Abstract

We propose a novel approach for measurements of two-dimensional distribution of the reflection spectra with high spatial resolution. It is based on a subspace vector model of surface reflections and includes sequential illumination of the object by basis functions preliminary calculated with principal component analysis. A simple optical system consisting of a computer controlled set of light-emitting diodes and a photo-receiver operating in integration regime is used to acquire spatial distribution of reflection spectra in compressed form. The compressed data can be directly used for accurate color classification or recognition. The system’s ability to distinguish metameric samples with extremely small hue difference is experimentally demonstrated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (3)

N. Tsumura, "Appearance reproduction and multispectral imaging," Color Res. Appl. 31, 270-277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Ng and J. P. Allebach, "A subspace matching color filter design methodology for a multispectral imaging system," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15, 2631-2643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Calpe-Maravilla, J. Vila-Frances, E. Ribes-Gomez, V. Duran-Bosch, J. Munoz-Mari, J. Amoros-Lopez, L. Gomez-Chova, and E. Tajahuerce-Romera, "400-to 1000-nm imaging spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filters," J. Electron. Imaging 15, 023001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2002 (5)

R. Piché, "Nonnegative color spectrum analysis filters from principal component analysis characteristic spectra," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19,1946-1950 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Nascimento, F. P. Ferreira, and D. H. Foster, "Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19,1484-1490 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, and A. Bouzid, "Multi-channel chromatic transformations for nonlinear color pattern recognition," Opt. Commun. 203, 255-261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, "Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, and M. J. Yzuel, "Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates," Opt. Eng. 41, 130-138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. D. Finlayson, S. D. Hordley, and P. M. Hubel, "Color by correlation: a simple, unifying framework for color constancy," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 1209-1221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

B. V. Funt and G. D. Finlayson, "Color constant color indexing," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 17, 522-529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, and M. J. Yzuel, "Optical pattern recognition based on color vision model," Opt. Lett. 20, 1722-1724 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hayasaka, S. Toyooka, and T. Jaaskelainen, "Iterative feedback method to make a spatial filter on a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for 2D spectroscopic pattern recognition," Opt. Commun. 119, 643-651 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, and L. S. Iwan, "Measurements and analysis of object reflectance spectra," Color Res. Appl. 19, 4-9 (1994).

1993 (2)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

E. Badiqué, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, and T. Honda, "Color Image correlation," Opt. Commun. 61, 181-186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1984 (1)

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, and J. E. Ludman, "Real-time joint spectral-spatial matched filtering," Opt. Commun. 49, 241-244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Allebach, J. P.

D.-Y. Ng and J. P. Allebach, "A subspace matching color filter design methodology for a multispectral imaging system," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15, 2631-2643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amoros-Lopez, J.

J. Calpe-Maravilla, J. Vila-Frances, E. Ribes-Gomez, V. Duran-Bosch, J. Munoz-Mari, J. Amoros-Lopez, L. Gomez-Chova, and E. Tajahuerce-Romera, "400-to 1000-nm imaging spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filters," J. Electron. Imaging 15, 023001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Badiqué, E.

E. Badiqué, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, and T. Honda, "Color Image correlation," Opt. Commun. 61, 181-186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Baronti, S.

Bouzid, A.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, and A. Bouzid, "Multi-channel chromatic transformations for nonlinear color pattern recognition," Opt. Commun. 203, 255-261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brettel, H.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, "Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calpe-Maravilla, J.

J. Calpe-Maravilla, J. Vila-Frances, E. Ribes-Gomez, V. Duran-Bosch, J. Munoz-Mari, J. Amoros-Lopez, L. Gomez-Chova, and E. Tajahuerce-Romera, "400-to 1000-nm imaging spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filters," J. Electron. Imaging 15, 023001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

J. Nicolás, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Encoding 3D correlation in an optical processor," Opt. Commun. 256, 279-287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cartwright, C. M.

Casini, F.

Caulfield, H. J.

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, and J. E. Ludman, "Real-time joint spectral-spatial matched filtering," Opt. Commun. 49, 241-244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, V.

Connah, D.

Corbalán, M.

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, and M. J. Yzuel, "Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates," Opt. Eng. 41, 130-138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, and M. J. Yzuel, "Optical pattern recognition based on color vision model," Opt. Lett. 20, 1722-1724 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duran-Bosch, V.

J. Calpe-Maravilla, J. Vila-Frances, E. Ribes-Gomez, V. Duran-Bosch, J. Munoz-Mari, J. Amoros-Lopez, L. Gomez-Chova, and E. Tajahuerce-Romera, "400-to 1000-nm imaging spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filters," J. Electron. Imaging 15, 023001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D'Zmura, M.

Fares, A.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, and A. Bouzid, "Multi-channel chromatic transformations for nonlinear color pattern recognition," Opt. Commun. 203, 255-261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, C.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, and A. Bouzid, "Multi-channel chromatic transformations for nonlinear color pattern recognition," Opt. Commun. 203, 255-261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, F. P.

Finlayson, G. D.

G. D. Finlayson and P. Morovic, "Metamer sets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 810-819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Finlayson, S. D. Hordley, and P. M. Hubel, "Color by correlation: a simple, unifying framework for color constancy," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 1209-1221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Funt and G. D. Finlayson, "Color constant color indexing," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 17, 522-529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Foster, D. H.

Funt, B. V.

B. V. Funt and G. D. Finlayson, "Color constant color indexing," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 17, 522-529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

García-Martínez, P.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, and A. Bouzid, "Multi-channel chromatic transformations for nonlinear color pattern recognition," Opt. Commun. 203, 255-261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gershon, R.

M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, and L. S. Iwan, "Measurements and analysis of object reflectance spectra," Color Res. Appl. 19, 4-9 (1994).

Gillespie, W. A.

Gomez-Chova, L.

J. Calpe-Maravilla, J. Vila-Frances, E. Ribes-Gomez, V. Duran-Bosch, J. Munoz-Mari, J. Amoros-Lopez, L. Gomez-Chova, and E. Tajahuerce-Romera, "400-to 1000-nm imaging spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filters," J. Electron. Imaging 15, 023001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hallikainen, J.

Hamdi, M.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, and A. Bouzid, "Multi-channel chromatic transformations for nonlinear color pattern recognition," Opt. Commun. 203, 255-261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haneishi, H.

Hardeberg, J. Y.

V. Cheung, S. Westland, C. Li, J. Y. Hardeberg, and D. Connah, "Characterization of trichromatic color cameras by using a new multispectral imaging technique," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1231-1240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, "Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

Hauta-Kasari, M.

Hayasaka, N.

N. Hayasaka, S. Toyooka, and T. Jaaskelainen, "Iterative feedback method to make a spatial filter on a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for 2D spectroscopic pattern recognition," Opt. Commun. 119, 643-651 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hernández-Andrés, J.

Honda, T.

E. Badiqué, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, and T. Honda, "Color Image correlation," Opt. Commun. 61, 181-186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hordley, S. D.

G. D. Finlayson, S. D. Hordley, and P. M. Hubel, "Color by correlation: a simple, unifying framework for color constancy," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 1209-1221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hosoi, A.

Hubel, P. M.

G. D. Finlayson, S. D. Hordley, and P. M. Hubel, "Color by correlation: a simple, unifying framework for color constancy," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 1209-1221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iemmi, C.

J. Nicolás, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Encoding 3D correlation in an optical processor," Opt. Commun. 256, 279-287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iversion, G.

Iwan, L. S.

M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, and L. S. Iwan, "Measurements and analysis of object reflectance spectra," Color Res. Appl. 19, 4-9 (1994).

Jaaskelainen, T.

N. Hayasaka, S. Toyooka, and T. Jaaskelainen, "Iterative feedback method to make a spatial filter on a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for 2D spectroscopic pattern recognition," Opt. Commun. 119, 643-651 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Jaaskelainen, J. P. S. Parkkinen, and S. Toyooka, "Vector-subspace model for color representation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 725-730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Parkkinen, J. Hallikainen, and T. Jaaskelainen, "Characteristic spectra of Munsell colors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 318-322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Komiya, Y.

E. Badiqué, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, and T. Honda, "Color Image correlation," Opt. Commun. 61, 181-186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Lotti, F.

Ludman, J. E.

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, and J. E. Ludman, "Real-time joint spectral-spatial matched filtering," Opt. Commun. 49, 241-244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Maloney, L. T.

Millán, M. S.

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, and M. J. Yzuel, "Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates," Opt. Eng. 41, 130-138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, and M. J. Yzuel, "Optical pattern recognition based on color vision model," Opt. Lett. 20, 1722-1724 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyake, Y.

Miyazawa, K.

Morovic, P.

Munoz-Mari, J.

J. Calpe-Maravilla, J. Vila-Frances, E. Ribes-Gomez, V. Duran-Bosch, J. Munoz-Mari, J. Amoros-Lopez, L. Gomez-Chova, and E. Tajahuerce-Romera, "400-to 1000-nm imaging spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filters," J. Electron. Imaging 15, 023001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nascimento, S. M.

Ng, D.-Y.

D.-Y. Ng and J. P. Allebach, "A subspace matching color filter design methodology for a multispectral imaging system," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15, 2631-2643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolás, J.

J. Nicolás, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Encoding 3D correlation in an optical processor," Opt. Commun. 256, 279-287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nieves, J. L.

Ohyama, N.

E. Badiqué, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, and T. Honda, "Color Image correlation," Opt. Commun. 61, 181-186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Parkkinen, J. P.

Parkkinen, J. P. S.

Piché, R.

Porcinai, S.

Ribes-Gomez, E.

J. Calpe-Maravilla, J. Vila-Frances, E. Ribes-Gomez, V. Duran-Bosch, J. Munoz-Mari, J. Amoros-Lopez, L. Gomez-Chova, and E. Tajahuerce-Romera, "400-to 1000-nm imaging spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filters," J. Electron. Imaging 15, 023001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J.

Schmitt, F.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, "Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soutar, C.

Tajahuerce-Romera, E.

J. Calpe-Maravilla, J. Vila-Frances, E. Ribes-Gomez, V. Duran-Bosch, J. Munoz-Mari, J. Amoros-Lopez, L. Gomez-Chova, and E. Tajahuerce-Romera, "400-to 1000-nm imaging spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filters," J. Electron. Imaging 15, 023001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tominaga, S.

Toyooka, S.

Tsujiuchi, J.

E. Badiqué, Y. Komiya, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, and T. Honda, "Color Image correlation," Opt. Commun. 61, 181-186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tsumura, N.

Valero, E.

Vila-Frances, J.

J. Calpe-Maravilla, J. Vila-Frances, E. Ribes-Gomez, V. Duran-Bosch, J. Munoz-Mari, J. Amoros-Lopez, L. Gomez-Chova, and E. Tajahuerce-Romera, "400-to 1000-nm imaging spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filters," J. Electron. Imaging 15, 023001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vrhel, M. J.

M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, and L. S. Iwan, "Measurements and analysis of object reflectance spectra," Color Res. Appl. 19, 4-9 (1994).

Wandell, B. A.

Wang, Z. Q.

Warde, C.

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, and J. E. Ludman, "Real-time joint spectral-spatial matched filtering," Opt. Commun. 49, 241-244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Westland, S.

Yokoyama, Y.

Yu, F. T. S.

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, and J. E. Ludman, "Real-time joint spectral-spatial matched filtering," Opt. Commun. 49, 241-244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yzuel, M. J.

J. Nicolás, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Encoding 3D correlation in an optical processor," Opt. Commun. 256, 279-287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, and M. J. Yzuel, "Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates," Opt. Eng. 41, 130-138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, and M. J. Yzuel, "Optical pattern recognition based on color vision model," Opt. Lett. 20, 1722-1724 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Color Res. Appl. (2)

M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, and L. S. Iwan, "Measurements and analysis of object reflectance spectra," Color Res. Appl. 19, 4-9 (1994).

N. Tsumura, "Appearance reproduction and multispectral imaging," Color Res. Appl. 31, 270-277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

D.-Y. Ng and J. P. Allebach, "A subspace matching color filter design methodology for a multispectral imaging system," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15, 2631-2643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (2)

B. V. Funt and G. D. Finlayson, "Color constant color indexing," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 17, 522-529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Finlayson, S. D. Hordley, and P. M. Hubel, "Color by correlation: a simple, unifying framework for color constancy," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 1209-1221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Seven basis functions S i (λ) computed from measured Munsell color spectral data [25].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic view of the optical part of computer-controlled light source. At any given moment device emits one spectral line at the central wavelength defined by the frequency of the acoustic wave excited in TAOF and by the LED, which is switched on.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral dependence of the maximal achievable output power generated by the first prototype of computer-controlled light source. The bandwidth of the spectral lines varies from 4 nm in the violet to 8 nm in the red.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photograph of four metameric samples used as test object to demonstrate ability of the proposed approach to distinguish objects with very small hue difference.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Difference of the inner product of normalized 7D-vectors, which represent the reflection spectra of the metameric samples shown in Fig. 4. Non-diagonal elements correspond to the product of two vectors from different samples, while the diagonal elements relate to the vectors from the same sample but measured in different points.

Equations (6)

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R ( λ ) = i = 1 Q σ i S i ( λ ) .
σ i = λ 1 λ 2 R ( λ ) S i ( λ ) ,
σ i = k = 1 M R ( λ k ) S i ( λ k ) ,
J i P = k = 1 Mp κ ( λ k ) P ( λ k ) t i P ( λ k ) R ( λ k ) ,
J i N = k = 1 Mn κ ( λ k ) P ( λ k ) t i N ( λ k ) R ( λ k ) .
R mn = i = 1 7 σ i m σ m σ i n σ n .

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