Abstract

We fabricated a ring containing a single circular groove (RCG) on silver film and which was supported on a glass substrate. We found that by changing the mean radius of the circular groove, the light intensity emitted from the RCG can be modulated by using the scattering light from the circular groove. In addition, we also fabricated circular grooves with the same depth but of different widths so that we could examine the scattering light behavior of the grooves. Herein, we propose a theoretical model which takes into account the amplitude modulation of the cylindrical waves. Our results showed that our proposed model agreed well with the experimental results.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Multiple paths toenhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405(R) (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824-830 (2003).
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  10. P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Similarities and differences for light-induced surface plasmons in one- and two-dimensional symmetrical metallic nanostructures," Opt. Lett. 31, 2341-2343 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. K. Lee, C. L. Lin, D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, L. B. Yu, and C. S. Yeh, "Developing a nanowriter system: Simulation and experimental set-up of a plasmonic-based lens design," Mater. Sci. Forum 505-507, 1-6 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. I. Baida, D. V. Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209, 17-22 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface Wave Generation and Propagation on Metallic Subwavelength Structures Measured by Far-Field Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  21. Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing Surface Plasmons with a Plasmonic Lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, "Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes in thin metal films," Opt. Express 13, 3150-3165 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, "The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam," Appl. Phys. A 84, 423-430 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam," Nature (London) 419, 145-147 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. H. Gan, and G. Gbur, "Strategies for employing surface plasmons in near-field optical readout systems," Opt. Express 14, 2385-2397 (2006),
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, "Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes in thin metal films," Opt. Express 13, 3150-3165 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, "The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam," Appl. Phys. A 84, 423-430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Gan, and G. Gbur, "Strategies for employing surface plasmons in near-field optical readout systems," Opt. Express 14, 2385-2397 (2006),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Similarities and differences for light-induced surface plasmons in one- and two-dimensional symmetrical metallic nanostructures," Opt. Lett. 31, 2341-2343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, C. L. Lin, D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, L. B. Yu, and C. S. Yeh, "Developing a nanowriter system: Simulation and experimental set-up of a plasmonic-based lens design," Mater. Sci. Forum 505-507, 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface Wave Generation and Propagation on Metallic Subwavelength Structures Measured by Far-Field Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings," Opt. Express 14, 5664-5670 (2006),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing Surface Plasmons with a Plasmonic Lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2040-2042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Multiple paths toenhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam," Nature (London) 419, 145-147 (2002)
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. V. Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209, 17-22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1944

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

’t Hooft, G. W.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alkemade, P. F.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alloschery, O.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface Wave Generation and Propagation on Metallic Subwavelength Structures Measured by Far-Field Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baida, F. I.

F. I. Baida, D. V. Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209, 17-22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Blok, H.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. K.

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Lee, C. L. Lin, D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, L. B. Yu, and C. S. Yeh, "Developing a nanowriter system: Simulation and experimental set-up of a plasmonic-based lens design," Mater. Sci. Forum 505-507, 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Similarities and differences for light-induced surface plasmons in one- and two-dimensional symmetrical metallic nanostructures," Opt. Lett. 31, 2341-2343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. H.

Chang, Y. C.

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Similarities and differences for light-induced surface plasmons in one- and two-dimensional symmetrical metallic nanostructures," Opt. Lett. 31, 2341-2343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, T. D.

C. K. Lee, C. L. Lin, D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, L. B. Yu, and C. S. Yeh, "Developing a nanowriter system: Simulation and experimental set-up of a plasmonic-based lens design," Mater. Sci. Forum 505-507, 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam," Nature (London) 419, 145-147 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Dubois, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Multiple paths toenhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliel, E. R.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, C. H.

Garces-Chavez, V.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam," Nature (London) 419, 145-147 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Multiple paths toenhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gay, G.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface Wave Generation and Propagation on Metallic Subwavelength Structures Measured by Far-Field Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gbur, G.

C. H. Gan, and G. Gbur, "Strategies for employing surface plasmons in near-field optical readout systems," Opt. Express 14, 2385-2397 (2006),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

Hibbins, A. P.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2040-2042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, "The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam," Appl. Phys. A 84, 423-430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kizuka, Y.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, "The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam," Appl. Phys. A 84, 423-430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, N.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Labeke, D. V.

F. I. Baida, D. V. Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209, 17-22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, C. R.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2040-2042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. K.

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Similarities and differences for light-induced surface plasmons in one- and two-dimensional symmetrical metallic nanostructures," Opt. Lett. 31, 2341-2343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, C. L. Lin, D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, L. B. Yu, and C. S. Yeh, "Developing a nanowriter system: Simulation and experimental set-up of a plasmonic-based lens design," Mater. Sci. Forum 505-507, 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface Wave Generation and Propagation on Metallic Subwavelength Structures Measured by Far-Field Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Multiple paths toenhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

C. K. Lee, C. L. Lin, D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, L. B. Yu, and C. S. Yeh, "Developing a nanowriter system: Simulation and experimental set-up of a plasmonic-based lens design," Mater. Sci. Forum 505-507, 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D. Z.

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Lee, C. L. Lin, D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, L. B. Yu, and C. S. Yeh, "Developing a nanowriter system: Simulation and experimental set-up of a plasmonic-based lens design," Mater. Sci. Forum 505-507, 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Similarities and differences for light-induced surface plasmons in one- and two-dimensional symmetrical metallic nanostructures," Opt. Lett. 31, 2341-2343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, M. W.

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Similarities and differences for light-induced surface plasmons in one- and two-dimensional symmetrical metallic nanostructures," Opt. Lett. 31, 2341-2343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. M.

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Similarities and differences for light-induced surface plasmons in one- and two-dimensional symmetrical metallic nanostructures," Opt. Lett. 31, 2341-2343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings," Opt. Express 14, 5664-5670 (2006),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing Surface Plasmons with a Plasmonic Lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lockyear, M. J.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2040-2042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Multiple paths toenhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuoka, Y.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, "The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam," Appl. Phys. A 84, 423-430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McGloin, D.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam," Nature (London) 419, 145-147 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Melville, H.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam," Nature (London) 419, 145-147 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing Surface Plasmons with a Plasmonic Lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodier, J. C.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2040-2042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

Schouten, H. F.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam," Nature (London) 419, 145-147 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing Surface Plasmons with a Plasmonic Lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings," Opt. Express 14, 5664-5670 (2006),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing Surface Plasmons with a Plasmonic Lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing Surface Plasmons with a Plasmonic Lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Viaris de Lesegno, B.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface Wave Generation and Propagation on Metallic Subwavelength Structures Measured by Far-Field Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visser, T. D.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Weiner, J.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface Wave Generation and Propagation on Metallic Subwavelength Structures Measured by Far-Field Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. S.

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Lee, C. L. Lin, D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, L. B. Yu, and C. S. Yeh, "Developing a nanowriter system: Simulation and experimental set-up of a plasmonic-based lens design," Mater. Sci. Forum 505-507, 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Similarities and differences for light-induced surface plasmons in one- and two-dimensional symmetrical metallic nanostructures," Opt. Lett. 31, 2341-2343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, J. T.

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Similarities and differences for light-induced surface plasmons in one- and two-dimensional symmetrical metallic nanostructures," Opt. Lett. 31, 2341-2343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L. B.

C. K. Lee, C. L. Lin, D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, L. B. Yu, and C. S. Yeh, "Developing a nanowriter system: Simulation and experimental set-up of a plasmonic-based lens design," Mater. Sci. Forum 505-507, 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings," Opt. Express 14, 5664-5670 (2006),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing Surface Plasmons with a Plasmonic Lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, "The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam," Appl. Phys. A 84, 423-430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2040-2042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, "Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Forum

C. K. Lee, C. L. Lin, D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, L. B. Yu, and C. S. Yeh, "Developing a nanowriter system: Simulation and experimental set-up of a plasmonic-based lens design," Mater. Sci. Forum 505-507, 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing Surface Plasmons with a Plasmonic Lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, "Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam," Nature (London) 419, 145-147 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

F. I. Baida, D. V. Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209, 17-22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface Wave Generation and Propagation on Metallic Subwavelength Structures Measured by Far-Field Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Multiple paths toenhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission Young's experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-free beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the RCG structure: (a) F is the focusing length of a single ring; R and r represent the outer and the inner mean radii; E0 is the sum of the light scattering from the groove and the light emitted from the ring. The Y-axis coincides with the polarization direction of the incident light. (b) Scanning electron microscope photo of the RCG structure, where the outer radius and the opening width of the ring are 4μm and 100nm, respectively. The outer radius, width and depth of circular groove are 2.125μm, 250nm, and 55nm respectively. The Ag thickness was 248nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental results and fitted curves which represent the groove width and depth at 250nm and 55nm, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

β and Δ g of the four kinds of groove widths: 100nm, 150nm, 200nm, and 250nm. (Note: the square and triangular marks represent β and Δ g , respectively.)

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 0 = E ring + E scattering
= 0 2 π E slit Sin ( θ ) Re i Δ 1 +
0 2 π 0 2 π β cos ( Ω 1 ) cos ( Ω 2 ) L E slit Sin ( θ ) e L 2 L sp e i ( Δ 2 + Δ 3 Δ g ) rdθdϕ
E 0 = E ring + E scattering 1 + E scattering 2 + E scattering 3 + . . . . . . . . . . . E scattering n

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