Abstract

We demonstrate, for the first time, a mid infrared silicon Raman amplifier. Amplification of 12 dB is reported for a signal at 3.39 micron wavelength. The active medium was a 2.5 cm long silicon sample that was pumped with 5ns pulses at 2.88 micron. Such a technology can potentially extend silicon photonics' application beyond data communication in the near IR and into the mid-IR world of remote sensing, biochemical detection and laser medicine. Challenges faced in the mid-IR regime such as a higher free carrier scattering rate longer lifetime in mid-IR waveguides are also discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (1)

V. Raghunathan, H. Renner, R. Rice, and B. Jalali, "Self-imaging silicon Raman amplifier," Opt. Express 13, 3396-3408 (2007).

2006 (3)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, "Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region," J. Opt. A 8, 840-848 (2006).

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, S. Fathpour, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Stafsudd, "Prospects for silicon mid-IR Raman lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1618-1627 (2006).

V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, O. M. Stafsudd, and B. Jalali, "Nonlinear absorption in silicon and the prospects of mid-infrared Silicon Raman laser," Phys. Status Solidi. (A) 203, R38-R40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

H.  Rong, R. Jones, A.  Liu, O.  Cohen, D. Hak, A.  Fang and M.  Pannicia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725 - 728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Basiev, M. N. Basieva, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Fedorov, V. V. Osiko, and S. B. Mirov "Stimulated Raman Scattering in Mid IR spectral range 2.31-2.75-3.7μm in BaWO4 crystal under 1.9 and 1.56μm pumping," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,17-20 (2005).

D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, "Limitations of active carrier removal in silicon Raman amplifiers and lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

2003 (3)

1998 (1)

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387-2390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. Meyers and W. Bosenberg, "Periodically-poled lithium niobate and quasi-phase matched optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663-1672 (1997).

1974 (1)

N. Bloembergen, "Laser induced Electric breakdown in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 375-386 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, "Limitations of active carrier removal in silicon Raman amplifiers and lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

N. Bloembergen, "Laser induced Electric breakdown in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 375-386 (1974).
[CrossRef]

L. Meyers and W. Bosenberg, "Periodically-poled lithium niobate and quasi-phase matched optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663-1672 (1997).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, S. Fathpour, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Stafsudd, "Prospects for silicon mid-IR Raman lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1618-1627 (2006).

J. Opt. A (1)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, "Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region," J. Opt. A 8, 840-848 (2006).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

T. T. Basiev, M. N. Basieva, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Fedorov, V. V. Osiko, and S. B. Mirov "Stimulated Raman Scattering in Mid IR spectral range 2.31-2.75-3.7μm in BaWO4 crystal under 1.9 and 1.56μm pumping," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,17-20 (2005).

Nature (1)

H.  Rong, R. Jones, A.  Liu, O.  Cohen, D. Hak, A.  Fang and M.  Pannicia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725 - 728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387-2390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi. (A) (1)

V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, O. M. Stafsudd, and B. Jalali, "Nonlinear absorption in silicon and the prospects of mid-infrared Silicon Raman laser," Phys. Status Solidi. (A) 203, R38-R40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. M. Pask, "The design and operation of solid-state Raman lasers," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 3-56, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodpyanov, Solid state mid infrared laser sources, (Springer Topics in Applied Physics, 2003).

A. Kier, ed., Mid infrared semiconductor optoelectronics, (Springer series in Optoelectronics, 2006).

A. E. Siegman, "How to (may be) measure laser beam quality," Tutorial OSA Annual Meeting (1997).

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed., (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1988).

V. Raghunathan, O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "20 dB on-off Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," CLEO 2005, Baltimore, MD, May 2005, CMU1.

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