Abstract

We demonstrate a robust and highly responsive optical microsensor, which probes the refractive index of liquids flowing along a ~ 100 μm radius channel formed in a polymer matrix. Sensing is based on measurement of the transmission spectrum of the whispering gallery modes, which are excited across the liquid channel by an optical microfiber imbedded into the polymer. The achieved sensitivity is 800 nm/RIU. Potentially, it is straightforward to assemble the sensing elements of this type into a lab-on-the-chip imbedded in a solidified optical material.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (3)

2006 (6)

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, "Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer Microring Resonators for Biochemical Sensing Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, A. Hale, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "The Microfiber Loop Resonator: Theory, Experiment, and Application," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 242-250 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Yalçin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical Sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, "Liquid Core Optical Ring Resonator Sensors," Opt. Lett. 31, 1319-1321 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, A. Hale, and J. W. Nicholson, "Probing optical microfiber nonuniformities at nanoscale," Opt. Lett. 31, 2393-2395 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

2004 (2)

Ashkenazi, C.-Y. Chao, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell, "Ultrasound detection using polymer microring optical resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5418-5420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and A. Hale, "Fabrication and study of bent and coiled free silica nanowires: Self-coupling microloop optical interferometer," Opt. Express 12, 3521-3531 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, "High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182-184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Ashkenazi, C.-Y. Chao, L. J. Guo, and M. O’Donnell, "Ultrasound detection using polymer microring optical resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5418-5420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, "Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, Art. 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, A. Hale, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "The Microfiber Loop Resonator: Theory, Experiment, and Application," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 242-250 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Yalçin, K.C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical Sensing of Biomolecules using Microring Resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer Microring Resonators for Biochemical Sensing Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, "High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182-184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Proc. SPIE (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and H. Oveys, "Overview of novel integrated optical ring resonator bio/chemical sensors," Proc. SPIE 6452, 6452M, 1-20 (2007).

Other (1)

M. Sumetsky and Y. Dulashko, "Sensing an optical fiber surface by a microfiber with angstrom accuracy," in Optical Fiber Communication conference, paper OTuL6, (Anaheim, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of an LRROS

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectrum of the LRROS for different indices of the tested liquids. (a) - Unetched CF (black) and etched CF filled with air (red); (b),(c) - Examples of transmission spectra for different refractive indices of liquids; the values of indices are shown on the figures. (d) - Illustration of measurement of the LRROS sensitivity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The LRROS sensitivity measured when the CF was not removed completely (black curve) and for the removed CF (red curve). The dotted violet curve is the maximum theoretical limit of sensitivity. The dashed blue curve is the sensitivity suspected for the Teflon AF matrix.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectra of the LRROS with the removed CF at refractive indices shown in the figure.

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