Abstract

We demonstrate chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) monitoring techniques via simulation and experiment for 2- and 4-level intensity-modulated as well as phase-modulated optical systems. Degree of polarization (DOP) measurement for monitoring PMD up to 100-ps and clock tone measurement for monitoring CD up to 720-ps/nm are demonstrated in 10-Gsymbol/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ) systems. Analysis on dynamic range and monitoring window shows that careful consideration and characterization are necessary when applying these monitoring techniques to multi-level systems.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. D. Dods and T. B. Anderson, "Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling," in Conf. Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2006, OThP5.
  2. Z. Li and G. Li, "Chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion for RZ-DPSK signals based on asynchronous amplitude-histogram evaluation," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2859-2866 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. B. Jun, H. Kim, P. K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2171-2173 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. L. Campillo, "Chromatic dispersion-monitoring technique based on phase-sensitive detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1241-1243 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Wielandy, M Fishteyn, and B. Zhu, "Optical performance monitoring using nonlinear detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 784-793 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2790-2792 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Shi, M. Chen, and S. Xie, "Simultaneous polarization mode dispersion and chromatic dispersion monitoring method in 40 Gbit/s system by polarization modulation," in Conf. Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2006, JThB39.
  9. K. J. Park, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, ‘‘Polarization-mode dispersion monitoring techniques based on polarization scrambling,’’Electron. Lett. 38, 83-85 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Han and G. Li, "Theoretical sensitivity of direct-detection multilevel modulation formats for high spectral efficiency optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 571-580 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. G. Park, K. D. Hong, Y. S. Jang, and K. Kim, "On the WDM transmission using multilevel (M>4) DPSK modulation format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1546-1548 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, and T. Sugawara, "Study on cross-phase modulation (XPM) effect on amplitude and differentially phase-modulated multilevel signals in DWDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1549-1551 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. M. R. M. Nezam, J. E. McGeehan, and A. E. Willner, "Theoretical and experimental analysis of the dependence of a signal’s degree of polarization on the optical data spectrum," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 763-772 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Han and G. Li, "Theoretical sensitivity of direct-detection multilevel modulation formats for high spectral efficiency optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 571-580 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Jun, H. Kim, P. K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li and G. Li, "Chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion for RZ-DPSK signals based on asynchronous amplitude-histogram evaluation," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2859-2866 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. G. Park, K. D. Hong, Y. S. Jang, and K. Kim, "On the WDM transmission using multilevel (M>4) DPSK modulation format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1546-1548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, and T. Sugawara, "Study on cross-phase modulation (XPM) effect on amplitude and differentially phase-modulated multilevel signals in DWDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1549-1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Campillo, "Chromatic dispersion-monitoring technique based on phase-sensitive detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1241-1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2790-2792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

K. J. Park, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, ‘‘Polarization-mode dispersion monitoring techniques based on polarization scrambling,’’Electron. Lett. 38, 83-85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campillo, A. L.

A. L. Campillo, "Chromatic dispersion-monitoring technique based on phase-sensitive detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1241-1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C.-K.

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2790-2792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L-K.

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2790-2792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, M.-H.

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2790-2792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christen, L.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

S. B. Jun, H. Kim, P. K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Park, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, ‘‘Polarization-mode dispersion monitoring techniques based on polarization scrambling,’’Electron. Lett. 38, 83-85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fishteyn, M

Han, Y.

Y. Han and G. Li, "Theoretical sensitivity of direct-detection multilevel modulation formats for high spectral efficiency optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 571-580 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, K. D.

S. G. Park, K. D. Hong, Y. S. Jang, and K. Kim, "On the WDM transmission using multilevel (M>4) DPSK modulation format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1546-1548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jang, Y. S.

S. G. Park, K. D. Hong, Y. S. Jang, and K. Kim, "On the WDM transmission using multilevel (M>4) DPSK modulation format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1546-1548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jun, S. B.

S. B. Jun, H. Kim, P. K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, N.

N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, and T. Sugawara, "Study on cross-phase modulation (XPM) effect on amplitude and differentially phase-modulated multilevel signals in DWDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1549-1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

S. B. Jun, H. Kim, P. K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Park, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, ‘‘Polarization-mode dispersion monitoring techniques based on polarization scrambling,’’Electron. Lett. 38, 83-85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

S. G. Park, K. D. Hong, Y. S. Jang, and K. Kim, "On the WDM transmission using multilevel (M>4) DPSK modulation format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1546-1548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

S. B. Jun, H. Kim, P. K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Park, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, ‘‘Polarization-mode dispersion monitoring techniques based on polarization scrambling,’’Electron. Lett. 38, 83-85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Y. Han and G. Li, "Theoretical sensitivity of direct-detection multilevel modulation formats for high spectral efficiency optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 571-580 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li and G. Li, "Chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion for RZ-DPSK signals based on asynchronous amplitude-histogram evaluation," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2859-2866 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Lizé, Y. K.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, G.-W.

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2790-2792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McGeehan, J. E.

Nezam, S. M. R. M.

Nuccio, S.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. J.

K. J. Park, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, ‘‘Polarization-mode dispersion monitoring techniques based on polarization scrambling,’’Electron. Lett. 38, 83-85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, P. K. J.

S. B. Jun, H. Kim, P. K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. G.

S. G. Park, K. D. Hong, Y. S. Jang, and K. Kim, "On the WDM transmission using multilevel (M>4) DPSK modulation format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1546-1548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saghari, P.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, S.

N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, and T. Sugawara, "Study on cross-phase modulation (XPM) effect on amplitude and differentially phase-modulated multilevel signals in DWDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1549-1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sekine, K.

N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, and T. Sugawara, "Study on cross-phase modulation (XPM) effect on amplitude and differentially phase-modulated multilevel signals in DWDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1549-1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. K.

K. J. Park, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, ‘‘Polarization-mode dispersion monitoring techniques based on polarization scrambling,’’Electron. Lett. 38, 83-85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, T.

N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, and T. Sugawara, "Study on cross-phase modulation (XPM) effect on amplitude and differentially phase-modulated multilevel signals in DWDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1549-1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wielandy, S.

Willner, A. E.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. R. M. Nezam, J. E. McGeehan, and A. E. Willner, "Theoretical and experimental analysis of the dependence of a signal’s degree of polarization on the optical data spectrum," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 763-772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-Y.

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Youn, C. J.

K. J. Park, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, ‘‘Polarization-mode dispersion monitoring techniques based on polarization scrambling,’’Electron. Lett. 38, 83-85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

Electron. Lett.

K. J. Park, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, ‘‘Polarization-mode dispersion monitoring techniques based on polarization scrambling,’’Electron. Lett. 38, 83-85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. Han and G. Li, "Theoretical sensitivity of direct-detection multilevel modulation formats for high spectral efficiency optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 571-580 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. G. Park, K. D. Hong, Y. S. Jang, and K. Kim, "On the WDM transmission using multilevel (M>4) DPSK modulation format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1546-1548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, and T. Sugawara, "Study on cross-phase modulation (XPM) effect on amplitude and differentially phase-modulated multilevel signals in DWDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1549-1551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Jun, H. Kim, P. K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Lizé, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Campillo, "Chromatic dispersion-monitoring technique based on phase-sensitive detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1241-1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2790-2792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

Y. Shi, M. Chen, and S. Xie, "Simultaneous polarization mode dispersion and chromatic dispersion monitoring method in 40 Gbit/s system by polarization modulation," in Conf. Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2006, JThB39.

S. D. Dods and T. B. Anderson, "Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling," in Conf. Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2006, OThP5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Concept: (a) multi-level intensity modulation and (b) multi-level phase modulation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup (LD: Laser diode, MOD: Modulator, PD: Photodiode, LPF: Low pass filter).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

DOP of the signal will decrease when the signal is passing through DGD (1st order PMD) element.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

DOP measurement (line: numerical simulation, dot: experiment): (a) NRZ phase-modulated signal, (b) RZ phase-modulated signal, (c) NRZ intensity-modulated signal, and (d) RZ intensity-modulated signal.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

RF components (clock) will fade and regenerate periodically due to the accumulated chromatic dispersion.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Clock tone measurement (line: numerical simulation, dot: experiment): (a) NRZ-phase modulated signal, (b) RZ phase-modulated signal, (c) NRZ intensity modulated signal, (d) RZ intensity modulated signal.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DOP ( DGD ) = R in ( DGD ) + R in ( DGD ) 2 · R in ( 0 )
DOP ( min ) = 1 N 2 · i = 0 i = N 1 j = 0 j = N 1 π + π cos ( ωt + φ i ) · cos ( ωt + φ i ) dt 1 N · i = 0 i = N 1 π + π cos 2 ( ωt + φ i ) dt = 1 N i = 0 i = N 1 cos ( φ i )
DOP ( min ) = 1 N 2 i = 0 N 1 j = 0 N 1 i · j 1 N i = 0 N 1 i 2
P RF = P 0 cos 2 ( πf RF 2 λDL c )

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