Abstract

Measurements of birefringence, second-harmonic phase-matching conditions, and nonlinear coefficient d31 are performed for a set of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate (Hf:cLN) crystals as functions of dopant concentration. The data highlight that the threshold concentration, above which there is a change in the Hf incorporation mechanism, is slightly above 2mol% and that, up to this value of concentration, the efficiency of nonlinear processes is not affected by the dopant insertion. Combining these results with those already present in literature, Hf:cLN crystals appear to be very promising candidates for the development of photorefractivity-free wavelength converters working at room temperature.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, "Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136-138 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Cristiani and V. Degiorgio, "Optical frequency conversion through cascaded nonlinear processes," Riv Nuovo Cimento 27, 1-49 (2004).
  3. C. Langrock, S. Kumar, J. E. McGeehan, A. E. Willner, and M. M. Fejer, "All-optical signal processing using ?(2) nonlinearities in guided-wave devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2579-2592 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation into an embedded link by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 995-997 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. R. Volk and M. Woehlecke, "Optical damage resistance in lithium niobate crystals," Ferroelectrics Review 1, 195-262 (1998).
  7. M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, H. and Suzuki, "Reducing photorefractive effect in periodically poled ZnO- and MgO-doped LiNbO3 wavelength converters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163-3165 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, J. Ro, M. Cha, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, K. Kuroda, and T. Taira, "Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond pulse with simultaneous group-velocity matching and quasi phase matching in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3388-3390 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. V. Tovstonog, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, "High power continuous-wave green light generation by quasiphase matching in Mg stoichiometric lithium tantalate" Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. He and D. Xue, "Doping mechanism of optical-damage-resistant ions in lithium niobate crystals" Opt. Commun. 265, 537-541 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Photorefractivity of hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 116105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Galinetto, F. Rossella, P. Minzioni, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "MicroRaman and photorefractivity study of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 15, 9-21 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, "Influence of the defect structure on the refractive indices of undoped and Mg-doped lithium niobate," Phys. Rev. B 50, 751-757 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Yu, D. Grando, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, "Widely tunable optical parametric oscillator driven by a diode-pumped nonlinear-mirror mode-locked Nd:YAG laser" Opt. Commun. 260, 257-264 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. Ito, "Absolute scale of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficients" J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2268-2294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Xue and S. Zhang, "Chemical bond analysis of the correlation between crystal structure and nonlinear optical properties of complex crystals" Physica B 262, 78-83 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Xue and K. Betzler, "Influence of optical-damage-resistant dopants on the nonlinear optical properties of lithium niobate" Appl. Phys. B 72, 641-645 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa and M. Sato, "Defect structure model of MgO-doped LiNbO3" J. Solid State Chem. 118, 148-152 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, "Enhanced photorefractive properties of LiNbO3:Fe crystals by HfO2 codoping" Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 116105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Tovstonog, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, "High power continuous-wave green light generation by quasiphase matching in Mg stoichiometric lithium tantalate" Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

X. He and D. Xue, "Doping mechanism of optical-damage-resistant ions in lithium niobate crystals" Opt. Commun. 265, 537-541 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Grando, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, "Widely tunable optical parametric oscillator driven by a diode-pumped nonlinear-mirror mode-locked Nd:YAG laser" Opt. Commun. 260, 257-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Galinetto, F. Rossella, P. Minzioni, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "MicroRaman and photorefractivity study of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 15, 9-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, S. Kumar, J. E. McGeehan, A. E. Willner, and M. M. Fejer, "All-optical signal processing using ?(2) nonlinearities in guided-wave devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2579-2592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation into an embedded link by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 995-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, "Enhanced photorefractive properties of LiNbO3:Fe crystals by HfO2 codoping" Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Photorefractivity of hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Cristiani and V. Degiorgio, "Optical frequency conversion through cascaded nonlinear processes," Riv Nuovo Cimento 27, 1-49 (2004).

2003 (1)

N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, J. Ro, M. Cha, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, K. Kuroda, and T. Taira, "Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond pulse with simultaneous group-velocity matching and quasi phase matching in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3388-3390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, H. and Suzuki, "Reducing photorefractive effect in periodically poled ZnO- and MgO-doped LiNbO3 wavelength converters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163-3165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Xue and K. Betzler, "Influence of optical-damage-resistant dopants on the nonlinear optical properties of lithium niobate" Appl. Phys. B 72, 641-645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Xue and S. Zhang, "Chemical bond analysis of the correlation between crystal structure and nonlinear optical properties of complex crystals" Physica B 262, 78-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, "Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Volk and M. Woehlecke, "Optical damage resistance in lithium niobate crystals," Ferroelectrics Review 1, 195-262 (1998).

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa and M. Sato, "Defect structure model of MgO-doped LiNbO3" J. Solid State Chem. 118, 148-152 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, "Influence of the defect structure on the refractive indices of undoped and Mg-doped lithium niobate," Phys. Rev. B 50, 751-757 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ashihara, S.

N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, J. Ro, M. Cha, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, K. Kuroda, and T. Taira, "Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond pulse with simultaneous group-velocity matching and quasi phase matching in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3388-3390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, H. and Suzuki, "Reducing photorefractive effect in periodically poled ZnO- and MgO-doped LiNbO3 wavelength converters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163-3165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Banfi, G. P.

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, "Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Betzler, K.

D. Xue and K. Betzler, "Influence of optical-damage-resistant dopants on the nonlinear optical properties of lithium niobate" Appl. Phys. B 72, 641-645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, "Influence of the defect structure on the refractive indices of undoped and Mg-doped lithium niobate," Phys. Rev. B 50, 751-757 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Caccioli, D.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cascelli, S.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cha, M.

N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, J. Ro, M. Cha, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, K. Kuroda, and T. Taira, "Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond pulse with simultaneous group-velocity matching and quasi phase matching in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3388-3390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 116105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Galinetto, F. Rossella, P. Minzioni, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "MicroRaman and photorefractivity study of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 15, 9-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation into an embedded link by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 995-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Photorefractivity of hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Cristiani and V. Degiorgio, "Optical frequency conversion through cascaded nonlinear processes," Riv Nuovo Cimento 27, 1-49 (2004).

Datta, P. K.

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, "Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 116105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Galinetto, F. Rossella, P. Minzioni, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "MicroRaman and photorefractivity study of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 15, 9-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation into an embedded link by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 995-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Grando, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, "Widely tunable optical parametric oscillator driven by a diode-pumped nonlinear-mirror mode-locked Nd:YAG laser" Opt. Commun. 260, 257-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Photorefractivity of hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Cristiani and V. Degiorgio, "Optical frequency conversion through cascaded nonlinear processes," Riv Nuovo Cimento 27, 1-49 (2004).

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, "Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deng, D.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation into an embedded link by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 995-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, S. Kumar, J. E. McGeehan, A. E. Willner, and M. M. Fejer, "All-optical signal processing using ?(2) nonlinearities in guided-wave devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2579-2592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fortusini, D.

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, "Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galinetto, P.

P. Galinetto, F. Rossella, P. Minzioni, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "MicroRaman and photorefractivity study of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 15, 9-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galtarossa, A.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, G.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grando, D.

J. Yu, D. Grando, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, "Widely tunable optical parametric oscillator driven by a diode-pumped nonlinear-mirror mode-locked Nd:YAG laser" Opt. Commun. 260, 257-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Griggio, P.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guglielmucci, M.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hang, Z.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, X.

X. He and D. Xue, "Doping mechanism of optical-damage-resistant ions in lithium niobate crystals" Opt. Commun. 265, 537-541 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ito, R.

Itoh, H.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, H. and Suzuki, "Reducing photorefractive effect in periodically poled ZnO- and MgO-doped LiNbO3 wavelength converters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163-3165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iyi, N.

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa and M. Sato, "Defect structure model of MgO-doped LiNbO3" J. Solid State Chem. 118, 148-152 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kitamoto, A.

Kitamura, K.

S. V. Tovstonog, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, "High power continuous-wave green light generation by quasiphase matching in Mg stoichiometric lithium tantalate" Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, J. Ro, M. Cha, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, K. Kuroda, and T. Taira, "Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond pulse with simultaneous group-velocity matching and quasi phase matching in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3388-3390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa and M. Sato, "Defect structure model of MgO-doped LiNbO3" J. Solid State Chem. 118, 148-152 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kokanyan, E. P.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 116105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Galinetto, F. Rossella, P. Minzioni, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "MicroRaman and photorefractivity study of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 15, 9-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Photorefractivity of hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

Kong, Y.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, "Enhanced photorefractive properties of LiNbO3:Fe crystals by HfO2 codoping" Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Kurimura, S.

S. V. Tovstonog, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, "High power continuous-wave green light generation by quasiphase matching in Mg stoichiometric lithium tantalate" Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, J. Ro, M. Cha, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, K. Kuroda, and T. Taira, "Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond pulse with simultaneous group-velocity matching and quasi phase matching in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3388-3390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, K.

N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, J. Ro, M. Cha, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, K. Kuroda, and T. Taira, "Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond pulse with simultaneous group-velocity matching and quasi phase matching in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3388-3390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation into an embedded link by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 995-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, S. Kumar, J. E. McGeehan, A. E. Willner, and M. M. Fejer, "All-optical signal processing using ?(2) nonlinearities in guided-wave devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2579-2592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lattanzi, L.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, "Enhanced photorefractive properties of LiNbO3:Fe crystals by HfO2 codoping" Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, "Enhanced photorefractive properties of LiNbO3:Fe crystals by HfO2 codoping" Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzetto, G.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marazzi, L.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation into an embedded link by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 995-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation into an embedded link by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 995-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matera, F.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McGeehan, J. E.

Minzioni, P.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 116105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Galinetto, F. Rossella, P. Minzioni, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "MicroRaman and photorefractivity study of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 15, 9-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation into an embedded link by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 995-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Photorefractivity of hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paoletti, A.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quiring, V.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

P. Galinetto, F. Rossella, P. Minzioni, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "MicroRaman and photorefractivity study of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 15, 9-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Photorefractivity of hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ro, J.

N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, J. Ro, M. Cha, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, K. Kuroda, and T. Taira, "Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond pulse with simultaneous group-velocity matching and quasi phase matching in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3388-3390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rossella, F.

P. Galinetto, F. Rossella, P. Minzioni, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "MicroRaman and photorefractivity study of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 15, 9-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schiffini, A.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schlarb, U.

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, "Influence of the defect structure on the refractive indices of undoped and Mg-doped lithium niobate," Phys. Rev. B 50, 751-757 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shimura, T.

N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, J. Ro, M. Cha, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, K. Kuroda, and T. Taira, "Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond pulse with simultaneous group-velocity matching and quasi phase matching in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3388-3390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shirane, M.

Shoji, I.

Sohler, W.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suche, H.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, H. and Suzuki, "Reducing photorefractive effect in periodically poled ZnO- and MgO-doped LiNbO3 wavelength converters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163-3165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, J. Ro, M. Cha, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, K. Kuroda, and T. Taira, "Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond pulse with simultaneous group-velocity matching and quasi phase matching in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3388-3390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tartara, L.

J. Yu, D. Grando, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, "Widely tunable optical parametric oscillator driven by a diode-pumped nonlinear-mirror mode-locked Nd:YAG laser" Opt. Commun. 260, 257-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tosi Beleffi, G. M.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tovstonog, S. V.

S. V. Tovstonog, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, "High power continuous-wave green light generation by quasiphase matching in Mg stoichiometric lithium tantalate" Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vehovc, S.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vidmar, M.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Volk, T. R.

T. R. Volk and M. Woehlecke, "Optical damage resistance in lithium niobate crystals," Ferroelectrics Review 1, 195-262 (1998).

Willner, A. E.

Woehlecke, M.

T. R. Volk and M. Woehlecke, "Optical damage resistance in lithium niobate crystals," Ferroelectrics Review 1, 195-262 (1998).

Xu, J.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, "Enhanced photorefractive properties of LiNbO3:Fe crystals by HfO2 codoping" Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xue, D.

X. He and D. Xue, "Doping mechanism of optical-damage-resistant ions in lithium niobate crystals" Opt. Commun. 265, 537-541 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Xue and K. Betzler, "Influence of optical-damage-resistant dopants on the nonlinear optical properties of lithium niobate" Appl. Phys. B 72, 641-645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Xue and S. Zhang, "Chemical bond analysis of the correlation between crystal structure and nonlinear optical properties of complex crystals" Physica B 262, 78-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yanagawa, T.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, H. and Suzuki, "Reducing photorefractive effect in periodically poled ZnO- and MgO-doped LiNbO3 wavelength converters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163-3165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. Yu, D. Grando, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, "Widely tunable optical parametric oscillator driven by a diode-pumped nonlinear-mirror mode-locked Nd:YAG laser" Opt. Commun. 260, 257-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N. E.

N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, J. Ro, M. Cha, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, K. Kuroda, and T. Taira, "Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond pulse with simultaneous group-velocity matching and quasi phase matching in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3388-3390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, "Enhanced photorefractive properties of LiNbO3:Fe crystals by HfO2 codoping" Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

D. Xue and S. Zhang, "Chemical bond analysis of the correlation between crystal structure and nonlinear optical properties of complex crystals" Physica B 262, 78-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Xue and K. Betzler, "Influence of optical-damage-resistant dopants on the nonlinear optical properties of lithium niobate" Appl. Phys. B 72, 641-645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, "Enhanced photorefractive properties of LiNbO3:Fe crystals by HfO2 codoping" Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, "Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 136-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, H. and Suzuki, "Reducing photorefractive effect in periodically poled ZnO- and MgO-doped LiNbO3 wavelength converters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163-3165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, J. Ro, M. Cha, S. Ashihara, T. Shimura, K. Kuroda, and T. Taira, "Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond pulse with simultaneous group-velocity matching and quasi phase matching in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3388-3390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Tovstonog, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, "High power continuous-wave green light generation by quasiphase matching in Mg stoichiometric lithium tantalate" Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Photorefractivity of hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics Review (1)

T. R. Volk and M. Woehlecke, "Optical damage resistance in lithium niobate crystals," Ferroelectrics Review 1, 195-262 (1998).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. (1)

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc, and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gbit/s link," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 10, 356-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation into an embedded link by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 995-997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 116105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

P. Galinetto, F. Rossella, P. Minzioni, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, "MicroRaman and photorefractivity study of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 15, 9-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, "The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 3527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa and M. Sato, "Defect structure model of MgO-doped LiNbO3" J. Solid State Chem. 118, 148-152 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Yu, D. Grando, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, "Widely tunable optical parametric oscillator driven by a diode-pumped nonlinear-mirror mode-locked Nd:YAG laser" Opt. Commun. 260, 257-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. He and D. Xue, "Doping mechanism of optical-damage-resistant ions in lithium niobate crystals" Opt. Commun. 265, 537-541 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, "Influence of the defect structure on the refractive indices of undoped and Mg-doped lithium niobate," Phys. Rev. B 50, 751-757 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Physica B (1)

D. Xue and S. Zhang, "Chemical bond analysis of the correlation between crystal structure and nonlinear optical properties of complex crystals" Physica B 262, 78-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riv Nuovo Cimento (1)

I. Cristiani and V. Degiorgio, "Optical frequency conversion through cascaded nonlinear processes," Riv Nuovo Cimento 27, 1-49 (2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measurement of crystal birefringence by using the optical spectrum analyzer. a): Normalized ASE spectrum of an Erbium Ytterbium doped optical fiber amplifier; b): Normalized ASE spectrum measured at the polarizer output after propagation through the crystal; c): ratio between the spectra b) and a).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Birefringence of Hf:cLN crystals versus Hf content at 1540 nm (a) and at 806 nm (b). The dashed lines are only drawn to guide the eye.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). SHG phase-matching wavelength of Hf:cLN crystals plotted versus the Hf content at the temperature T = 110°C. (b) phase matching temperature at the pump wavelength λ = 1130 nm. The dashed lines are only drawn to guide the eye.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). SH-power versus incident power for the 4mol% Hf:cLN crystal. (b) Nonlinear coefficient d31 of Hf:cLN crystals plotted versus the Hf content. The values are normalized to the coefficient of the undoped crystal (0 mol% Hf concentration)

Equations (2)

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Δ n = λ A λ B L ( λ A λ B )
I sh = A L 2 λ pm 2 n pm 3 d 31 2 I p 2

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