Abstract

Experimental research is conducted to determine the characteristic behavior of high frequency laser signal intensity data collected over a 2.33 km optical path. Results focus mainly on calculated power spectra and frequency distributions. In addition, a model is 2 developed to calculate optical turbulence intensity (Cn 2) as a function of receiving and transmitting aperture diameter, log-amplitude variance, and path length. Initial comparisons of calculated to measured Cn 2 data are favorable. It is anticipated that this kind of signal data analysis will benefit laser communication systems development and testing at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and elsewhere.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  6. Y. Han Oh, J. C. Ricklin, E. S. Oh and F. D. Eaton, "Evaluating optical turbulence effects on free-space laser communication: modeling and measurements at ARL’s A_LOT facility," Proc. SPIE 5550, 247-255 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. W. Carhart, M. A. Vorontsov, L. A. Beresnev, P. S. Paicopolis, and F. K. Beil, "Atmospheric laser communication system with wide-angle tracking and adaptive compensation," Proc. SPIE 5892, 346-357 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Tunick, "Modeling microphysical influences on optical turbulence in complex areas," Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 96, 293-304 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  24. B. E. Stribling, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, "Optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence," Proc. SPIE 2471, 181-196 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Rao, S. Wang, X. Liu, and Z. Gong, "Turbulence spectrum effect on wave temporal-frequency spectra for light propagating through the atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 2755-2762 (1999).
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2007 (2)

A. Tunick, "Statistical analysis of optical turbulence intensity over a 2.33 km propagation path," Opt. Express 15, 3619-3628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tunick, "Modeling microphysical influences on optical turbulence in complex areas," Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 96, 293-304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. C. Ricklin, S. M. Hammel, F. D. Eaton, and S. L. Lachinova, "Atmospheric channel effects on free-space laser communication," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 3, 111-158 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. Weyrauch and M. A. Vorontsov, "Atmospheric compensation with a speckle beacon in strong scintillation conditions: directed energy and laser communication applications," Appl. Opt. 44, 6388-6401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Carhart, M. A. Vorontsov, L. A. Beresnev, P. S. Paicopolis, and F. K. Beil, "Atmospheric laser communication system with wide-angle tracking and adaptive compensation," Proc. SPIE 5892, 346-357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

E. Golbraikh and N. S. Kopeika, "Behavior of structure function of refraction coefficients in different turbulent fields," Appl. Opt. 43, 6151-6156 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Han Oh, J. C. Ricklin, E. S. Oh and F. D. Eaton, "Evaluating optical turbulence effects on free-space laser communication: modeling and measurements at ARL’s A_LOT facility," Proc. SPIE 5550, 247-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

C. Rao, W. Jiang, and N. Ling, "Atmospheric parameters measurements for non-Kolmogorov turbulence with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 3763, 84-91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, "Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotrophy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics," Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Rao, S. Wang, X. Liu, and Z. Gong, "Turbulence spectrum effect on wave temporal-frequency spectra for light propagating through the atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 2755-2762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Elperin, N. Kleeorin, and I. Rogachevskii, "Isotropic and anisotropic spectra of passive scalar fluctuations in turbulent fluid flow," Phys. Rev. E 53, 3431-3441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. E. Stribling, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, "Optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence," Proc. SPIE 2471, 181-196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1981 (1)

G. Parry, "Measurement of atmospheric turbulence induced intensity fluctuation in a laser beam," Opt. Acta. 28, 715-728 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1971 (1)

1968 (1)

R. H. Kraichnan, "Small-scale structure of a scalar field convected by turbulence," Phys. Fluids 11, 945-953 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

1959 (1)

G. K. Batchelor, I. D. Howells, and A. A. Townsend, "Small-scale variation of convected quantities like temperature in turbulent fluid. Part II: The case of large conductivity," J. Fluid Mech. 5, 134-139 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Banta, M.

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barchers, J. D.

M. S. Belen’kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, "Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotrophy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics," Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Batchelor, G. K.

G. K. Batchelor, I. D. Howells, and A. A. Townsend, "Small-scale variation of convected quantities like temperature in turbulent fluid. Part II: The case of large conductivity," J. Fluid Mech. 5, 134-139 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Beil, F. K.

G. W. Carhart, M. A. Vorontsov, L. A. Beresnev, P. S. Paicopolis, and F. K. Beil, "Atmospheric laser communication system with wide-angle tracking and adaptive compensation," Proc. SPIE 5892, 346-357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Belen’kii, M. S.

M. S. Belen’kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, "Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotrophy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics," Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beresnev, L. A.

G. W. Carhart, M. A. Vorontsov, L. A. Beresnev, P. S. Paicopolis, and F. K. Beil, "Atmospheric laser communication system with wide-angle tracking and adaptive compensation," Proc. SPIE 5892, 346-357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. M.

M. S. Belen’kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, "Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotrophy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics," Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carhart, G.

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carhart, G. W.

G. W. Carhart, M. A. Vorontsov, L. A. Beresnev, P. S. Paicopolis, and F. K. Beil, "Atmospheric laser communication system with wide-angle tracking and adaptive compensation," Proc. SPIE 5892, 346-357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carrano, J.

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, T.

Dayton, D.

Eaton, F. D.

J. C. Ricklin, S. M. Hammel, F. D. Eaton, and S. L. Lachinova, "Atmospheric channel effects on free-space laser communication," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 3, 111-158 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han Oh, J. C. Ricklin, E. S. Oh and F. D. Eaton, "Evaluating optical turbulence effects on free-space laser communication: modeling and measurements at ARL’s A_LOT facility," Proc. SPIE 5550, 247-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elperin, T.

T. Elperin, N. Kleeorin, and I. Rogachevskii, "Isotropic and anisotropic spectra of passive scalar fluctuations in turbulent fluid flow," Phys. Rev. E 53, 3431-3441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

Fugate, R. Q.

M. S. Belen’kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, "Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotrophy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics," Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Golbraikh, E.

Gong, Z.

R. Rao, S. Wang, X. Liu, and Z. Gong, "Turbulence spectrum effect on wave temporal-frequency spectra for light propagating through the atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 2755-2762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gonglewski, J.

Gowens, J.

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hammel, S. M.

J. C. Ricklin, S. M. Hammel, F. D. Eaton, and S. L. Lachinova, "Atmospheric channel effects on free-space laser communication," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 3, 111-158 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han Oh, Y.

Y. Han Oh, J. C. Ricklin, E. S. Oh and F. D. Eaton, "Evaluating optical turbulence effects on free-space laser communication: modeling and measurements at ARL’s A_LOT facility," Proc. SPIE 5550, 247-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Howells, I. D.

G. K. Batchelor, I. D. Howells, and A. A. Townsend, "Small-scale variation of convected quantities like temperature in turbulent fluid. Part II: The case of large conductivity," J. Fluid Mech. 5, 134-139 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, and N. Ling, "Atmospheric parameters measurements for non-Kolmogorov turbulence with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 3763, 84-91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karis, S. J.

M. S. Belen’kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, "Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotrophy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics," Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keister, M. P.

Kleeorin, N.

T. Elperin, N. Kleeorin, and I. Rogachevskii, "Isotropic and anisotropic spectra of passive scalar fluctuations in turbulent fluid flow," Phys. Rev. E 53, 3431-3441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kopeika, N. S.

Kraichnan, R. H.

R. H. Kraichnan, "Small-scale structure of a scalar field convected by turbulence," Phys. Fluids 11, 945-953 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Lachinova, S. L.

J. C. Ricklin, S. M. Hammel, F. D. Eaton, and S. L. Lachinova, "Atmospheric channel effects on free-space laser communication," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 3, 111-158 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ling, N.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, and N. Ling, "Atmospheric parameters measurements for non-Kolmogorov turbulence with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 3763, 84-91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

R. Rao, S. Wang, X. Liu, and Z. Gong, "Turbulence spectrum effect on wave temporal-frequency spectra for light propagating through the atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 2755-2762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mevers, G. E.

Oh, E. S.

Y. Han Oh, J. C. Ricklin, E. S. Oh and F. D. Eaton, "Evaluating optical turbulence effects on free-space laser communication: modeling and measurements at ARL’s A_LOT facility," Proc. SPIE 5550, 247-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osmon, C. L.

M. S. Belen’kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, "Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotrophy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics," Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paicopolis, P. S.

G. W. Carhart, M. A. Vorontsov, L. A. Beresnev, P. S. Paicopolis, and F. K. Beil, "Atmospheric laser communication system with wide-angle tracking and adaptive compensation," Proc. SPIE 5892, 346-357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parry, G.

G. Parry, "Measurement of atmospheric turbulence induced intensity fluctuation in a laser beam," Opt. Acta. 28, 715-728 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pierson, B.

Rao, C.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, and N. Ling, "Atmospheric parameters measurements for non-Kolmogorov turbulence with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 3763, 84-91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rao, R.

R. Rao, S. Wang, X. Liu, and Z. Gong, "Turbulence spectrum effect on wave temporal-frequency spectra for light propagating through the atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 2755-2762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ricklin, J. C.

J. C. Ricklin, S. M. Hammel, F. D. Eaton, and S. L. Lachinova, "Atmospheric channel effects on free-space laser communication," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 3, 111-158 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han Oh, J. C. Ricklin, E. S. Oh and F. D. Eaton, "Evaluating optical turbulence effects on free-space laser communication: modeling and measurements at ARL’s A_LOT facility," Proc. SPIE 5550, 247-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rogachevskii, I.

T. Elperin, N. Kleeorin, and I. Rogachevskii, "Isotropic and anisotropic spectra of passive scalar fluctuations in turbulent fluid flow," Phys. Rev. E 53, 3431-3441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roggemann, M. C.

B. E. Stribling, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, "Optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence," Proc. SPIE 2471, 181-196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spielbusch, B.

Stribling, B. E.

B. E. Stribling, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, "Optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence," Proc. SPIE 2471, 181-196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, A. A.

G. K. Batchelor, I. D. Howells, and A. A. Townsend, "Small-scale variation of convected quantities like temperature in turbulent fluid. Part II: The case of large conductivity," J. Fluid Mech. 5, 134-139 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Tunick, A.

A. Tunick, "Modeling microphysical influences on optical turbulence in complex areas," Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 96, 293-304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Tunick, "Statistical analysis of optical turbulence intensity over a 2.33 km propagation path," Opt. Express 15, 3619-3628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vorontsov, M.

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vorontsov, M. A.

G. W. Carhart, M. A. Vorontsov, L. A. Beresnev, P. S. Paicopolis, and F. K. Beil, "Atmospheric laser communication system with wide-angle tracking and adaptive compensation," Proc. SPIE 5892, 346-357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Weyrauch and M. A. Vorontsov, "Atmospheric compensation with a speckle beacon in strong scintillation conditions: directed energy and laser communication applications," Appl. Opt. 44, 6388-6401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

R. Rao, S. Wang, X. Liu, and Z. Gong, "Turbulence spectrum effect on wave temporal-frequency spectra for light propagating through the atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 2755-2762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T-i

Welsh, B. M.

B. E. Stribling, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, "Optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence," Proc. SPIE 2471, 181-196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weyrauch, T.

T. Weyrauch and M. A. Vorontsov, "Atmospheric compensation with a speckle beacon in strong scintillation conditions: directed energy and laser communication applications," Appl. Opt. 44, 6388-6401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

G. K. Batchelor, I. D. Howells, and A. A. Townsend, "Small-scale variation of convected quantities like temperature in turbulent fluid. Part II: The case of large conductivity," J. Fluid Mech. 5, 134-139 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. (1)

J. C. Ricklin, S. M. Hammel, F. D. Eaton, and S. L. Lachinova, "Atmospheric channel effects on free-space laser communication," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 3, 111-158 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. (1)

A. Tunick, "Modeling microphysical influences on optical turbulence in complex areas," Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 96, 293-304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta. (1)

G. Parry, "Measurement of atmospheric turbulence induced intensity fluctuation in a laser beam," Opt. Acta. 28, 715-728 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Fluids (1)

R. H. Kraichnan, "Small-scale structure of a scalar field convected by turbulence," Phys. Fluids 11, 945-953 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

T. Elperin, N. Kleeorin, and I. Rogachevskii, "Isotropic and anisotropic spectra of passive scalar fluctuations in turbulent fluid flow," Phys. Rev. E 53, 3431-3441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (6)

B. E. Stribling, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, "Optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence," Proc. SPIE 2471, 181-196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Rao, W. Jiang, and N. Ling, "Atmospheric parameters measurements for non-Kolmogorov turbulence with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE 3763, 84-91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, "Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotrophy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics," Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han Oh, J. C. Ricklin, E. S. Oh and F. D. Eaton, "Evaluating optical turbulence effects on free-space laser communication: modeling and measurements at ARL’s A_LOT facility," Proc. SPIE 5550, 247-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Carhart, M. A. Vorontsov, L. A. Beresnev, P. S. Paicopolis, and F. K. Beil, "Atmospheric laser communication system with wide-angle tracking and adaptive compensation," Proc. SPIE 5892, 346-357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

A. Ishimaru, "The beam wave case and remote sensing," in Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere, (Springer-Verlag, 1978), pp. 129-170
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, 2001).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Tatarski, The Effects of the Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1971).

User’s Guide. LOA-004-xR Long Baseline Optical Anemometer and Atmospheric Turbulence Sensor. Revision 3/20/2003. Optical Scientific, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (2003). http://www.opticalscientific.com/

Operating Instructions. Model 81000 Ultrasonic Anemometer. Revision 01/24/2007, R.M. Young Co., Traverse City, MI (2007). http://www.youngusa.com/

A. N. Kolmogorov, "The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluids for very large Reynolds’ numbers," in Turbulence, Classic Papers on Statistical Theory (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1961), 151-155.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic of the ARL A_LOT optical path

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

An aerial photo of the A_LOT propagation path (data from terrafly.com)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A schematic of the wave propagation geometry for this experiment.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photograph of the receiving optics. A high-speed photo-detector is mounted behind the telescope on the right. A video camera is attached to the telescope on the left.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Histograms of measured laser signal intensity data for trials (a) T3, (b) T4, (c) T5, and (d) T7. Log-normal regression coefficients, R2, are annotated on each graph.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectral analysis for measured laser signal intensity data for trials (a) T3, (b) T4, (c) T5, and (d) T7. Turbulence power law curve fits for -5/3 and -17/3 are annotated on each graph.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Modeled versus measured Cn 2 data for trials T1 – T8.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Microclimate and turbulence characteristics for the experimental data set

Equations (2)

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σ 1 2 = 1.23 C n 2 k 7 6 L 11 6 ,
C n 2 = C σ 2 D t 7 3 L 3

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