Abstract

Nanosecond-laser induced damage of RbTiOPO4 crystals (RTP) has been studied at 1064 nm as a function of propagation direction and polarization orientation. A significant difference in the Laser Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) was observed for x-cut and y-cut crystals in Pockels cell configuration, where the light propagation direction is along the x and y axes of the crystal respectively. In Pockels cell configuration the polarization is oriented at 45° with respect to the z-axis of the crystal. Experiments with the polarization oriented parallel to the principal axes of the crystal pointed out the importance of the polarization direction for the LIDT whereas the propagation direction did not significantly influence the LIDT. Comparison of the experimental data with a simple model reveals the influence of frequency doubling on the LIDT in Pockels cell configuration. In the case of the y-cut Pockels cell, the generation of frequency doubled light causes an LIDT below the LIDT of x and z-polarized light at the fundamental wavelength.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

M. Pommi`es, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Natoli, and H. Mathis, "Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals," Opt. Commun. 267, 154-161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Jiang, L. E. Halliburton, M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, "Hyperfine structure associated with the dominant radiation-induced trapped hole center in RbTiOPO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi B 242, 2489-2496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

X. B. Hu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, H. D. Jiang, H. Liu, X. D. Mu, and Y. J. Ding, "Dependence of photochromic damage on polarization in KTiOPO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 247, 137-140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Favre, T. C. Sidler, and R. P. Salathe, "High-power long-pulse second harmonic generation and optical damage with free-running Nd:YAG laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 733-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallais and J. Y. Natoli, "Optimized metrology for laser-damage measurement: application to multiparameter study," Appl. Opt. 42, 960-971 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, "Laser-induced damage in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," Appl. Opt. 42, 5483- 5495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Guillien, B. M’enaert, J. P. F`eve, P. Segonds, J. Douady, B. Boulanger, and O. Pacaud, "Crystal growth and re- fined Sellmeier equations over the complete transparency range of RbTiOPO4," Opt. Mater. 22, 155-162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Zhang and X. Wang, "Structure sensitive properties of KTP-type crystals," Chin. Sci. Bull. 46, 2028-2036 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Jiang, A. Lovejoy, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, "Ferroelectricity, conductivity, domain structure and poling conditions of rubidium titanyl phosphate," J. Phys. D 33, 2831-2836 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. Li, F. Zhou, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, "Bound electronic Kerr effect and self-focusing induced damage in secondharmonic- generation crystals," Opt. Commun. 144, 75-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, and T. Yamanaka, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Angert, N.

Y. Jiang, L. E. Halliburton, M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, "Hyperfine structure associated with the dominant radiation-induced trapped hole center in RbTiOPO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi B 242, 2489-2496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bertussi, B.

M. Pommi`es, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Natoli, and H. Mathis, "Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals," Opt. Commun. 267, 154-161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bierlein, J. D.

Burnham, A. K.

Capoulade, J.

M. Pommi`es, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Natoli, and H. Mathis, "Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals," Opt. Commun. 267, 154-161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Damiani, D.

M. Pommi`es, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Natoli, and H. Mathis, "Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals," Opt. Commun. 267, 154-161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

X. B. Hu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, H. D. Jiang, H. Liu, X. D. Mu, and Y. J. Ding, "Dependence of photochromic damage on polarization in KTiOPO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 247, 137-140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Favre, S.

S. Favre, T. C. Sidler, and R. P. Salathe, "High-power long-pulse second harmonic generation and optical damage with free-running Nd:YAG laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 733-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

Floyd, R. L.

Fujita, H.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, and T. Yamanaka, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, Y.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, and T. Yamanaka, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gallais, L.

Guillien, Y.

Y. Guillien, B. M’enaert, J. P. F`eve, P. Segonds, J. Douady, B. Boulanger, and O. Pacaud, "Crystal growth and re- fined Sellmeier equations over the complete transparency range of RbTiOPO4," Opt. Mater. 22, 155-162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Halliburton, L. E.

Y. Jiang, L. E. Halliburton, M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, "Hyperfine structure associated with the dominant radiation-induced trapped hole center in RbTiOPO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi B 242, 2489-2496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hawley-Fedder, R. A.

Hu, X. B.

X. B. Hu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, H. D. Jiang, H. Liu, X. D. Mu, and Y. J. Ding, "Dependence of photochromic damage on polarization in KTiOPO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 247, 137-140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hutton, K. B.

Q. Jiang, A. Lovejoy, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, "Ferroelectricity, conductivity, domain structure and poling conditions of rubidium titanyl phosphate," J. Phys. D 33, 2831-2836 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

H. Li, F. Zhou, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, "Bound electronic Kerr effect and self-focusing induced damage in secondharmonic- generation crystals," Opt. Commun. 144, 75-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. D.

X. B. Hu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, H. D. Jiang, H. Liu, X. D. Mu, and Y. J. Ding, "Dependence of photochromic damage on polarization in KTiOPO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 247, 137-140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Q.

Q. Jiang, A. Lovejoy, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, "Ferroelectricity, conductivity, domain structure and poling conditions of rubidium titanyl phosphate," J. Phys. D 33, 2831-2836 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, L. E. Halliburton, M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, "Hyperfine structure associated with the dominant radiation-induced trapped hole center in RbTiOPO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi B 242, 2489-2496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jitsuno, T.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Land, T. A.

Li, H.

H. Li, F. Zhou, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, "Bound electronic Kerr effect and self-focusing induced damage in secondharmonic- generation crystals," Opt. Commun. 144, 75-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

X. B. Hu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, H. D. Jiang, H. Liu, X. D. Mu, and Y. J. Ding, "Dependence of photochromic damage on polarization in KTiOPO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 247, 137-140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lovejoy, A.

Q. Jiang, A. Lovejoy, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, "Ferroelectricity, conductivity, domain structure and poling conditions of rubidium titanyl phosphate," J. Phys. D 33, 2831-2836 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Markgraf, S. A.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, and T. Yamanaka, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mathis, H.

M. Pommi`es, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Natoli, and H. Mathis, "Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals," Opt. Commun. 267, 154-161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mu, X. D.

X. B. Hu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, H. D. Jiang, H. Liu, X. D. Mu, and Y. J. Ding, "Dependence of photochromic damage on polarization in KTiOPO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 247, 137-140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Natoli, J.

M. Pommi`es, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Natoli, and H. Mathis, "Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals," Opt. Commun. 267, 154-161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Natoli, J. Y.

Piombini, H.

M. Pommi`es, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Natoli, and H. Mathis, "Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals," Opt. Commun. 267, 154-161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pommi`es, M.

M. Pommi`es, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Natoli, and H. Mathis, "Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals," Opt. Commun. 267, 154-161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roth, M.

Y. Jiang, L. E. Halliburton, M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, "Hyperfine structure associated with the dominant radiation-induced trapped hole center in RbTiOPO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi B 242, 2489-2496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

Runkel, M.

Salathe, R. P.

S. Favre, T. C. Sidler, and R. P. Salathe, "High-power long-pulse second harmonic generation and optical damage with free-running Nd:YAG laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 733-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, and T. Yamanaka, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, and T. Yamanaka, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sidler, T. C.

S. Favre, T. C. Sidler, and R. P. Salathe, "High-power long-pulse second harmonic generation and optical damage with free-running Nd:YAG laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 733-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siekhaus, W. J.

Thomas, P. A.

Q. Jiang, A. Lovejoy, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, "Ferroelectricity, conductivity, domain structure and poling conditions of rubidium titanyl phosphate," J. Phys. D 33, 2831-2836 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tseitlin, M.

Y. Jiang, L. E. Halliburton, M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, "Hyperfine structure associated with the dominant radiation-induced trapped hole center in RbTiOPO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi B 242, 2489-2496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vanherzeele, H.

Wang, J. Y.

X. B. Hu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, H. D. Jiang, H. Liu, X. D. Mu, and Y. J. Ding, "Dependence of photochromic damage on polarization in KTiOPO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 247, 137-140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

K. Zhang and X. Wang, "Structure sensitive properties of KTP-type crystals," Chin. Sci. Bull. 46, 2028-2036 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ward, R. C. C.

Q. Jiang, A. Lovejoy, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, "Ferroelectricity, conductivity, domain structure and poling conditions of rubidium titanyl phosphate," J. Phys. D 33, 2831-2836 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, T.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, and T. Yamanaka, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, and T. Yamanaka, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, M.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

X. B. Hu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, H. D. Jiang, H. Liu, X. D. Mu, and Y. J. Ding, "Dependence of photochromic damage on polarization in KTiOPO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 247, 137-140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

K. Zhang and X. Wang, "Structure sensitive properties of KTP-type crystals," Chin. Sci. Bull. 46, 2028-2036 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Li, F. Zhou, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, "Bound electronic Kerr effect and self-focusing induced damage in secondharmonic- generation crystals," Opt. Commun. 144, 75-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, F.

H. Li, F. Zhou, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, "Bound electronic Kerr effect and self-focusing induced damage in secondharmonic- generation crystals," Opt. Commun. 144, 75-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, and T. Yamanaka, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Sci. Bull. (1)

K. Zhang and X. Wang, "Structure sensitive properties of KTP-type crystals," Chin. Sci. Bull. 46, 2028-2036 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Favre, T. C. Sidler, and R. P. Salathe, "High-power long-pulse second harmonic generation and optical damage with free-running Nd:YAG laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 733-740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

X. B. Hu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, H. D. Jiang, H. Liu, X. D. Mu, and Y. J. Ding, "Dependence of photochromic damage on polarization in KTiOPO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 247, 137-140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

Q. Jiang, A. Lovejoy, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, "Ferroelectricity, conductivity, domain structure and poling conditions of rubidium titanyl phosphate," J. Phys. D 33, 2831-2836 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. Li, F. Zhou, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, "Bound electronic Kerr effect and self-focusing induced damage in secondharmonic- generation crystals," Opt. Commun. 144, 75-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Pommi`es, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Natoli, and H. Mathis, "Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals," Opt. Commun. 267, 154-161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Guillien, B. M’enaert, J. P. F`eve, P. Segonds, J. Douady, B. Boulanger, and O. Pacaud, "Crystal growth and re- fined Sellmeier equations over the complete transparency range of RbTiOPO4," Opt. Mater. 22, 155-162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

Y. Jiang, L. E. Halliburton, M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, "Hyperfine structure associated with the dominant radiation-induced trapped hole center in RbTiOPO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi B 242, 2489-2496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

W. Lauterborn, T. Kurz, and M. Wiesenfeldt, "Nonlinear Optics," in Coherent Optics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 1999), pp. 239-265.

H. Albrecht, C. Bonnin, Y. Gromfeld, and M. A. Herrmann, "Characterization of RbTiOPO4 crystal for nonlinear and electro-optic applications," in Solid state lasers XV, H. J. Hoffman, R. K. Shori, eds., Proc. SPIE 6100, 61001F (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. E. A. Saleh andM. C. Teich, "Optics of anisotropic media," in Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991), pp. 210-223.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kamimura, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, A. Miyamoto, and K. Yoshida, "Laser-induced damage in nonlinear crystals on irradiation direction and polarization," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 418-422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

International Office for Standardization, "Determination of laser-damage threshold of optical surfaces Part 2: S-on-1 test," (2001).

International Office for Standardization, "Determination of laser-damage threshold of optical surfaces Part 1: 1-on-1 test," (2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the LIDT test setup: The filter F blocks 1064 nm and 532 nm light in order to protect the CCD camera. NG is a neutral grey filter and M a macroscope.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Microscope images of damaged RTP crystals. The left image shows two laser induced damages that were created on a single test site. The right image shows two laser induced damages observed along the optical axis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Damage probability curves in 200-on-1 mode considering bulk and surface damage. Both graphs show tests in Pockels cell configuration (polarization at 45° to z-axis). Plot points with error bars represent data resulting from measurements on different crystals.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Damage probability curves in 1-on-1 mode and Pockels cell configuration. Only bulk damage is considered. The dashed lines are guides to the eye.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Damage probability curves in 1-on-1 mode for fixed polarization and different propagation directions. The curves for different propagation directions are acquired using separate crystals. The dashed lines are guides to the eye.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Damage probability curves in 1-on-1 mode for a given propagation direction and different polarizations. Both curves in each viewgraph are acquired on the same crystal. The dashed lines are guides to the eye.

Equations (2)

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E c , 45 ° = E c , y 1 2 ( 0 1 0 ) + E c , z 1 2 ( 0 0 1 )
T 45 ° = E c , 45 ° 2 = 1 2 ( E c , y 2 + E c , z 2 ) = 1 2 ( T y + T z ) .

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