Abstract

A Monte Carlo code for the calculation of light transport in heterogeneous scattering media is presented together with its validation. Triangle meshes are used to define the interfaces between different materials, in contrast with techniques based on individual volume elements. This approach allows to address realistic problems in a flexible way. A hierarchical spatial organisation enables a fast photon-surface intersection test. The application of the new environment to evaluate the impact of the trabecular structure of bone on its optical properties is demonstrated. A model of the trabecular micro structure recovered from microCT data was used to compute light distribution within tissue. Time-resolved curves across a spherical bone volume were computed. The work presented enables simulation of radiative transport in complex reality-based models of tissue and serves as a powerful, generic tool to study the effect of heterogeneity in the field of biomedical optics.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

2006 (1)

S. Nayak, I. Olkin, H. Liu, M. Grabe, M. Gould, I. Allen, D. Owens, and D. Bravata, "Meta-Analysis: accuracy of quantitative ultrasound for identifying patients with osteoporosis," Ann. Intern. Med. 144, 832-841 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (5)

A. William, S. Barrus, R. Morley, and P. Shirley, "An Efficient and Robust Ray-Box Intersection Algorithm," J. Graph. Tools 10, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Bashkatov, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaenous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000nm," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, E. Chikoidze, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054004 (2005).
[PubMed]

E. Cerezo, F. Pérez, X. Pueyo, F. Serón, and F. Sillion, "A survey on participating media rendering techniques," Visual. Comput. 21, 303-328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Côté and I. Vitkin, "Robust concentration determination of optically active molecules in turbid media with validated three-dimensional polarization sensitive Monte Carlo calculations," Opt. Express 13, 148-163 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, "Differentiation of cysts from solid tumours in the breast with Diffuse Optical Tomography," Acad. Radiol. 11, 53-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli and R. Cubbedu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Brown, E. Brown, and I. Walker, "The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment," Oncology 5, 497-508 (2004).
[PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 474-479 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ugryumova, S. Matcher, and D. Attenburrow, "Measurement of bone mineral density via light scattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 469-483 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hebden, J. J. García Guerrero, V. Chernomordik, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Experimental evaluation of an anisotropic scattering model of a slab geometry," Opt. Lett. 29, 2518-2520 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (5)

R. van Veen, W. Verkruysse, and H. Sterenborg, "Diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy from 500 to 1060 nm by correction for inhomogeneously distributed absorbers," Opt. Lett. 27, 246-248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Brown, R. Barrett, T. Booth, J. Bull, L. Cox, R. Forster, J. Goorley, R. Mosteller, S. Post, R. Prael, E. Selcow, A. Sood and J. Sweezy, "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 87, 273 (2002).

D. Boas, J. Culver, J. Stott, and A. Dunn, "Three dimensional Monte Carlo code for photon migration through complex heterogeneous media including the adult human head," Opt. Express 10, 159-170 (2002).
[PubMed]

F. Hartl, A. Tyndall, M. Kraenzlin, C. Bachmeier, C. Guckel, U. Senn, D. Hans, and R. Theiler, "Discriminatory ability of quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone mineral density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures: results of the Basel Osteoporosis Study," J. Bone Miner. Res. 17, 321-330 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tycho, T. Jørgensen, H. Yura, and P. Andersen, "Derivation of a Monte Carlo method for modeling heterodyne detection in optical Coherence tomography systems," Appl. Opt. 41, 6676-6691 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

H. Bal, R. Bhoedjang, R. Hofman, C. Jacobs, T. Kielmann, J. Maassen, R. van Nieuwpoort, J. Romein, L. Renambot, T. Ruhl, R. Veldema, K. Verstoep, A. Baggio, G. Ballintijn, I. Kuz, G. Pierre, M. van Steen, A. Tanenbaum, G. Doornbos, D. Germans, H. Spoelder, E.-J. Baerends, S. van Gisbergen, H. Afsermanesh, D. van Albada, A. Belloum, D. Dubbeldam, Z. Hendrikse, B. Hertzberger, A. Hoekstra, K. Iskra, D. Kandhai, D. Koelma, F. van der Linden, B. Overeinder, P. Sloot, P. Spinnato, D. Epema, A. van Gemund, P. Jonker, A. Radulescu, C. van Reeuwijk, H. Sips, P. Knijnenburg, M. Lew, F. Sluiter, L. Wolters, H. Blom, C. de Laat, and A. van der Steen, "The distributed ASCI Supercomputer project," SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 34, 76-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Giesen and T. van Eijden, "The three-dimensional cancellous bone architecture of the human mandibular condyle," J. Dent. Res. 79, 957-963 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

J. Barton, T. Pfeffer, and A. Welch, "Optical Monte Carlo modeling of a true port wine stain anatomy," Opt. Express 2, 391-396 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Murrer, H. Marijnissen, and W. Start, "Monte Carlo simulations for endobronchial photodynamic therapy: the influence of variations in optical and geometrical properties and of realistic and eccentric light sources," Laser Surg. Med. 22, 193-206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Howell, "The Monte Carlo method in radiative heat transfer," J. Heat Transfer 120, 547-560 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "CONV - convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 141-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Takeuchi, R. Araki, S. Proskurin, Y. Takahashi, Y. Yamada, J. Ishii, S. Katayama, and A. Itabashi, "A new method of bone tissue measurement based upon light scattering," J. Bone Miner. Res. 12, 261-266 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Möller and B. Trumbore, "Fast, minimum storage ray-triangle intersection," J. Graph. Tools 2, 21-28 (1997).

1996 (2)

M. Firbank, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfefer, J. Barton, E. Chan, M. Ducros, B. Sorg, T. Milner, J. Nelson, and A. Welch, "A three-dimensional modular adaptable grid numerical model for light propagation during laser irradiation of skin tissue," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 934-942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Wang, S. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, and D. Delpy, "Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650-950 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503-510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

A. Glassner, "Space subdivision for fast ray tracing," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 4, 15-22 (1984).

Ajichi, Y.

Allen, I.

S. Nayak, I. Olkin, H. Liu, M. Grabe, M. Gould, I. Allen, D. Owens, and D. Bravata, "Meta-Analysis: accuracy of quantitative ultrasound for identifying patients with osteoporosis," Ann. Intern. Med. 144, 832-841 (2006).
[PubMed]

Andersen, P.

Araki, R.

A. Takeuchi, R. Araki, S. Proskurin, Y. Takahashi, Y. Yamada, J. Ishii, S. Katayama, and A. Itabashi, "A new method of bone tissue measurement based upon light scattering," J. Bone Miner. Res. 12, 261-266 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S.

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attenburrow, D.

N. Ugryumova, S. Matcher, and D. Attenburrow, "Measurement of bone mineral density via light scattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 469-483 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachmeier, C.

F. Hartl, A. Tyndall, M. Kraenzlin, C. Bachmeier, C. Guckel, U. Senn, D. Hans, and R. Theiler, "Discriminatory ability of quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone mineral density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures: results of the Basel Osteoporosis Study," J. Bone Miner. Res. 17, 321-330 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bal, H.

H. Bal, R. Bhoedjang, R. Hofman, C. Jacobs, T. Kielmann, J. Maassen, R. van Nieuwpoort, J. Romein, L. Renambot, T. Ruhl, R. Veldema, K. Verstoep, A. Baggio, G. Ballintijn, I. Kuz, G. Pierre, M. van Steen, A. Tanenbaum, G. Doornbos, D. Germans, H. Spoelder, E.-J. Baerends, S. van Gisbergen, H. Afsermanesh, D. van Albada, A. Belloum, D. Dubbeldam, Z. Hendrikse, B. Hertzberger, A. Hoekstra, K. Iskra, D. Kandhai, D. Koelma, F. van der Linden, B. Overeinder, P. Sloot, P. Spinnato, D. Epema, A. van Gemund, P. Jonker, A. Radulescu, C. van Reeuwijk, H. Sips, P. Knijnenburg, M. Lew, F. Sluiter, L. Wolters, H. Blom, C. de Laat, and A. van der Steen, "The distributed ASCI Supercomputer project," SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 34, 76-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, R.

F. Brown, R. Barrett, T. Booth, J. Bull, L. Cox, R. Forster, J. Goorley, R. Mosteller, S. Post, R. Prael, E. Selcow, A. Sood and J. Sweezy, "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 87, 273 (2002).

Barrus, S.

A. William, S. Barrus, R. Morley, and P. Shirley, "An Efficient and Robust Ray-Box Intersection Algorithm," J. Graph. Tools 10, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, M.

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, "Differentiation of cysts from solid tumours in the breast with Diffuse Optical Tomography," Acad. Radiol. 11, 53-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J.

J. Barton, T. Pfeffer, and A. Welch, "Optical Monte Carlo modeling of a true port wine stain anatomy," Opt. Express 2, 391-396 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfefer, J. Barton, E. Chan, M. Ducros, B. Sorg, T. Milner, J. Nelson, and A. Welch, "A three-dimensional modular adaptable grid numerical model for light propagation during laser irradiation of skin tissue," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 934-942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bashkatov, G.

G. Bashkatov, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaenous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000nm," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bassi, A.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 474-479 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhoedjang, R.

H. Bal, R. Bhoedjang, R. Hofman, C. Jacobs, T. Kielmann, J. Maassen, R. van Nieuwpoort, J. Romein, L. Renambot, T. Ruhl, R. Veldema, K. Verstoep, A. Baggio, G. Ballintijn, I. Kuz, G. Pierre, M. van Steen, A. Tanenbaum, G. Doornbos, D. Germans, H. Spoelder, E.-J. Baerends, S. van Gisbergen, H. Afsermanesh, D. van Albada, A. Belloum, D. Dubbeldam, Z. Hendrikse, B. Hertzberger, A. Hoekstra, K. Iskra, D. Kandhai, D. Koelma, F. van der Linden, B. Overeinder, P. Sloot, P. Spinnato, D. Epema, A. van Gemund, P. Jonker, A. Radulescu, C. van Reeuwijk, H. Sips, P. Knijnenburg, M. Lew, F. Sluiter, L. Wolters, H. Blom, C. de Laat, and A. van der Steen, "The distributed ASCI Supercomputer project," SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 34, 76-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D.

Booth, T.

F. Brown, R. Barrett, T. Booth, J. Bull, L. Cox, R. Forster, J. Goorley, R. Mosteller, S. Post, R. Prael, E. Selcow, A. Sood and J. Sweezy, "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 87, 273 (2002).

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S. Nayak, I. Olkin, H. Liu, M. Grabe, M. Gould, I. Allen, D. Owens, and D. Bravata, "Meta-Analysis: accuracy of quantitative ultrasound for identifying patients with osteoporosis," Ann. Intern. Med. 144, 832-841 (2006).
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E. Cerezo, F. Pérez, X. Pueyo, F. Serón, and F. Sillion, "A survey on participating media rendering techniques," Visual. Comput. 21, 303-328 (2005).
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T. Pfefer, J. Barton, E. Chan, M. Ducros, B. Sorg, T. Milner, J. Nelson, and A. Welch, "A three-dimensional modular adaptable grid numerical model for light propagation during laser irradiation of skin tissue," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 934-942 (1996).
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Chang, M.

Chernomordik, V.

Chikoidze, E.

R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, E. Chikoidze, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054004 (2005).
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A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 474-479 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

Côté, D.

Cox, L.

F. Brown, R. Barrett, T. Booth, J. Bull, L. Cox, R. Forster, J. Goorley, R. Mosteller, S. Post, R. Prael, E. Selcow, A. Sood and J. Sweezy, "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 87, 273 (2002).

Cubbedu, R.

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli and R. Cubbedu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, E. Chikoidze, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054004 (2005).
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A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 474-479 (2004).
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Danesini, G.

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli and R. Cubbedu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
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E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).
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T. Pfefer, J. Barton, E. Chan, M. Ducros, B. Sorg, T. Milner, J. Nelson, and A. Welch, "A three-dimensional modular adaptable grid numerical model for light propagation during laser irradiation of skin tissue," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 934-942 (1996).
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Esenaliev, R.

Essenpreis, M.

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, and D. Delpy, "Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650-950 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503-510 (1993).
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X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, "Differentiation of cysts from solid tumours in the breast with Diffuse Optical Tomography," Acad. Radiol. 11, 53-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).
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M. Firbank, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
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M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, and D. Delpy, "Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650-950 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503-510 (1993).
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F. Brown, R. Barrett, T. Booth, J. Bull, L. Cox, R. Forster, J. Goorley, R. Mosteller, S. Post, R. Prael, E. Selcow, A. Sood and J. Sweezy, "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 87, 273 (2002).

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Gandjbakhche, A. H.

García Guerrero, J. J.

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A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 474-479 (2004).
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Gould, M.

S. Nayak, I. Olkin, H. Liu, M. Grabe, M. Gould, I. Allen, D. Owens, and D. Bravata, "Meta-Analysis: accuracy of quantitative ultrasound for identifying patients with osteoporosis," Ann. Intern. Med. 144, 832-841 (2006).
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Grabe, M.

S. Nayak, I. Olkin, H. Liu, M. Grabe, M. Gould, I. Allen, D. Owens, and D. Bravata, "Meta-Analysis: accuracy of quantitative ultrasound for identifying patients with osteoporosis," Ann. Intern. Med. 144, 832-841 (2006).
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X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, "Differentiation of cysts from solid tumours in the breast with Diffuse Optical Tomography," Acad. Radiol. 11, 53-60 (2004).
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Hartl, F.

F. Hartl, A. Tyndall, M. Kraenzlin, C. Bachmeier, C. Guckel, U. Senn, D. Hans, and R. Theiler, "Discriminatory ability of quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone mineral density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures: results of the Basel Osteoporosis Study," J. Bone Miner. Res. 17, 321-330 (2002).
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Hebden, J.

Hiraoka, M.

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, and D. Delpy, "Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650-950 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503-510 (1993).
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H. Bal, R. Bhoedjang, R. Hofman, C. Jacobs, T. Kielmann, J. Maassen, R. van Nieuwpoort, J. Romein, L. Renambot, T. Ruhl, R. Veldema, K. Verstoep, A. Baggio, G. Ballintijn, I. Kuz, G. Pierre, M. van Steen, A. Tanenbaum, G. Doornbos, D. Germans, H. Spoelder, E.-J. Baerends, S. van Gisbergen, H. Afsermanesh, D. van Albada, A. Belloum, D. Dubbeldam, Z. Hendrikse, B. Hertzberger, A. Hoekstra, K. Iskra, D. Kandhai, D. Koelma, F. van der Linden, B. Overeinder, P. Sloot, P. Spinnato, D. Epema, A. van Gemund, P. Jonker, A. Radulescu, C. van Reeuwijk, H. Sips, P. Knijnenburg, M. Lew, F. Sluiter, L. Wolters, H. Blom, C. de Laat, and A. van der Steen, "The distributed ASCI Supercomputer project," SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 34, 76-96 (2000).
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A. Takeuchi, R. Araki, S. Proskurin, Y. Takahashi, Y. Yamada, J. Ishii, S. Katayama, and A. Itabashi, "A new method of bone tissue measurement based upon light scattering," J. Bone Miner. Res. 12, 261-266 (1997).
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A. Takeuchi, R. Araki, S. Proskurin, Y. Takahashi, Y. Yamada, J. Ishii, S. Katayama, and A. Itabashi, "A new method of bone tissue measurement based upon light scattering," J. Bone Miner. Res. 12, 261-266 (1997).
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H. Bal, R. Bhoedjang, R. Hofman, C. Jacobs, T. Kielmann, J. Maassen, R. van Nieuwpoort, J. Romein, L. Renambot, T. Ruhl, R. Veldema, K. Verstoep, A. Baggio, G. Ballintijn, I. Kuz, G. Pierre, M. van Steen, A. Tanenbaum, G. Doornbos, D. Germans, H. Spoelder, E.-J. Baerends, S. van Gisbergen, H. Afsermanesh, D. van Albada, A. Belloum, D. Dubbeldam, Z. Hendrikse, B. Hertzberger, A. Hoekstra, K. Iskra, D. Kandhai, D. Koelma, F. van der Linden, B. Overeinder, P. Sloot, P. Spinnato, D. Epema, A. van Gemund, P. Jonker, A. Radulescu, C. van Reeuwijk, H. Sips, P. Knijnenburg, M. Lew, F. Sluiter, L. Wolters, H. Blom, C. de Laat, and A. van der Steen, "The distributed ASCI Supercomputer project," SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 34, 76-96 (2000).
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X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, "Differentiation of cysts from solid tumours in the breast with Diffuse Optical Tomography," Acad. Radiol. 11, 53-60 (2004).
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Katayama, S.

A. Takeuchi, R. Araki, S. Proskurin, Y. Takahashi, Y. Yamada, J. Ishii, S. Katayama, and A. Itabashi, "A new method of bone tissue measurement based upon light scattering," J. Bone Miner. Res. 12, 261-266 (1997).
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H. Bal, R. Bhoedjang, R. Hofman, C. Jacobs, T. Kielmann, J. Maassen, R. van Nieuwpoort, J. Romein, L. Renambot, T. Ruhl, R. Veldema, K. Verstoep, A. Baggio, G. Ballintijn, I. Kuz, G. Pierre, M. van Steen, A. Tanenbaum, G. Doornbos, D. Germans, H. Spoelder, E.-J. Baerends, S. van Gisbergen, H. Afsermanesh, D. van Albada, A. Belloum, D. Dubbeldam, Z. Hendrikse, B. Hertzberger, A. Hoekstra, K. Iskra, D. Kandhai, D. Koelma, F. van der Linden, B. Overeinder, P. Sloot, P. Spinnato, D. Epema, A. van Gemund, P. Jonker, A. Radulescu, C. van Reeuwijk, H. Sips, P. Knijnenburg, M. Lew, F. Sluiter, L. Wolters, H. Blom, C. de Laat, and A. van der Steen, "The distributed ASCI Supercomputer project," SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 34, 76-96 (2000).
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Kraenzlin, M.

F. Hartl, A. Tyndall, M. Kraenzlin, C. Bachmeier, C. Guckel, U. Senn, D. Hans, and R. Theiler, "Discriminatory ability of quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone mineral density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures: results of the Basel Osteoporosis Study," J. Bone Miner. Res. 17, 321-330 (2002).
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Liu, H.

S. Nayak, I. Olkin, H. Liu, M. Grabe, M. Gould, I. Allen, D. Owens, and D. Bravata, "Meta-Analysis: accuracy of quantitative ultrasound for identifying patients with osteoporosis," Ann. Intern. Med. 144, 832-841 (2006).
[PubMed]

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H. Bal, R. Bhoedjang, R. Hofman, C. Jacobs, T. Kielmann, J. Maassen, R. van Nieuwpoort, J. Romein, L. Renambot, T. Ruhl, R. Veldema, K. Verstoep, A. Baggio, G. Ballintijn, I. Kuz, G. Pierre, M. van Steen, A. Tanenbaum, G. Doornbos, D. Germans, H. Spoelder, E.-J. Baerends, S. van Gisbergen, H. Afsermanesh, D. van Albada, A. Belloum, D. Dubbeldam, Z. Hendrikse, B. Hertzberger, A. Hoekstra, K. Iskra, D. Kandhai, D. Koelma, F. van der Linden, B. Overeinder, P. Sloot, P. Spinnato, D. Epema, A. van Gemund, P. Jonker, A. Radulescu, C. van Reeuwijk, H. Sips, P. Knijnenburg, M. Lew, F. Sluiter, L. Wolters, H. Blom, C. de Laat, and A. van der Steen, "The distributed ASCI Supercomputer project," SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 34, 76-96 (2000).
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L. Murrer, H. Marijnissen, and W. Start, "Monte Carlo simulations for endobronchial photodynamic therapy: the influence of variations in optical and geometrical properties and of realistic and eccentric light sources," Laser Surg. Med. 22, 193-206 (1998).
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T. Pfefer, J. Barton, E. Chan, M. Ducros, B. Sorg, T. Milner, J. Nelson, and A. Welch, "A three-dimensional modular adaptable grid numerical model for light propagation during laser irradiation of skin tissue," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 934-942 (1996).
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F. Brown, R. Barrett, T. Booth, J. Bull, L. Cox, R. Forster, J. Goorley, R. Mosteller, S. Post, R. Prael, E. Selcow, A. Sood and J. Sweezy, "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 87, 273 (2002).

Murrer, L.

L. Murrer, H. Marijnissen, and W. Start, "Monte Carlo simulations for endobronchial photodynamic therapy: the influence of variations in optical and geometrical properties and of realistic and eccentric light sources," Laser Surg. Med. 22, 193-206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, S.

S. Nayak, I. Olkin, H. Liu, M. Grabe, M. Gould, I. Allen, D. Owens, and D. Bravata, "Meta-Analysis: accuracy of quantitative ultrasound for identifying patients with osteoporosis," Ann. Intern. Med. 144, 832-841 (2006).
[PubMed]

Nelson, J.

T. Pfefer, J. Barton, E. Chan, M. Ducros, B. Sorg, T. Milner, J. Nelson, and A. Welch, "A three-dimensional modular adaptable grid numerical model for light propagation during laser irradiation of skin tissue," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 934-942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okada, E.

Olkin, I.

S. Nayak, I. Olkin, H. Liu, M. Grabe, M. Gould, I. Allen, D. Owens, and D. Bravata, "Meta-Analysis: accuracy of quantitative ultrasound for identifying patients with osteoporosis," Ann. Intern. Med. 144, 832-841 (2006).
[PubMed]

Owens, D.

S. Nayak, I. Olkin, H. Liu, M. Grabe, M. Gould, I. Allen, D. Owens, and D. Bravata, "Meta-Analysis: accuracy of quantitative ultrasound for identifying patients with osteoporosis," Ann. Intern. Med. 144, 832-841 (2006).
[PubMed]

Patrikeev, I.

Pérez, F.

E. Cerezo, F. Pérez, X. Pueyo, F. Serón, and F. Sillion, "A survey on participating media rendering techniques," Visual. Comput. 21, 303-328 (2005).
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Petrov, Y.

Petrova, I.

Pfefer, T.

T. Pfefer, J. Barton, E. Chan, M. Ducros, B. Sorg, T. Milner, J. Nelson, and A. Welch, "A three-dimensional modular adaptable grid numerical model for light propagation during laser irradiation of skin tissue," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 934-942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pfeffer, T.

Pifferi, A.

R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, E. Chikoidze, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054004 (2005).
[PubMed]

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli and R. Cubbedu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 474-479 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Post, S.

F. Brown, R. Barrett, T. Booth, J. Bull, L. Cox, R. Forster, J. Goorley, R. Mosteller, S. Post, R. Prael, E. Selcow, A. Sood and J. Sweezy, "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 87, 273 (2002).

Prael, R.

F. Brown, R. Barrett, T. Booth, J. Bull, L. Cox, R. Forster, J. Goorley, R. Mosteller, S. Post, R. Prael, E. Selcow, A. Sood and J. Sweezy, "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 87, 273 (2002).

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A. Takeuchi, R. Araki, S. Proskurin, Y. Takahashi, Y. Yamada, J. Ishii, S. Katayama, and A. Itabashi, "A new method of bone tissue measurement based upon light scattering," J. Bone Miner. Res. 12, 261-266 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Pueyo, X.

E. Cerezo, F. Pérez, X. Pueyo, F. Serón, and F. Sillion, "A survey on participating media rendering techniques," Visual. Comput. 21, 303-328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Renambot, L.

H. Bal, R. Bhoedjang, R. Hofman, C. Jacobs, T. Kielmann, J. Maassen, R. van Nieuwpoort, J. Romein, L. Renambot, T. Ruhl, R. Veldema, K. Verstoep, A. Baggio, G. Ballintijn, I. Kuz, G. Pierre, M. van Steen, A. Tanenbaum, G. Doornbos, D. Germans, H. Spoelder, E.-J. Baerends, S. van Gisbergen, H. Afsermanesh, D. van Albada, A. Belloum, D. Dubbeldam, Z. Hendrikse, B. Hertzberger, A. Hoekstra, K. Iskra, D. Kandhai, D. Koelma, F. van der Linden, B. Overeinder, P. Sloot, P. Spinnato, D. Epema, A. van Gemund, P. Jonker, A. Radulescu, C. van Reeuwijk, H. Sips, P. Knijnenburg, M. Lew, F. Sluiter, L. Wolters, H. Blom, C. de Laat, and A. van der Steen, "The distributed ASCI Supercomputer project," SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 34, 76-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Romein, J.

H. Bal, R. Bhoedjang, R. Hofman, C. Jacobs, T. Kielmann, J. Maassen, R. van Nieuwpoort, J. Romein, L. Renambot, T. Ruhl, R. Veldema, K. Verstoep, A. Baggio, G. Ballintijn, I. Kuz, G. Pierre, M. van Steen, A. Tanenbaum, G. Doornbos, D. Germans, H. Spoelder, E.-J. Baerends, S. van Gisbergen, H. Afsermanesh, D. van Albada, A. Belloum, D. Dubbeldam, Z. Hendrikse, B. Hertzberger, A. Hoekstra, K. Iskra, D. Kandhai, D. Koelma, F. van der Linden, B. Overeinder, P. Sloot, P. Spinnato, D. Epema, A. van Gemund, P. Jonker, A. Radulescu, C. van Reeuwijk, H. Sips, P. Knijnenburg, M. Lew, F. Sluiter, L. Wolters, H. Blom, C. de Laat, and A. van der Steen, "The distributed ASCI Supercomputer project," SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 34, 76-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schutz, L.

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, "Differentiation of cysts from solid tumours in the breast with Diffuse Optical Tomography," Acad. Radiol. 11, 53-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selcow, E.

F. Brown, R. Barrett, T. Booth, J. Bull, L. Cox, R. Forster, J. Goorley, R. Mosteller, S. Post, R. Prael, E. Selcow, A. Sood and J. Sweezy, "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 87, 273 (2002).

Serón, F.

E. Cerezo, F. Pérez, X. Pueyo, F. Serón, and F. Sillion, "A survey on participating media rendering techniques," Visual. Comput. 21, 303-328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shirley, P.

A. William, S. Barrus, R. Morley, and P. Shirley, "An Efficient and Robust Ray-Box Intersection Algorithm," J. Graph. Tools 10, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sillion, F.

E. Cerezo, F. Pérez, X. Pueyo, F. Serón, and F. Sillion, "A survey on participating media rendering techniques," Visual. Comput. 21, 303-328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sood, A.

F. Brown, R. Barrett, T. Booth, J. Bull, L. Cox, R. Forster, J. Goorley, R. Mosteller, S. Post, R. Prael, E. Selcow, A. Sood and J. Sweezy, "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 87, 273 (2002).

Sorg, B.

T. Pfefer, J. Barton, E. Chan, M. Ducros, B. Sorg, T. Milner, J. Nelson, and A. Welch, "A three-dimensional modular adaptable grid numerical model for light propagation during laser irradiation of skin tissue," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 934-942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, L.

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli and R. Cubbedu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Start, W.

L. Murrer, H. Marijnissen, and W. Start, "Monte Carlo simulations for endobronchial photodynamic therapy: the influence of variations in optical and geometrical properties and of realistic and eccentric light sources," Laser Surg. Med. 22, 193-206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sterenborg, H.

R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, E. Chikoidze, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054004 (2005).
[PubMed]

R. van Veen, W. Verkruysse, and H. Sterenborg, "Diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy from 500 to 1060 nm by correction for inhomogeneously distributed absorbers," Opt. Lett. 27, 246-248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stott, J.

Sweezy, J.

F. Brown, R. Barrett, T. Booth, J. Bull, L. Cox, R. Forster, J. Goorley, R. Mosteller, S. Post, R. Prael, E. Selcow, A. Sood and J. Sweezy, "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 87, 273 (2002).

Takahashi, Y.

A. Takeuchi, R. Araki, S. Proskurin, Y. Takahashi, Y. Yamada, J. Ishii, S. Katayama, and A. Itabashi, "A new method of bone tissue measurement based upon light scattering," J. Bone Miner. Res. 12, 261-266 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeuchi, A.

A. Takeuchi, R. Araki, S. Proskurin, Y. Takahashi, Y. Yamada, J. Ishii, S. Katayama, and A. Itabashi, "A new method of bone tissue measurement based upon light scattering," J. Bone Miner. Res. 12, 261-266 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talsma, A.

Taroni, P.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 474-479 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli and R. Cubbedu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, E. Chikoidze, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054004 (2005).
[PubMed]

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli and R. Cubbedu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 474-479 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trumbore, B.

T. Möller and B. Trumbore, "Fast, minimum storage ray-triangle intersection," J. Graph. Tools 2, 21-28 (1997).

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Tycho, A.

Tyndall, A.

F. Hartl, A. Tyndall, M. Kraenzlin, C. Bachmeier, C. Guckel, U. Senn, D. Hans, and R. Theiler, "Discriminatory ability of quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone mineral density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures: results of the Basel Osteoporosis Study," J. Bone Miner. Res. 17, 321-330 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ugryumova, N.

N. Ugryumova, S. Matcher, and D. Attenburrow, "Measurement of bone mineral density via light scattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 469-483 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Eijden, T.

E. Giesen and T. van Eijden, "The three-dimensional cancellous bone architecture of the human mandibular condyle," J. Dent. Res. 79, 957-963 (2000).
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H. Bal, R. Bhoedjang, R. Hofman, C. Jacobs, T. Kielmann, J. Maassen, R. van Nieuwpoort, J. Romein, L. Renambot, T. Ruhl, R. Veldema, K. Verstoep, A. Baggio, G. Ballintijn, I. Kuz, G. Pierre, M. van Steen, A. Tanenbaum, G. Doornbos, D. Germans, H. Spoelder, E.-J. Baerends, S. van Gisbergen, H. Afsermanesh, D. van Albada, A. Belloum, D. Dubbeldam, Z. Hendrikse, B. Hertzberger, A. Hoekstra, K. Iskra, D. Kandhai, D. Koelma, F. van der Linden, B. Overeinder, P. Sloot, P. Spinnato, D. Epema, A. van Gemund, P. Jonker, A. Radulescu, C. van Reeuwijk, H. Sips, P. Knijnenburg, M. Lew, F. Sluiter, L. Wolters, H. Blom, C. de Laat, and A. van der Steen, "The distributed ASCI Supercomputer project," SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 34, 76-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Veen, R.

R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, E. Chikoidze, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054004 (2005).
[PubMed]

R. van Veen, W. Verkruysse, and H. Sterenborg, "Diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy from 500 to 1060 nm by correction for inhomogeneously distributed absorbers," Opt. Lett. 27, 246-248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Verkruysse, W.

Vitkin, I.

Walker, I.

S. Brown, E. Brown, and I. Walker, "The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment," Oncology 5, 497-508 (2004).
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L. Wang, S. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "CONV - convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 141-150 (1997).
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J. Barton, T. Pfeffer, and A. Welch, "Optical Monte Carlo modeling of a true port wine stain anatomy," Opt. Express 2, 391-396 (1998).
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[CrossRef]

William, A.

A. William, S. Barrus, R. Morley, and P. Shirley, "An Efficient and Robust Ray-Box Intersection Algorithm," J. Graph. Tools 10, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

A. Takeuchi, R. Araki, S. Proskurin, Y. Takahashi, Y. Yamada, J. Ishii, S. Katayama, and A. Itabashi, "A new method of bone tissue measurement based upon light scattering," J. Bone Miner. Res. 12, 261-266 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Yura, H.

Zhang, Q.

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, "Differentiation of cysts from solid tumours in the breast with Diffuse Optical Tomography," Acad. Radiol. 11, 53-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "CONV - convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 141-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, S. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Acad. Radiol. (1)

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, "Differentiation of cysts from solid tumours in the breast with Diffuse Optical Tomography," Acad. Radiol. 11, 53-60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Nayak, I. Olkin, H. Liu, M. Grabe, M. Gould, I. Allen, D. Owens, and D. Bravata, "Meta-Analysis: accuracy of quantitative ultrasound for identifying patients with osteoporosis," Ann. Intern. Med. 144, 832-841 (2006).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

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L. Wang, S. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "CONV - convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 141-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, S. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
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[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli and R. Cubbedu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, E. Chikoidze, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Optical biopsy of bone tissue: a step toward the diagnosis of bone pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 474-479 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. van Veen, H. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, E. Chikoidze, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054004 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. Bone Miner. Res. (2)

F. Hartl, A. Tyndall, M. Kraenzlin, C. Bachmeier, C. Guckel, U. Senn, D. Hans, and R. Theiler, "Discriminatory ability of quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone mineral density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures: results of the Basel Osteoporosis Study," J. Bone Miner. Res. 17, 321-330 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Takeuchi, R. Araki, S. Proskurin, Y. Takahashi, Y. Yamada, J. Ishii, S. Katayama, and A. Itabashi, "A new method of bone tissue measurement based upon light scattering," J. Bone Miner. Res. 12, 261-266 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dent. Res. (1)

E. Giesen and T. van Eijden, "The three-dimensional cancellous bone architecture of the human mandibular condyle," J. Dent. Res. 79, 957-963 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Graph. Tools (2)

A. William, S. Barrus, R. Morley, and P. Shirley, "An Efficient and Robust Ray-Box Intersection Algorithm," J. Graph. Tools 10, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Möller and B. Trumbore, "Fast, minimum storage ray-triangle intersection," J. Graph. Tools 2, 21-28 (1997).

J. Heat Transfer (1)

J. Howell, "The Monte Carlo method in radiative heat transfer," J. Heat Transfer 120, 547-560 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Bashkatov, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaenous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000nm," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Surg. Med. (1)

L. Murrer, H. Marijnissen, and W. Start, "Monte Carlo simulations for endobronchial photodynamic therapy: the influence of variations in optical and geometrical properties and of realistic and eccentric light sources," Laser Surg. Med. 22, 193-206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oncology (1)

S. Brown, E. Brown, and I. Walker, "The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment," Oncology 5, 497-508 (2004).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

N. Ugryumova, S. Matcher, and D. Attenburrow, "Measurement of bone mineral density via light scattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 469-483 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, and D. Delpy, "Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650-950 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503-510 (1993).
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H. Bal, R. Bhoedjang, R. Hofman, C. Jacobs, T. Kielmann, J. Maassen, R. van Nieuwpoort, J. Romein, L. Renambot, T. Ruhl, R. Veldema, K. Verstoep, A. Baggio, G. Ballintijn, I. Kuz, G. Pierre, M. van Steen, A. Tanenbaum, G. Doornbos, D. Germans, H. Spoelder, E.-J. Baerends, S. van Gisbergen, H. Afsermanesh, D. van Albada, A. Belloum, D. Dubbeldam, Z. Hendrikse, B. Hertzberger, A. Hoekstra, K. Iskra, D. Kandhai, D. Koelma, F. van der Linden, B. Overeinder, P. Sloot, P. Spinnato, D. Epema, A. van Gemund, P. Jonker, A. Radulescu, C. van Reeuwijk, H. Sips, P. Knijnenburg, M. Lew, F. Sluiter, L. Wolters, H. Blom, C. de Laat, and A. van der Steen, "The distributed ASCI Supercomputer project," SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 34, 76-96 (2000).
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Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. (1)

F. Brown, R. Barrett, T. Booth, J. Bull, L. Cox, R. Forster, J. Goorley, R. Mosteller, S. Post, R. Prael, E. Selcow, A. Sood and J. Sweezy, "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 87, 273 (2002).

Visual. Comput. (1)

E. Cerezo, F. Pérez, X. Pueyo, F. Serón, and F. Sillion, "A survey on participating media rendering techniques," Visual. Comput. 21, 303-328 (2005).
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E. Veach, "Robust Monte Carlo methods for light transport simulation," Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University (1997).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford University Press, London, 1960).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Environment architecture for Monte Carlo simulation

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of the concept of space partitioning. The final geometry elements on the left of the geometry are organised into a three-layer (A,B,C) hierarchy that can be efficiently traversed, limiting the number of final photon-element tests to a minimum.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Separate validation of the ray-tracing algorithm and the photon transport code. (a) Spherical convergent lens. (b) Normalised reflectance as a function of the polar angle for a homogeneous slab, compared to MCML results.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalised computational time as a function of model complexity, showing the effect of hierarchical space partitioning.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulation of light transport in trabecular bone

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulated impulse responses across a sphere of trabecular bone for different relative angles

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Assumed optical properties for the two constituents of bone

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ( α i ) = 1 2 [ sin 2 ( α i α t ) sin 2 ( α i + α t ) + tan 2 ( α i α t ) tan 2 ( α i + α t ) ]

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