We proposed and demonstrated a low-cost optical system for surface profilometry with nanometer-resolution. The system is based on a composite interferometer consisting of a Michelson interferometer and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. With the proposed phase compensating mechanism, the phase deviation due to the instability of the optical delay system and environmental perturbation can be compensated simultaneously. The system can perform a wide-field imaging in the millimeter range and a measurement with the axial resolution within ±5 nm without special shielding and protection of the system as well as any special preparation of the sample.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

Almeida, S. P.

Asaka, A.

Barbosa, E. A.

Barton, J. S.

Berger, E.

Bhushan, B.

Burke, J.

Chen, Z.

Cornejo-Rodríguez, A.

Cox, G.

Curcio, B. G.

Dose, V.

Dresel, T.

Endo, T.

Filho, A. A. V.

Gesualdi, M. R. R.

Hanayama, R.

Hariharan, P.

Häusler, G.

Hibino, K.

Ishii, Y.

Itoh, M.

Jakobi, M.

Jones, J. D. C.

Kilpatrick, J. M.

Koch, A. W.

Koliopoulos, C. L.

Lee, B. S.

Luna, E.

Makita, S.

Moore, A. J.

Mori, M.

Muramatsu, M.

Nakama, M.

Nava-Vega, A.

Okazaki, H.

Onodera, R.

Oreb, B. F.

Quan, C.

Reading, I.

Roy, M.

Salas, L.

Sasaki, O.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Soares, O. D. D.

Soga, D.

Strand, T. C.

Sutoh, Y.

Tay, C. J.

Venzke, H.

von der Linden, W.

Wang, S.

Wyant, J. C.

Wyant, R. W.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yokota, M.

Yoshino, T.

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

C. C. Lai, C. H. Cheng, W. C. Chiu, and I. J. Hsu, "Simultaneous measurement of the refractive index, thickness, and position of suspended thin film," Proc. SPIE 6343, 634320-1-8 (2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the composite interferometer. LD, laser diode; BS1, BS2, BS3 ,BS4, beamsplitters; Obj, objective; RM, reflection mirror; TS, two-axis translation stage; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; PD1, PD2, photodetectors; I, iris. Insets: The definitions of the surface height, h, and the starting position of the axial scanning of the optical delay component, d, where SR denotes the scanning range.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measurement of the accuracy of the system by evaluating the surface height of a stationary reflection mirror in one thousand continuous scannings: (a) The evaluated surface height from the interference signals detected in photodetector 1, (b) the relative displacement of the axial scanning ranges detected by photodetector 2, (c) the axial resolution of the system after the phase compensation mechanism.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The time-lapse images of portion of an onion cell in the process of dehydration. The image sizes are 12.75 μm × 12.75 μm and the time interval between images is about ten minutes.

Equations (12)

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E S = E 0 S e j ( ωt + ϕ ) ,
ϕ = 4 π h λ ,
E R = E 0 R e j ω ( t τ ) ,
τ = 2 ( R S ) c ,
I 1 E S + E R 2
= E 0 S 2 + E 0 R 2 + 2 E 0 S E 0 R cos ( ω τ + ϕ ) .
Γ 1 = E 0 S E 0 R cos ( ω τ + ϕ ) .
E R = E 0 R e j [ ω ( t τ ) δ ] ,
δ = 4 π d λ ,
Γ 1 = E 0 S E 0 R cos ( ω τ + δ + ϕ ) .
Γ 2 = E 0 E 0 R cos ( ω τ + δ ) ,
τ = 2 ( R ) c ,