte, E. Estenssoro, and C. Ince, "Persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia," Crit. Care Med. (in press).

Mathura, K. R.

J. A. H. Lindeboom, K. R. Mathura, I. H. Aartman, F. Kroon, and C. Ince, "The influence of the application of platelet enriched plasmas in oral mucosal wound healing," Clin. Oral Impl. Res. 18, 133-139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Spronk, C. Ince, M. J. Gardien, K. R. Mathura, H. M. Oudemans-van Straaten, and D. F. Zandstra, "Nitroglycerin in septic shock after intravascular volume resuscitation," Lancet 360, 1395-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Mathura, G. J. Bouma, and C. Ince, "Abnormal microcirculation in brain tumors during surgery," Lancet 358, 1698-1699 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Mathura, K. C. Vollebergt, K. Boer, J. C. de Graaf, D. T. Ubbink, and C. Ince, "Comparison of OPS imaging and conventional capillary microscopy to study the human microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 74-78 (2001).
[PubMed]

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

Messmer, K.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nat. Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murias, G.

A. Dubin, E. V. S. Kanoore, M. Pozo, G. Murias, C. Canullán, E. Martins, G. Ferrara, H. Canales, M. Laporte, E. Estenssoro, and C. Ince, "Persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia," Crit. Care Med. (in press).

Nadeau, R. G.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nat. Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ospina-Tascon, G.

D. de Backer, S. Hollenberg, C. Boerma, P. T. Goedhart, G. Büchele, G. Ospina-Tascon, I. Dobbe, and C. Ince, "How to evaluate the microcirculation? Report of a round table conference," Crit. Care (in press).

Oudemans-van Straaten, H. M.

P. E. Spronk, C. Ince, M. J. Gardien, K. R. Mathura, H. M. Oudemans-van Straaten, and D. F. Zandstra, "Nitroglycerin in septic shock after intravascular volume resuscitation," Lancet 360, 1395-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parízková, R.

V. Cerný, Z. Turek, and R. Pařízková, "Orthogonal Polarization Spectral imaging: a review," Physiol. Res. 56 (2007).

Z. Turek, V. Cerný, and R. Pařízková, "Noninvasive in vivo assessment of the skeletal muscle and small intestine serous surface microcirculation in rat: sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging," Physiol. Res. 56 (2007).

Parrillo, J. E.

S. Trzeciak, R. P. Dellinger, J. E. Parrillo, M. Guglielmi, J. Bajaj, N. L. Abate, R. C. Arnold, S. Colilla, S. Zanotti, and S. M. Hollenberg, "Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival," Ann. Emerg. Med. 49, 88-98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, F.

F. Pennings, G. J. Bouma, and C. Ince, "Direct observation of the human cerebral microcirculation during aneurysm surgery reveals increased arteriolar contractility," Stroke 35, 1284-1288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pittman, R. N.

C. G. Ellis, M. L. Ellsworth, R. N. Pittman, and W. L. Burgess, "Application of image analysis for evaluation of red blood cell dynamics in capillaries," Microvasc. Res. 44, 214-225 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pozo, M.

A. Dubin, E. V. S. Kanoore, M. Pozo, G. Murias, C. Canullán, E. Martins, G. Ferrara, H. Canales, M. Laporte, E. Estenssoro, and C. Ince, "Persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia," Crit. Care Med. (in press).

Preiser, J. C.

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, J. C. Preiser, M. J. Dubois, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular blood flow is altered in patients with sepsis," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 166, 98-104 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pries, A. R.

J. Lindert, J. Werner, M. Redlin, H. Kuppe, H. Habazettl, and A. R. Pries, "OPS imaging of human microcirculation: a short technical report," J. Vasc. Res. 39, 368-372 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahman, M. R.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

Redlin, M.

J. Lindert, J. Werner, M. Redlin, H. Kuppe, H. Habazettl, and A. R. Pries, "OPS imaging of human microcirculation: a short technical report," J. Vasc. Res. 39, 368-372 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reneman, R. S.

D. W. Slaaf, G. J. Tangelder, R. S. Reneman, K. Jager, and A. Bollinger, "A versatile incident illuminator for intravital microscopy," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 6, 391-397 (1987).
[PubMed]

Ruangveerayut, R.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

Sakr, Y.

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, M. J. Dubois, Y. Sakr, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular alterations in patients with acute severe heart failure and cardiogenic shock," Am. Heart J. 147, 91-99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakr, M. J. Dubois, D. de Backer, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, "Persistent microcirculatory alterations are associated with organ failure and death in patients with septic shock," Crit. Care Med. 32, 1825-1831 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slaaf, D. W.

D. W. Slaaf, G. J. Tangelder, R. S. Reneman, K. Jager, and A. Bollinger, "A versatile incident illuminator for intravital microscopy," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 6, 391-397 (1987).
[PubMed]

Spronk, P. E.

E. C. Boerma, P. H. J. van der Voort, P. E. Spronk, and C. Ince, "Relationship between sublingual and intestinal microcirculatory perfusion in patients with abdominal sepsis," Crit. Care Med. 35, 1055-1060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Spronk, C. Ince, M. J. Gardien, K. R. Mathura, H. M. Oudemans-van Straaten, and D. F. Zandstra, "Nitroglycerin in septic shock after intravascular volume resuscitation," Lancet 360, 1395-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenback, K.

Streekstra, G. J.

J. G. G. Dobbe, G. J. Streekstra, B. Atasever, R. van Zijderveld, and C. Ince, "Measurement of functional microcirculatory geometry and velocity distributions using automated image analysis," submitted toMicrocirculation.

Tangelder, G. J.

D. W. Slaaf, G. J. Tangelder, R. S. Reneman, K. Jager, and A. Bollinger, "A versatile incident illuminator for intravital microscopy," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 6, 391-397 (1987).
[PubMed]

Tipmanee, P.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

Trzeciak, S.

S. Trzeciak, R. P. Dellinger, J. E. Parrillo, M. Guglielmi, J. Bajaj, N. L. Abate, R. C. Arnold, S. Colilla, S. Zanotti, and S. M. Hollenberg, "Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival," Ann. Emerg. Med. 49, 88-98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turek, Z.

Z. Turek, V. Cerný, and R. Pařízková, "Noninvasive in vivo assessment of the skeletal muscle and small intestine serous surface microcirculation in rat: sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging," Physiol. Res. 56 (2007).

V. Cerný, Z. Turek, and R. Pařízková, "Orthogonal Polarization Spectral imaging: a review," Physiol. Res. 56 (2007).

Ubbink, D. T.

K. R. Mathura, K. C. Vollebergt, K. Boer, J. C. de Graaf, D. T. Ubbink, and C. Ince, "Comparison of OPS imaging and conventional capillary microscopy to study the human microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 74-78 (2001).
[PubMed]

van der Voort, P. H. J.

E. C. Boerma, P. H. J. van der Voort, P. E. Spronk, and C. Ince, "Relationship between sublingual and intestinal microcirculatory perfusion in patients with abdominal sepsis," Crit. Care Med. 35, 1055-1060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J.C.

van Kuijen, A.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

van Zijderveld, R.

J. G. G. Dobbe, G. J. Streekstra, B. Atasever, R. van Zijderveld, and C. Ince, "Measurement of functional microcirculatory geometry and velocity distributions using automated image analysis," submitted toMicrocirculation.

Vincent, J. L.

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, M. J. Dubois, Y. Sakr, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular alterations in patients with acute severe heart failure and cardiogenic shock," Am. Heart J. 147, 91-99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakr, M. J. Dubois, D. de Backer, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, "Persistent microcirculatory alterations are associated with organ failure and death in patients with septic shock," Crit. Care Med. 32, 1825-1831 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, J. C. Preiser, M. J. Dubois, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular blood flow is altered in patients with sepsis," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 166, 98-104 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. R. Mathura, K. C. Vollebergt, K. Boer, J. C. de Graaf, D. T. Ubbink, and C. Ince, "Comparison of OPS imaging and conventional capillary microscopy to study the human microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 74-78 (2001).
[PubMed]

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J. Lindert, J. Werner, M. Redlin, H. Kuppe, H. Habazettl, and A. R. Pries, "OPS imaging of human microcirculation: a short technical report," J. Vasc. Res. 39, 368-372 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, N. J.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

Winkelman, J. W.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nat. Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zandstra, D. F.

P. E. Spronk, C. Ince, M. J. Gardien, K. R. Mathura, H. M. Oudemans-van Straaten, and D. F. Zandstra, "Nitroglycerin in septic shock after intravascular volume resuscitation," Lancet 360, 1395-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Trzeciak, R. P. Dellinger, J. E. Parrillo, M. Guglielmi, J. Bajaj, N. L. Abate, R. C. Arnold, S. Colilla, S. Zanotti, and S. M. Hollenberg, "Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival," Ann. Emerg. Med. 49, 88-98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Am. Heart J.

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, M. J. Dubois, Y. Sakr, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular alterations in patients with acute severe heart failure and cardiogenic shock," Am. Heart J. 147, 91-99 (2004).
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Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.

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Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.

D. de Backer, J. Creteur, J. C. Preiser, M. J. Dubois, and J. L. Vincent, "Microvascular blood flow is altered in patients with sepsis," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 166, 98-104 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Emerg. Med.

S. Trzeciak, R. P. Dellinger, J. E. Parrillo, M. Guglielmi, J. Bajaj, N. L. Abate, R. C. Arnold, S. Colilla, S. Zanotti, and S. M. Hollenberg, "Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival," Ann. Emerg. Med. 49, 88-98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Oral Impl. Res.

J. A. H. Lindeboom, K. R. Mathura, I. H. Aartman, F. Kroon, and C. Ince, "The influence of the application of platelet enriched plasmas in oral mucosal wound healing," Clin. Oral Impl. Res. 18, 133-139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Care

C. Ince, "The microcirculation is the motor of sepsis," Crit. Care 9, Suppl. 4, 13-19 (2005).

C. Ince, "Sidestream dark field imaging: an improved technique to observe sublingual microcirculation," Crit. Care 9, Suppl. 1, 72 (2005).

D. de Backer, S. Hollenberg, C. Boerma, P. T. Goedhart, G. Büchele, G. Ospina-Tascon, I. Dobbe, and C. Ince, "How to evaluate the microcirculation? Report of a round table conference," Crit. Care (in press).

Crit. Care Med.

D. R. Dantzker, "Adequacy of tissue oxygenation," Crit. Care Med. 21, Suppl. 2, 40-43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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E. C. Boerma, P. H. J. van der Voort, P. E. Spronk, and C. Ince, "Relationship between sublingual and intestinal microcirculatory perfusion in patients with abdominal sepsis," Crit. Care Med. 35, 1055-1060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sakr, M. J. Dubois, D. de Backer, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, "Persistent microcirculatory alterations are associated with organ failure and death in patients with septic shock," Crit. Care Med. 32, 1825-1831 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp.

D. W. Slaaf, G. J. Tangelder, R. S. Reneman, K. Jager, and A. Bollinger, "A versatile incident illuminator for intravital microscopy," Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 6, 391-397 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol.

K. R. Mathura, K. C. Vollebergt, K. Boer, J. C. de Graaf, D. T. Ubbink, and C. Ince, "Comparison of OPS imaging and conventional capillary microscopy to study the human microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 74-78 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Infect. Dis.

A. M. Dondorp, C. Ince, P. Tipmanee, J. Hanson, A. van Kuijen, M. A. Faiz, M. R. Rahman, M. Hasan, E. Bin Yunus, A. Ghose, R. Ruangveerayut, D. Limmathurotsakul, K. R. Mathura, N. J. White, and N. P. J. Day, "Direct in-vivo assessment of microcirculatory dysfunction in severe falciparum malaria," J. Infect. Dis. (in press).

J. Pathol.

H. A. Lehr, F. Bittinger, and C. J. Kirkpatrick, "Microcirculatory dysfunction in sepsis: a pathogenetic basis for therapy?" J. Pathol. 190, 373-386 (2000).
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J. Vasc. Res.

J. Lindert, J. Werner, M. Redlin, H. Kuppe, H. Habazettl, and A. R. Pries, "OPS imaging of human microcirculation: a short technical report," J. Vasc. Res. 39, 368-372 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet

K. R. Mathura, G. J. Bouma, and C. Ince, "Abnormal microcirculation in brain tumors during surgery," Lancet 358, 1698-1699 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Spronk, C. Ince, M. J. Gardien, K. R. Mathura, H. M. Oudemans-van Straaten, and D. F. Zandstra, "Nitroglycerin in septic shock after intravascular volume resuscitation," Lancet 360, 1395-1396 (2002).
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J. G. G. Dobbe, G. J. Streekstra, B. Atasever, R. van Zijderveld, and C. Ince, "Measurement of functional microcirculatory geometry and velocity distributions using automated image analysis," submitted toMicrocirculation.

Microvasc. Res.

C. G. Ellis, M. L. Ellsworth, R. N. Pittman, and W. L. Burgess, "Application of image analysis for evaluation of red blood cell dynamics in capillaries," Microvasc. Res. 44, 214-225 (1992).
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W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nat. Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Physiol. Res.

Z. Turek, V. Cerný, and R. Pařízková, "Noninvasive in vivo assessment of the skeletal muscle and small intestine serous surface microcirculation in rat: sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging," Physiol. Res. 56 (2007).

V. Cerný, Z. Turek, and R. Pařízková, "Orthogonal Polarization Spectral imaging: a review," Physiol. Res. 56 (2007).

Stroke

F. Pennings, G. J. Bouma, and C. Ince, "Direct observation of the human cerebral microcirculation during aneurysm surgery reveals increased arteriolar contractility," Stroke 35, 1284-1288 (2004).
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Supplementary Material (10)

» Media 1: MPG (12979 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (3298 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (14234 KB)     
» Media 4: MPG (1837 KB)     
» Media 5: MPG (12483 KB)     
» Media 6: MPG (3139 KB)     
» Media 7: MPG (14440 KB)     
» Media 8: MPG (4110 KB)     
» Media 9: MPG (10020 KB)     
» Media 10: MPG (3216 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Left: The hand-held Sidestream Dark Field (SDF) imaging device, equipped with a 5× magnifying objective lens system-containing probe, imaging the tissue-embedded microcirculation using green pulsed LED ring illumination. Upper right corner: Images are recorded using a digital video recorder/computer and visualized on a monitor. Lower right corner: After penetration into the tissue, the illumination light undergoes scattering events (indicated with arrows) and can be absorbed by (de)oxyhemoglobin (indicated with dots). The SDF lens system is optically isolated from the illuminating outer LED ring so that there is no contamination of the microcirculatory images by surface reflections. (b) In the SDF device, the CCD chip can be axially translated with respect to the fixed lens system in the tip of the SDF probe to fine-tune the depth of focus.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) OPS and (b) SDF image of the same nailfold capillary bed. Four capillaries were selected for further off-line analysis of capillary diameters and red blood cell velocities.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The capillary and venular diameters measured with SDF plotted against the capillary and venular diameters measured using OPS.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The Bland-Altman plot depicting the measured diameter difference between the techniques as function of the average measured diameter. SDF measurements are corrected, applying a scaling factor, to allow comparison of diameters measured using OPS and SDF.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Two Bland-Altman plots for red blood cell velocity measurements during rest (left) and during venous occlusion (right).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(3.2 MB) Movie: OPS imaging versus SDF imaging of the sublingual microcirculation (12.6 MB version). (a) Capillary contrast and sharpness. (b) Venular contrast and sharpness. The scale bars indicate the magnification difference between the OPS and SDF device. [Media 1]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(1.8 MB) Movie: SDF imaging of a capillary loop (13.8 MB version). Individual red blood cells (numbered from 1 to 7 in the (b) panel) and plasma gaps flowing through a capillary can be observed in normal view (a) and in the zoomed view (b). [Media 2]

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(3.0 MB) Movie: Pulsatile flow as observed using SDF imaging. (12.1 MB version). Note the high granularity of the red blood cell column in the venules. The arrows indicate the venular junction where pulsatile flow is observed. Panel (b) is an enlarged view of the pulsatile part in panel (a). [Media 3]

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(4.0 MB) Movie: Leukocyte visualization using SDF imaging (14.1 MB version). SDF imaging enables leukocyte visualization: (a) normal view, (b,c, and d) zoomed view. The red arrows indicate a rolling leukocyte at (a,b) t = 0 ms, (c) t = 400 ms, and (d) t = 800 ms. [Media 4]

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(3.1 MB) Movie: Pressure artifact during SDF imaging (9.8 MB version). (a) No application of pressure. (b) Application of pressure. Observability of venular granularity depends of blood flow velocity as can be seen at the sites indicated with arrows. [Media 5]

Tables (4)

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Table 1: Time table of the nailfold microcirculatory imaging protocol.

Tables Icon

Table 2: Capillary and venular diameters measured with OPS and SDF imaging.

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Table 3: Capillary and venular red blood cell velocities measured with OPS and SDF imaging.

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Table 4: Capillary and venular contrast, sharpness, and quality of sublingually-obtained microcirculatory images.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

c cap = 1 255 · ( I max I max ) , where I max = 1 2 . ( I max , left + I max , right ) .
s cap = 1 90 · α , where α = 1 2 · ( α left + α right ) .
c νen = 1 255 · ( I max I min ) and S νen = 1 90 · α .
q cap = c cap · s cap and q νen = c νen · s νen , respectively .

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