Abstract

Highly reflective Molybdenum/Silicon multilayer mirrors for 13.5 nm are characterized at-wavelength using a new laboratory size measurement system for EUV reflectance and scattering. Roughness analysis before and after coating by Atomic Force Microscopy indicates roughness enhancement as well as smoothing effects during thin film growth. The impact of the substrate finish and the deposition process onto the scattering distribution and scatter losses with regard to the specular reflectance is analyzed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

F. Scholze, T. Böttger, H. Enkisch, C. Laubis, L. van Loyen, F. Macco, and S. Schädlich, "Characterization of the measurement uncertainty of a laboratory EUV reflectometer for large optics," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 126-130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, "Novel Compact Spectrophotometer for EUV-Optics Characterization," Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, "EUV multilayer optics," Microelectron. Eng. 83, 703-706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2004 (1)

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Cunningham, R. E. Vest, and E. Gullikson, "Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes," Metrologia 40, S145-S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

V. E. Asadchikov, A. Duparré, S. Jakobs, A. Y. Karabekov, I. V. Kozhevnikov, and Y. S. Krivonosov, "Comparative Study of the Roughness of Optical Surfaces and Thin Films by use of X-Ray Scattering and Atomic Force Microscopy," Appl. Opt. 38, 684-691 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

D. L. Windt, "IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comp. Phys. 12, 360 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson "Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003-1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. Holý and T. Baumbach, "Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668-10679 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H.-G. Birken, C. Kunz, and R. Wolf, "Angular Resolved Soft X-Ray Scattering from Optical Surfaces," Physica Scripta 41, 385-389 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, "X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 38, 2297-2312 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

1979 (2)

C. K. Carniglia, "Scalar Scattering Theory for Multilayer Optical Coatings," Opt. Eng. 18, 104-115 (1979).

J. M. Elson and J. M. Bennett, "Vector Scattering Theory," Opt. Eng. 18, 116-124 (1979).

Asadchikov, V. E.

Bajt, S.

Baker, S. L.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barkusky, F.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, "Novel Compact Spectrophotometer for EUV-Optics Characterization," Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baumbach, T.

V. Holý and T. Baumbach, "Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668-10679 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, A.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, "Novel Compact Spectrophotometer for EUV-Optics Characterization," Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Benoit, N.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, "EUV multilayer optics," Microelectron. Eng. 83, 703-706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, K.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bieberle, U.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birken, H.-G.

H.-G. Birken, C. Kunz, and R. Wolf, "Angular Resolved Soft X-Ray Scattering from Optical Surfaces," Physica Scripta 41, 385-389 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blaschke, H.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, "Novel Compact Spectrophotometer for EUV-Optics Characterization," Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Böttger, T.

F. Scholze, T. Böttger, H. Enkisch, C. Laubis, L. van Loyen, F. Macco, and S. Schädlich, "Characterization of the measurement uncertainty of a laboratory EUV reflectometer for large optics," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 126-130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, P.

Carniglia, C. K.

C. K. Carniglia, "Scalar Scattering Theory for Multilayer Optical Coatings," Opt. Eng. 18, 104-115 (1979).

Cunningham, D.

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Cunningham, R. E. Vest, and E. Gullikson, "Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes," Metrologia 40, S145-S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, A.

Elson, J. M.

Enkisch, H.

F. Scholze, T. Böttger, H. Enkisch, C. Laubis, L. van Loyen, F. Macco, and S. Schädlich, "Characterization of the measurement uncertainty of a laboratory EUV reflectometer for large optics," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 126-130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feigl, T.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, "EUV multilayer optics," Microelectron. Eng. 83, 703-706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferré-Borrull, J.

Flory, F.

Gaines, D. P.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson "Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003-1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garoff, S.

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, "X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 38, 2297-2312 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gliech, S.

Goldberg, K. A.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Cunningham, R. E. Vest, and E. Gullikson, "Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes," Metrologia 40, S145-S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson "Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003-1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holý, V.

V. Holý and T. Baumbach, "Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668-10679 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jägle, B.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jakobs, S.

Jensen, L.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, "Novel Compact Spectrophotometer for EUV-Optics Characterization," Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Juschkin, L.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, "EUV multilayer optics," Microelectron. Eng. 83, 703-706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karabekov, A. Y.

Korde, R.

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Cunningham, R. E. Vest, and E. Gullikson, "Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes," Metrologia 40, S145-S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

Krivonosov, Y. S.

Kunz, C.

H.-G. Birken, C. Kunz, and R. Wolf, "Angular Resolved Soft X-Ray Scattering from Optical Surfaces," Physica Scripta 41, 385-389 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Laubis, C.

F. Scholze, T. Böttger, H. Enkisch, C. Laubis, L. van Loyen, F. Macco, and S. Schädlich, "Characterization of the measurement uncertainty of a laboratory EUV reflectometer for large optics," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 126-130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lebert, R.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, "Novel Compact Spectrophotometer for EUV-Optics Characterization," Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macco, F.

F. Scholze, T. Böttger, H. Enkisch, C. Laubis, L. van Loyen, F. Macco, and S. Schädlich, "Characterization of the measurement uncertainty of a laboratory EUV reflectometer for large optics," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 126-130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mann, K.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, "Novel Compact Spectrophotometer for EUV-Optics Characterization," Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meisen, M.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Missalla, T.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neff, W.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nevas, S.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, "Novel Compact Spectrophotometer for EUV-Optics Characterization," Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Notni, G.

Pease, R. F.

R. F. Pease, "Lithographic technologies that haven’t (yet) made it; lessons learned," Proc. SPIE 5751, 15-25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prince, C.

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Cunningham, R. E. Vest, and E. Gullikson, "Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes," Metrologia 40, S145-S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, J. P.

Ristau, D.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, "Novel Compact Spectrophotometer for EUV-Optics Characterization," Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roche, P.

Rosier, O.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schädlich, S.

F. Scholze, T. Böttger, H. Enkisch, C. Laubis, L. van Loyen, F. Macco, and S. Schädlich, "Characterization of the measurement uncertainty of a laboratory EUV reflectometer for large optics," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 126-130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

F. Scholze, T. Böttger, H. Enkisch, C. Laubis, L. van Loyen, F. Macco, and S. Schädlich, "Characterization of the measurement uncertainty of a laboratory EUV reflectometer for large optics," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 126-130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, S.

Schuermann, M.C.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silverman, P. J.

P. J. Silverman, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography: overview and development status," J. Microlith., Microfab., Microsyst. 4, 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, S. K.

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, "X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 38, 2297-2312 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sirota, E. B.

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, "X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 38, 2297-2312 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, H. B.

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, "X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 38, 2297-2312 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Starke, K.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, "Novel Compact Spectrophotometer for EUV-Optics Characterization," Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

S. Bajt and D. G. Stearns, "High-temperature stability multilayers for extreme-ultraviolet condenser optics," Appl. Opt. 44, 7735-7743 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson "Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003-1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steinert, J.

Sweeney, D. W.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson "Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003-1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. S.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Loyen, L.

F. Scholze, T. Böttger, H. Enkisch, C. Laubis, L. van Loyen, F. Macco, and S. Schädlich, "Characterization of the measurement uncertainty of a laboratory EUV reflectometer for large optics," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 126-130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vest, R. E.

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Cunningham, R. E. Vest, and E. Gullikson, "Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes," Metrologia 40, S145-S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walter, K.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wies, C.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, "Novel Compact Spectrophotometer for EUV-Optics Characterization," Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, "IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comp. Phys. 12, 360 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, R.

H.-G. Birken, C. Kunz, and R. Wolf, "Angular Resolved Soft X-Ray Scattering from Optical Surfaces," Physica Scripta 41, 385-389 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, S.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, "EUV multilayer optics," Microelectron. Eng. 83, 703-706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Comp. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, "IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comp. Phys. 12, 360 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson "Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003-1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

F. Scholze, T. Böttger, H. Enkisch, C. Laubis, L. van Loyen, F. Macco, and S. Schädlich, "Characterization of the measurement uncertainty of a laboratory EUV reflectometer for large optics," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 126-130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Cunningham, R. E. Vest, and E. Gullikson, "Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes," Metrologia 40, S145-S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, "EUV multilayer optics," Microelectron. Eng. 83, 703-706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microsyst. (1)

P. J. Silverman, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography: overview and development status," J. Microlith., Microfab., Microsyst. 4, 011006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

C. K. Carniglia, "Scalar Scattering Theory for Multilayer Optical Coatings," Opt. Eng. 18, 104-115 (1979).

J. M. Elson and J. M. Bennett, "Vector Scattering Theory," Opt. Eng. 18, 116-124 (1979).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, "X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 38, 2297-2312 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Holý and T. Baumbach, "Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668-10679 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Physica Scripta (1)

H.-G. Birken, C. Kunz, and R. Wolf, "Angular Resolved Soft X-Ray Scattering from Optical Surfaces," Physica Scripta 41, 385-389 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M.C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, "Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications," Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, "Novel Compact Spectrophotometer for EUV-Optics Characterization," Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, "EUV scattering and flare of 10x projection cameras," Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pease, "Lithographic technologies that haven’t (yet) made it; lessons learned," Proc. SPIE 5751, 15-25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

N. Benoit, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, "EUV multilayer mirrors with enhanced stability," in Advances in X-Ray/EUV Optics, Components, and Applications, A. M. Khounsary, C. Morawe, eds., Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170K (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, C. Wies, L. Juschkin, B. Jaegle, M. Meisen, L. Aschke, F. Sobel, H. Seitz, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Walter, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, and W. Biel, "High-throughput EUV reflectometer for EUV mask blanks," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VIII, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5374, 808-817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Kandaka and T. Komiya, "Measurement of EUV scattering from Mo/Si multilayer mirrors," http://pfwww.kek.jp/pfacr/part_b/pf03b257.pdf, (last visited 07-03-2007).

J. M. Bennett and L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, 1989).

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, 2nd ed., Vol. PM24 of the Press Monographs (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, "Scattering from Surfaces and thin Films," in Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, R. D. Guenther, et al., eds. (Elsevier, Oxford, 2004).

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Sensitive and flexible light scatter techniques from the VUV to IR regions," in Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Metrology II, A. Duparré, R. Geyl, and L. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE 5965, 424-432 (2005).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Basic geometry.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

MERLIN - experimental set-up: (SC, BC, MC) source-, beam preparation-, and measurement chamber, (1) EUV source, (M1-M5) mirrors, (2) hole (3) Zr filter, (4) pinhole, (5) samples, (6) x-y-positioning unit, (7) detectors, (8) reference detector.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated spectral filter performance of the beam preparation system. The Zr filter suppresses out-of-band radiation at longer wavelengths while the Mo/Si mirrors act as narrow-band reflection filters.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photographs of the instrument for the measurement of EUV reflectance and scattering (MERLIN). Left: Source, beam preparation chamber and measurement chamber, Right: double-goniometer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Results of roughness analysis based on AFM measurements and modeling. Left: 1×1 μ m2 AFM images before and after coating. Right: Master PSDs determined from AFM measurements and modeling results.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Results of XRR measurements.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Results of θ-2θ measurements and simulations assuming a 0 nm/2 nm thick SiO2 capping layer.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Results of the reflectance measurements using MERLIN (black squares) compared to the peak values of spectral reflectance curves measured at the PTB (red circles).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

ARS measurement results.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Total backscattering compared to reflectance values.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

ARS of sample 2 - measurement and simulation results.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Rms roughness in different spatial frequency ranges. Values in parenthesis are for the uncoated substrates.MSFR: f = 0.001 μm-1…1 μm-1, HSFR: f = 1 μm-1…256 μm-1, roughness relevant for scattering at 13.5 nm: f = 2.6 μm-1…74 μm-1.

Tables Icon

Tab. 2: Total backscattering compared to reflectance values.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ 2 = 2 π f min f max PSD ( f ) f d f .
R = P r P i .
S = exp { ( 4 πρ cos θ i λ ) 2 } ,
ARS = Δ P s ΔΩ s P i .
T S b = P s P i .
ARS ( θ s ) = 1 λ 4 i = 1 N + 1 j = 1 N + 1 C i C j * PSD ij ( f ) ,
T S b = R ( 4 πσ λ ) 2 for τ c λ
T S b = R ( 4 πσ λ ) 2 ( 2 τ c λ ) 2 for τ c λ
T S b = 2 π 2 ° 85 ° ARS ( θ s ) sin θ s d θ s ,
PSD N = 1 ( a L 2 a H 2 ) N 1 a L 2 a H 2 ( PSD int ( L ) + a L 2 PSD int ( H ) ) + ( a L 2 a H 2 ) N PSD sub ,
PSD int ( L H ) = Ω L H 1 exp { 2 ν L H 2 πf n d L H } 2 ν L H 2 πf n .
a L H = exp { ν L H 2 πf n d L H } ,

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