Abstract

Roughness-induced radiation losses in optical micro or nanofibers (MNFs) are investigated using an induced-current model. Loss coefficients of silica, phosphate, tellurite and silicon MNFs with sinusoidal deformations on their surfaces are numerically calculated with respect to typical parameters of the guiding system. Interesting phenomena such as the existence of the loss minima at specific perturbation periods are observed. Results presented in this work may be generalized to all kinds of surface deformation and may provide useful guidelines for both estimating and tailoring waveguiding properties of MNFs.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of a dielectric slab waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187-3215 (1969).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, Z. Z. Ye, G. T. Svacha, and E. Mazur, "Self-modulated taper drawing of silica nanowires," Nanotechnology 16, 1445-1448 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  37. M. A. Foster, J.M. Dudley, B. Kibler, Q. Cao, D. Lee, R. Trebino R, and A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation," Appl. Phys. B 81, 363-367 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (7)

L. M. Tong, L. L. Hu, J. J. Zhang, J. R. Qiu, Q. Yang, J. Y. Lou, Y. H. Shen, J. L. He, and Z. Z. Ye, "Photonic nanowires directly drawn from bulk glasses," Opt. Express 14, 82-87 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shi, X. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Chen, Z. Ye, W. Liao, and Y. Xia, "Fabrication of submicron-diameter silica fibers using electric strip heater," Opt. Express 14, 5055-5060 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Gattass, G. T. Svacha, L. M. Tong, and E. Mazur, "Supercontinuum generation in submicrometer diameter silica fibers," Opt. Express 14, 9408-9414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sumetsky, "How thin can a microfiber be and still guide light?," Opt. Lett. 31, 870-872 (2006). Errata, Opt. Lett. 31, 3577 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, "Propagation Loss in Single-Mode Ultrasmall Square Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol,  24, 891-896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, "Demonstration of microfiber knot laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, Q. Yang, A. Tsao, and D. R. Yang, "Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (10)

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonics devices," Nano. Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, Z. Z. Ye, G. T. Svacha, and E. Mazur, "Self-modulated taper drawing of silica nanowires," Nanotechnology 16, 1445-1448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, "Optical microfiber loop resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, J.M. Dudley, B. Kibler, Q. Cao, D. Lee, R. Trebino R, and A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation," Appl. Phys. B 81, 363-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, and A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St.J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lou, L. M. Tong, and Z. Z. Ye, "Modeling of silica nanowires for optical sensing," Opt. Express 13, 2135-2140 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, "Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels," Opt. Lett. 30, 1273-1275 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Villatoro and D. Monzón-Hernández, "Fast detection of hydrogen with nano fiber tapers coated with ultra thin palladium layers," Opt. Express 13, 5087-5092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Loss in solid-core photonic crystal fibers due to interface roughness scattering," Opt. Express 13, 7779-7793 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, "Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers," Opt. Express 12, 2258-2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, W. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and M. Mason, "Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2864-2869 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, Fam Le Kien, J. Q. Liang, and M. Morinaga, "Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 011401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, "Atom trap and waveguide using a two-color evanescent light field around a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 063403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in sub-micron diameter tapered fibers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 293-300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

F. Ladouceur, "Roughness, inhomogeneity, and integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1020-1025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Jäckle and K. Kawasaki, "Intrinsic roughness of glass surfaces," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 7, 4351-4358 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum. Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

E. G. Rawson, "Analysis of scattering from fiber waveguides with irregular core surface," Appl. Opt 13, 2370-2377 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (2)

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of a dielectric slab waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187-3215 (1969).

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by diameter changes of round dielectric waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3217-3233 (1969).

Agarwal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balykin, V. I.

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, "Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic fluorescence," Opt. Express 15, 5431-5438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, Fam Le Kien, J. Q. Liang, and M. Morinaga, "Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 011401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, "Atom trap and waveguide using a two-color evanescent light field around a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 063403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

Brambilla, G.

Bures, J.

Cao, Q.

M. A. Foster, J.M. Dudley, B. Kibler, Q. Cao, D. Lee, R. Trebino R, and A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation," Appl. Phys. B 81, 363-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, "Propagation Loss in Single-Mode Ultrasmall Square Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol,  24, 891-896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chen, X. W.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonics devices," Nano. Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Couny, F.

Dudley, J.M.

M. A. Foster, J.M. Dudley, B. Kibler, Q. Cao, D. Lee, R. Trebino R, and A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation," Appl. Phys. B 81, 363-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dulashko, Y.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, "Optical microfiber loop resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fam Le Kien, K.

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, Fam Le Kien, J. Q. Liang, and M. Morinaga, "Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 011401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Farr, L.

Finazzi, V.

Fini, J. M.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, "Optical microfiber loop resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, J.M. Dudley, B. Kibler, Q. Cao, D. Lee, R. Trebino R, and A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation," Appl. Phys. B 81, 363-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass, G. T. Svacha, L. M. Tong, and E. Mazur, "Supercontinuum generation in submicrometer diameter silica fibers," Opt. Express 14, 9408-9414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonics devices," Nano. Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, R.

Grillot, F.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, "Propagation Loss in Single-Mode Ultrasmall Square Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol,  24, 891-896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, Q. Yang, A. Tsao, and D. R. Yang, "Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hakuta, K.

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, "Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic fluorescence," Opt. Express 15, 5431-5438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, Fam Le Kien, J. Q. Liang, and M. Morinaga, "Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 011401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, "Atom trap and waveguide using a two-color evanescent light field around a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 063403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, "Optical microfiber loop resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, J. L.

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonics devices," Nano. Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, L. L.

L. M. Tong, L. L. Hu, J. J. Zhang, J. R. Qiu, Q. Yang, J. Y. Lou, Y. H. Shen, J. L. He, and Z. Z. Ye, "Photonic nanowires directly drawn from bulk glasses," Opt. Express 14, 82-87 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, "Demonstration of microfiber knot laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. Y.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jäckle, J.

J. Jäckle and K. Kawasaki, "Intrinsic roughness of glass surfaces," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 7, 4351-4358 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. S.

X. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. M. Tong, "All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators," Opt. Lett. 32, 1710-1712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, Q. Yang, A. Tsao, and D. R. Yang, "Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, "Demonstration of microfiber knot laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, K.

J. Jäckle and K. Kawasaki, "Intrinsic roughness of glass surfaces," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 7, 4351-4358 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kibler, B.

M. A. Foster, J.M. Dudley, B. Kibler, Q. Cao, D. Lee, R. Trebino R, and A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation," Appl. Phys. B 81, 363-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kien, F.

F. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, "Atom trap and waveguide using a two-color evanescent light field around a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 063403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kien, F. L.

Kimerling, L. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in sub-micron diameter tapered fibers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 293-300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J. P. R.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum. Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ladouceur, F.

F. Ladouceur, "Roughness, inhomogeneity, and integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1020-1025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, "Propagation Loss in Single-Mode Ultrasmall Square Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol,  24, 891-896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

M. A. Foster, J.M. Dudley, B. Kibler, Q. Cao, D. Lee, R. Trebino R, and A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation," Appl. Phys. B 81, 363-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leon-Saval, S.

Li, Y. H.

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, "Demonstration of microfiber knot laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, W.

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Liu, L.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonics devices," Nano. Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, L. L. Hu, J. J. Zhang, J. R. Qiu, Q. Yang, J. Y. Lou, Y. H. Shen, J. L. He, and Z. Z. Ye, "Photonic nanowires directly drawn from bulk glasses," Opt. Express 14, 82-87 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lou, L. M. Tong, and Z. Z. Ye, "Modeling of silica nanowires for optical sensing," Opt. Express 13, 2135-2140 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonics devices," Nano. Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, Z. Z. Ye, G. T. Svacha, and E. Mazur, "Self-modulated taper drawing of silica nanowires," Nanotechnology 16, 1445-1448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luan, H. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

Mansuripur, M.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, "Radiation losses of the HE11 mode of a fiber with sinusoidally perturbed core boundary," Appl. Opt. 14, 3021-3025 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by diameter changes of round dielectric waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3217-3233 (1969).

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of a dielectric slab waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187-3215 (1969).

Mason, M.

Mason, M. W.

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass, G. T. Svacha, L. M. Tong, and E. Mazur, "Supercontinuum generation in submicrometer diameter silica fibers," Opt. Express 14, 9408-9414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, Z. Z. Ye, G. T. Svacha, and E. Mazur, "Self-modulated taper drawing of silica nanowires," Nanotechnology 16, 1445-1448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonics devices," Nano. Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melentiev, P. N.

Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in sub-micron diameter tapered fibers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 293-300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

Morinaga, M.

Nayak, K. P.

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum. Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Polynkin, A.

Polynkin, P.

Qiu, J. R.

Rawson, E. G.

E. G. Rawson, "Analysis of scattering from fiber waveguides with irregular core surface," Appl. Opt 13, 2370-2377 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

Roberts, P. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Russell, P. St.J.

Sabert, H.

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. H.

Shi, L.

Sumetsky, M.

Svacha, G. T.

R. R. Gattass, G. T. Svacha, L. M. Tong, and E. Mazur, "Supercontinuum generation in submicrometer diameter silica fibers," Opt. Express 14, 9408-9414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, Z. Z. Ye, G. T. Svacha, and E. Mazur, "Self-modulated taper drawing of silica nanowires," Nanotechnology 16, 1445-1448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, A.

Tong, L. M.

X. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. M. Tong, "All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators," Opt. Lett. 32, 1710-1712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, L. L. Hu, J. J. Zhang, J. R. Qiu, Q. Yang, J. Y. Lou, Y. H. Shen, J. L. He, and Z. Z. Ye, "Photonic nanowires directly drawn from bulk glasses," Opt. Express 14, 82-87 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Gattass, G. T. Svacha, L. M. Tong, and E. Mazur, "Supercontinuum generation in submicrometer diameter silica fibers," Opt. Express 14, 9408-9414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, "Demonstration of microfiber knot laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, Q. Yang, A. Tsao, and D. R. Yang, "Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, Z. Z. Ye, G. T. Svacha, and E. Mazur, "Self-modulated taper drawing of silica nanowires," Nanotechnology 16, 1445-1448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lou, L. M. Tong, and Z. Z. Ye, "Modeling of silica nanowires for optical sensing," Opt. Express 13, 2135-2140 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonics devices," Nano. Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsao, A.

X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, Q. Yang, A. Tsao, and D. R. Yang, "Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vienne, G.

X. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. M. Tong, "All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators," Opt. Lett. 32, 1710-1712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, Q. Yang, A. Tsao, and D. R. Yang, "Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, "Demonstration of microfiber knot laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villatoro, J.

Vivien, L.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, "Propagation Loss in Single-Mode Ultrasmall Square Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol,  24, 891-896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W.

Williams, D. P.

Wright, E. M.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in sub-micron diameter tapered fibers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 293-300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. R.

X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, Q. Yang, A. Tsao, and D. R. Yang, "Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, "Demonstration of microfiber knot laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, Q. Yang, A. Tsao, and D. R. Yang, "Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, L. L. Hu, J. J. Zhang, J. R. Qiu, Q. Yang, J. Y. Lou, Y. H. Shen, J. L. He, and Z. Z. Ye, "Photonic nanowires directly drawn from bulk glasses," Opt. Express 14, 82-87 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z.

Ye, Z. Z.

Zhang, J. J.

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, "Demonstration of microfiber knot laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, L. L. Hu, J. J. Zhang, J. R. Qiu, Q. Yang, J. Y. Lou, Y. H. Shen, J. L. He, and Z. Z. Ye, "Photonic nanowires directly drawn from bulk glasses," Opt. Express 14, 82-87 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt (1)

E. G. Rawson, "Analysis of scattering from fiber waveguides with irregular core surface," Appl. Opt 13, 2370-2377 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Simulation of femtosecond pulse propagation in sub-micron diameter tapered fibers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 293-300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, J.M. Dudley, B. Kibler, Q. Cao, D. Lee, R. Trebino R, and A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation," Appl. Phys. B 81, 363-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, "Optical microfiber loop resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, G. Vienne, X. Guo, Q. Yang, A. Tsao, and D. R. Yang, "Demonstration of optical microfiber knot resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 223501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, "Demonstration of microfiber knot laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of a dielectric slab waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187-3215 (1969).

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by diameter changes of round dielectric waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3217-3233 (1969).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

F. Ladouceur, "Roughness, inhomogeneity, and integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1020-1025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave. Technol (1)

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, "Propagation Loss in Single-Mode Ultrasmall Square Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol,  24, 891-896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

J. Jäckle and K. Kawasaki, "Intrinsic roughness of glass surfaces," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 7, 4351-4358 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nano. Lett. (1)

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonics devices," Nano. Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, Z. Z. Ye, G. T. Svacha, and E. Mazur, "Self-modulated taper drawing of silica nanowires," Nanotechnology 16, 1445-1448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (10)

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, "Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic fluorescence," Opt. Express 15, 5431-5438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, "Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers," Opt. Express 12, 2258-2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, W. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and M. Mason, "Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2864-2869 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, and A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St.J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lou, L. M. Tong, and Z. Z. Ye, "Modeling of silica nanowires for optical sensing," Opt. Express 13, 2135-2140 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Villatoro and D. Monzón-Hernández, "Fast detection of hydrogen with nano fiber tapers coated with ultra thin palladium layers," Opt. Express 13, 5087-5092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Loss in solid-core photonic crystal fibers due to interface roughness scattering," Opt. Express 13, 7779-7793 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, L. L. Hu, J. J. Zhang, J. R. Qiu, Q. Yang, J. Y. Lou, Y. H. Shen, J. L. He, and Z. Z. Ye, "Photonic nanowires directly drawn from bulk glasses," Opt. Express 14, 82-87 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shi, X. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Chen, Z. Ye, W. Liao, and Y. Xia, "Fabrication of submicron-diameter silica fibers using electric strip heater," Opt. Express 14, 5055-5060 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Gattass, G. T. Svacha, L. M. Tong, and E. Mazur, "Supercontinuum generation in submicrometer diameter silica fibers," Opt. Express 14, 9408-9414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Quantum. Electron. (1)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum. Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, Fam Le Kien, J. Q. Liang, and M. Morinaga, "Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 011401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, "Atom trap and waveguide using a two-color evanescent light field around a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A 70, 063403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic Press, New York, NY 1974).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, New York, NY 1983).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Refractive-index profiles of (a) a real MNF and (b) an ideal MNF with induced currents on the surface. The length of the MNF is L, and the refractive indices of the core and cladding of the MNF are nco and ncl , respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Loss coefficients α of air-cladding MNFs as a function of the perturbation periods Γ. The four MNFs are assumed to have the same roughness amplitude ξ of 0.2 nm, and be operated at 1550-nm wavelength. Inset, Γ-dependent α with relatively small Γ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Loss coefficient α of 600-nm-diameter tellurite MNFs as a function of the perturbation period Γ with λ=1550 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Loss coefficient α of MNFs as a function of the roughness amplitude ξ, with λ=1550 nm and Γ=10 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Γ-dependent α of silica MNFs of different diameters, with λ=1550 nm and ξ=0.2 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Γ-dependent α of a 800-nm-diameter silica MNF operating at different wavelengths with ξ=0.2 nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Wavelength-dependent α of silica MNFs with diameters of 300 and 500 nm, respectively. The two MNFs are assumed to have same roughness parameters with amplitude ξ of 0.2 nm and period Γ of 100 nm.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Electric components e 1 of HE11 mode of the step-profile fiber

Tables Icon

Table 2. Electric field e r j(Q) of radiation mode (with j=l) of a step-profile fiber

Tables Icon

Table 3. The mode normalization N of the HE11 mode in the core and cladding

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J = i ε 0 μ 0 k ( n ¯ 2 n 2 ) E ,
J = i ε 0 μ 0 k ( n ¯ 2 n 2 ) E ¯ = i ε 0 μ 0 k ( n ¯ 2 n 2 ) a ¯ 1 e 1 exp ( iβz ) ,
ρ ( z ) = ρ 0 + ξ sin ωz ,
n ¯ 2 n 2 ( n co 2 n cl 2 ) ξ sin ( ωz ) δ ¯ ( r ρ 0 ) ,
J = i ε 0 μ 0 k ( n co 2 n cl 2 ) δ ¯ ( r ρ 0 ) ξ ( sin ωz ) a ¯ 1 e 1 exp ( iβz ) .
a j r ( Q ) = 1 4 N j r ( Q ) 0 L A e j * r ( Q ) J exp ( ( Q ) z ) dAdz
= ik a ¯ 4 N j r ( Q ) ( ε 0 μ 0 ) 1 2 ( n co 2 n cl 2 )
× 0 L A ξ sin ( ωz ) δ ¯ ( r ρ 0 ) e 1 e j * r ( Q ) exp ( i ( β 1 β ( Q ) ) z ) dAdz ,
a j r ( Q ) = 1 4 N j r ( Q ) 0 L A e j * r ( Q ) J exp ( ( Q ) z ) dAdz
= ik a ¯ 4 N j r ( Q ) ( ε 0 μ 0 ) 1 2 ( n co 2 n cl 2 )
× 0 L A ξ sin ( ωz ) δ ¯ ( r ρ 0 ) e 1 e j * r ( Q ) exp ( i ( β 1 + β ( Q ) ) z ) dAdz ,
E rad = a 1 r ( ITE ) ( Q ) e 1 r ( ITE ) ( Q ) exp ( ( Q ) z ) + a 1 r ( ITE ) ( Q ) e 1 r ( ITE ) ( Q ) exp ( ( Q ) z )
+ a 1 r ( ITM ) ( Q ) e 1 r ( ITM ) ( Q ) exp ( ( Q ) z ) + a 1 r ( ITM ) ( Q ) e 1 r ( ITM ) ( Q ) exp ( ( Q ) z ) ,
P rad = 1 2 Re { A E rad × H rad * z ̂ dA }
= 0 n cl ( a 1 r ( ITE ) ( Q ) 2 + a 1 r ( ITE ) ( Q ) 2 ) N 1 r ( ITE ) ( Q ) dQ
+ 0 n cl ( a 1 r ( ITM ) ( Q ) 2 + a 1 r ( ITM ) ( Q ) 2 ) N 1 r ( ITM ) ( Q ) dQ .
α = 10 lg ( P ¯ P rad P ¯ ) / L ,

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