Abstract

We have fabricated high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with red-dye doped hole injection layer (HIL) and blue emissive layer. We investigated the carrier transport and photoluminescence efficiency in the device of single-layer HIL with different red dye species, bis(4-diphneylamino-phenyl)-perylene-3-yl-amine,

4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9enyl)-4H-pyran and a dopant material of fused aromatic ring (P1) provided by Idemitsu Kosan in 4,4′,4″-tris[2-naphthyl(phenyl)amino]triphenylamine with a varied concentration. It was found that 25-% wt P1 in HIL has better electro-optical characteristics. Furthermore, we have fabricated three WOLEDs of chromatic-stability with different thickness of HIL layer. High chromatic-stability CCM-WOLEDs have been achieved, which can be applied for lightening and backlight for flat panel display.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
A highly color-stability white organic light-emitting diode by color conversion within hole injection layer

C. Li, M. Ichikawa, B. Wei, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, K. Kawaguchi, and K. Sakurai
Opt. Express 15(2) 608-615 (2007)

Trap-level-engineered common red layer for fabricating red, green, and blue subpixels of full-color organic light-emitting diode displays

Hyunkoo Lee, Jeonghun Kwak, Chan-Mo Kang, Yi-Yeol Lyu, Kookheon Char, and Changhee Lee
Opt. Express 23(9) 11424-11435 (2015)

Highly efficient inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using a lead monoxide electron injection layer

Qiang Wang, Zhaoqi Deng, and Dongge Ma
Opt. Express 17(20) 17269-17278 (2009)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1585–1595 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device,” Science 267, 1332–1334 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 888–890 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 103508–103510 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. C.W. Ko and Y.T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4234–4236 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Wa, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature (London) 440, 908–912 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).
  9. F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma “White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 173510–173512 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470–3472 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506–113508 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. Li, M. Ichikawa, B. Wei, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, K. Kawaguchi, and K. Sakurai, “A highly color-stability white organic light-emitting diode by color conversion within hole injection layer,” Opt. Exp. 15, 608–615 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Li, B. Wei, M. Ichikawa, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, T. Saito, and K. Sakurai “Low-voltage driving three-peak white organic light emitting diodes with conversion hole injection layer based on host-guest energy transfer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).
  14. T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and white EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID J. 33, 598–601 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 3105–3113 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  16. B. Wei, M Ichikawa, K Furukawa, T Koyama, and Y Taniguchi, “High peak luminance of molecularly dye-doped organic light-emitting diodes under pulse voltages,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0445061–0445065 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. Li, M. Ichikawa, B. Wei, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, K. Kawaguchi, and K. Sakurai, “A highly color-stability white organic light-emitting diode by color conversion within hole injection layer,” Opt. Exp. 15, 608–615 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 103508–103510 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Wa, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature (London) 440, 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma “White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 173510–173512 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Wei, M Ichikawa, K Furukawa, T Koyama, and Y Taniguchi, “High peak luminance of molecularly dye-doped organic light-emitting diodes under pulse voltages,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0445061–0445065 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

2002 (2)

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470–3472 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and white EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID J. 33, 598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C.W. Ko and Y.T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4234–4236 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 888–890 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device,” Science 267, 1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 3105–3113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Abkowitz, M.

H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 3105–3113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y. J.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

Aragane, T.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and white EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID J. 33, 598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bassler, H.

H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 3105–3113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 888–890 (1999).
[Crossref]

Choong, V. E.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choulis, S. A.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chung, C. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

Deshpande, R. S.

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 888–890 (1999).
[Crossref]

Duggal, A. R.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470–3472 (2002).
[Crossref]

Endo, J.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

Fiedler, T.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Wa, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature (London) 440, 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 888–890 (1999).
[Crossref]

Foust, D. F.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470–3472 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fukuoka, K.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and white EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID J. 33, 598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Furukawa, K

B. Wei, M Ichikawa, K Furukawa, T Koyama, and Y Taniguchi, “High peak luminance of molecularly dye-doped organic light-emitting diodes under pulse voltages,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0445061–0445065 (2005).
[Crossref]

Giebink, N.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Wa, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature (London) 440, 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guo, F. F.

F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma “White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 173510–173512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heller, C. M.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470–3472 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hironaka, Y.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and white EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID J. 33, 598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hosokawa, C.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and white EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID J. 33, 598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hwang, C. S.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, M

B. Wei, M Ichikawa, K Furukawa, T Koyama, and Y Taniguchi, “High peak luminance of molecularly dye-doped organic light-emitting diodes under pulse voltages,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0445061–0445065 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, M.

C. Li, M. Ichikawa, B. Wei, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, K. Kawaguchi, and K. Sakurai, “A highly color-stability white organic light-emitting diode by color conversion within hole injection layer,” Opt. Exp. 15, 608–615 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Li, B. Wei, M. Ichikawa, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, T. Saito, and K. Sakurai “Low-voltage driving three-peak white organic light emitting diodes with conversion hole injection layer based on host-guest energy transfer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Ikada, H.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and white EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID J. 33, 598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Iwakuma, T.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and white EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID J. 33, 598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jermann, F.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kang, G. W.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kanno, H.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Wa, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature (London) 440, 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kawaguchi, K.

C. Li, M. Ichikawa, B. Wei, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, K. Kawaguchi, and K. Sakurai, “A highly color-stability white organic light-emitting diode by color conversion within hole injection layer,” Opt. Exp. 15, 608–615 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, N.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

Kido, J.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device,” Science 267, 1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B. C.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kimura, H.

C. Li, M. Ichikawa, B. Wei, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, K. Kawaguchi, and K. Sakurai, “A highly color-stability white organic light-emitting diode by color conversion within hole injection layer,” Opt. Exp. 15, 608–615 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Li, B. Wei, M. Ichikawa, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, T. Saito, and K. Sakurai “Low-voltage driving three-peak white organic light emitting diodes with conversion hole injection layer based on host-guest energy transfer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Kimura, M.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device,” Science 267, 1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, C.W.

C.W. Ko and Y.T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4234–4236 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ko, Y. W.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

Koyama, T

B. Wei, M Ichikawa, K Furukawa, T Koyama, and Y Taniguchi, “High peak luminance of molecularly dye-doped organic light-emitting diodes under pulse voltages,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0445061–0445065 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krummacher, B. C.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kusomoto, T.

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and white EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID J. 33, 598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, N.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lei, G. T.

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 103508–103510 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

C. Li, M. Ichikawa, B. Wei, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, K. Kawaguchi, and K. Sakurai, “A highly color-stability white organic light-emitting diode by color conversion within hole injection layer,” Opt. Exp. 15, 608–615 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Li, B. Wei, M. Ichikawa, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, T. Saito, and K. Sakurai “Low-voltage driving three-peak white organic light emitting diodes with conversion hole injection layer based on host-guest energy transfer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Lim, J.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ma, D. G.

F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma “White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 173510–173512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mathai, M. K.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, T.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

Mori, K.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

Nagai, K.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device,” Science 267, 1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakada, T.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

Pai, D. M.

H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 3105–3113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Qiu, Y.

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 103508–103510 (2006).
[Crossref]

Saito, T.

C. Li, B. Wei, M. Ichikawa, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, T. Saito, and K. Sakurai “Low-voltage driving three-peak white organic light emitting diodes with conversion hole injection layer based on host-guest energy transfer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Sakurai, K.

C. Li, M. Ichikawa, B. Wei, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, K. Kawaguchi, and K. Sakurai, “A highly color-stability white organic light-emitting diode by color conversion within hole injection layer,” Opt. Exp. 15, 608–615 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Li, B. Wei, M. Ichikawa, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, T. Saito, and K. Sakurai “Low-voltage driving three-peak white organic light emitting diodes with conversion hole injection layer based on host-guest energy transfer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Schonherr, G.

H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 3105–3113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Shiang, J. J.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470–3472 (2002).
[Crossref]

So, F.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sohn, C. Y.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Wa, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature (London) 440, 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, Y

B. Wei, M Ichikawa, K Furukawa, T Koyama, and Y Taniguchi, “High peak luminance of molecularly dye-doped organic light-emitting diodes under pulse voltages,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0445061–0445065 (2005).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, Y.

C. Li, M. Ichikawa, B. Wei, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, K. Kawaguchi, and K. Sakurai, “A highly color-stability white organic light-emitting diode by color conversion within hole injection layer,” Opt. Exp. 15, 608–615 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Li, B. Wei, M. Ichikawa, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, T. Saito, and K. Sakurai “Low-voltage driving three-peak white organic light emitting diodes with conversion hole injection layer based on host-guest energy transfer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Tao, Y.T.

C.W. Ko and Y.T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4234–4236 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Wa, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature (London) 440, 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wa, B.

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Wa, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature (London) 440, 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. D.

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 103508–103510 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wei, B.

C. Li, M. Ichikawa, B. Wei, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, K. Kawaguchi, and K. Sakurai, “A highly color-stability white organic light-emitting diode by color conversion within hole injection layer,” Opt. Exp. 15, 608–615 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Wei, M Ichikawa, K Furukawa, T Koyama, and Y Taniguchi, “High peak luminance of molecularly dye-doped organic light-emitting diodes under pulse voltages,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0445061–0445065 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Li, B. Wei, M. Ichikawa, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, T. Saito, and K. Sakurai “Low-voltage driving three-peak white organic light emitting diodes with conversion hole injection layer based on host-guest energy transfer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Yokoi, A.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

Zachau, M.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 9, 1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 888–890 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 103508–103510 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.W. Ko and Y.T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4234–4236 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. F. Guo and D. G. Ma “White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 173510–173512 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470–3472 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506–113508 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Wei, M Ichikawa, K Furukawa, T Koyama, and Y Taniguchi, “High peak luminance of molecularly dye-doped organic light-emitting diodes under pulse voltages,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 0445061–0445065 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Li, B. Wei, M. Ichikawa, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, T. Saito, and K. Sakurai “Low-voltage driving three-peak white organic light emitting diodes with conversion hole injection layer based on host-guest energy transfer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Nature (London) (1)

Y. Sun, N. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Wa, M. Thompson, and S. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature (London) 440, 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Exp. (1)

C. Li, M. Ichikawa, B. Wei, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, K. Kawaguchi, and K. Sakurai, “A highly color-stability white organic light-emitting diode by color conversion within hole injection layer,” Opt. Exp. 15, 608–615 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Bassler, G. Schonherr, M. Abkowitz, and D. M. Pai, “Hopping transport in prototypical organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 3105–3113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer White Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Device,” Science 267, 1332–1334 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

SID 03 Digest (1)

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation layer,” SID 03 Digest 979 (2003).

SID J. (1)

T. Iwakuma, T. Aragane, Y. Hironaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Ikada, C. Hosokawa, and T. Kusomoto, “Red and white EL materials based on a new fused aromatic ring,” SID J. 33, 598–601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, and C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426, 246–249 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

WOLED structure and energy diagram with inside CCM layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Current density of three species of red fluorescent dyes doped 2-TNATA sandwich cells and 2-TNATA cell vs. applied voltage.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Surface emission spectra from pumping organic films pumped by blue light at 480 nm

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fluorescence quantum yield of red-dye doped 2-TNATA films of different dopant concentration.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Change of PL intensity of single CCM films of P1 doped 2-TNATA with exposure time

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Temperature effect of single CCM films of P1 doped 2-TNATA.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Filed effect for CCM film. The inset is devices current density as function of voltage.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

EL spectra for the film of HIL of 200nm, 300nm and 400nm. (a) P1 no-doped HIL of greenish blue EL emission. (b) P1 doped HIL of white EL emission.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Color CIE with current density of white EL emission of devices. oe-15-22-14422-i001 and oe-15-22-14422-i002 is 200nm thickness of P1 doped HIL, oe-15-22-14422-i003 and oe-15-22-14422-i004 is the 300nm thickness of P1 doped HIL; oe-15-22-14422-i005 and oe-15-22-14422-i006 is the 400nm thickness of P1 doped HIL

Metrics