Abstract

In this article, we deal with new properties of a Solid Core Photonic Bandgap (SC-PBGF) fiber with intersticial air holes (IAHs) in its transverse structure. It has been shown recently, that IAH enlarges its bandgaps (BG), compared to what is observed in a regular SC-PBGF. We shall describe the mechanisms that account for this BG opening, which has not been explained in detail yet. It is then interesting to discuss the role of air holes in the modification of the Bloch modes, at the boundaries of the BG. In particular, we will use a simple method to compute the exact BG diagrams in a faster way, than what is done usually, drawing some parallels between structured fibers and physics of photonic crystals. The very peculiar influence of IAHs on the upper/lower boundaries of the bandgaps will be explained thanks to the difference between mode profiles excited on both boundaries, and linked to the symmetry / asymmetry of the modes. We will observe a modification of the highest index band (nFSM) due to IAHs, that will enable us to propose a fiber design to guide by Total Internal Reflection (TIR) effect, as well as by a more common BG confinement. The transmission zone is deeply enlarged, compared to regular photonic bandgap fibers, and consists in the juxtaposition of (almost non overlapping) BG guiding zones and TIR zone.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, M. T. Burnett, S. A. Maier, "Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding," Opt. Express 15, 325 (2007).
  2. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: molding the flow of light, (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
  3. A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, and Russell, "Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent," Opt. Express 13, 309 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. M. Litchinister, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1243 (2003).
  5. A. K. Abeeluck, N. M. Litchinitser, C. Headley, B. J. Eggleton, "Analysis of spectral characteristics of photonic bandgap waveguides," Opt. Express 10, 1320 (1999).
  6. T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. Martijn de Sterke, N. M. Litchinister, and B. J. Eggleton, "Resonance and scattering in microstructured optical fibres," Opt. Lett. 27, 1977 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. A. Birks, G. J. Pearce, D.M. Bird, "Approximate band structure calculation for photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Express 14, 9483 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Renversez, P. Boyer and A. Sagrini, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide microstructured fibers revisited: a new analysis based on leaky mode coupling," Opt. Express 14, 5682 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. T. Kuhlmey, K. Pathmanandavel, R. C. McPhedran, "Multipole analysis of photonic crystal fibers with coated inclusions," Opt. Express 14, 10851 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Stone, G. J. Pearce, F. Luan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, A. K. George, D. M. Bird, "An improved photonic bandgap fiber based on an array of rings," Opt. Express 14, 6291 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, J. Luo, " Design of all-solid Bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  18, 24 (2006).
  12. A. Betourne, V. Pureur, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, L. Bigot, M. Perrin, M. Douay, "Solid photonic bandgap fiber assisted by and extra air-clad structure for low-loss operation around 1.5 ?m," Opt. Express 15, 316 (2007).
  13. G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, F. Lopez, L. Provino, M. Douay, "Fabrication and characterization of an all-solid 2D photonic bandgap fiber with a low-loss region (< 20 dB/km) around 1550 nm," Opt. Express 13, 8452 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Cerqueira S. Jr., F. Luan, C. M. B. Cordeiro, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, "Hybrid Photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 926 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Betourne, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, M. Douay, "Improvements of solid core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes," Opt. Lett.  32, N 12 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. MPB software, URL: http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb/>
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    [CrossRef]
  19. J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic Band Gap Guidance in Optical Fibers," Science 282, 1476 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. C. Knight, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks and D. M. Birds, "Solid Photonic Badgap Fibres and Applications," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6059 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks and D. M. Birds, "Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibres," Opt. Express 14, 5688 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed., (John Wiley & Sons 1988) Chap. 22.8 627-640.
  23. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, (Wiley, 2004).
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  26. M. J. F. Digonnet, H. K. Kim, J. Shin, S. Fan, G. S. Kino, " Simple geometric criterion to predict the existence of surface modes in air-core photonic-bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1864 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (8)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

A. K. Abeeluck, N. M. Litchinitser, C. Headley, B. J. Eggleton, "Analysis of spectral characteristics of photonic bandgap waveguides," Opt. Express 10, 1320 (1999).

J. Broeng, T. Sondergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, A. Bjarklev, "Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres," J. Opt. A : Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic Band Gap Guidance in Optical Fibers," Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. P. B’erenger,"A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electomagnetic waves," J. Comp. Phys. 114, 185 (1994).

Abeeluck, A. K.

Argyros, A.

Barbeito, P. M.

J. Broeng, T. Sondergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, A. Bjarklev, "Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres," J. Opt. A : Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barkou, S. E.

J. Broeng, T. Sondergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, A. Bjarklev, "Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres," J. Opt. A : Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

Bigot, L.

Bird, D. M.

Bird, D.M.

Birds, D. M.

J. C. Knight, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks and D. M. Birds, "Solid Photonic Badgap Fibres and Applications," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6059 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks and D. M. Birds, "Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibres," Opt. Express 14, 5688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

J. Laegsgaard and A. Bjarklev, "Doped photonic bandgap fibers for short-wavelength nonlinear devices," Opt. Lett. 28, 783 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, T. Sondergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, A. Bjarklev, "Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres," J. Opt. A : Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmans, G.

Boyer, P.

Broeng, J.

J. Broeng, T. Sondergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, A. Bjarklev, "Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres," J. Opt. A : Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic Band Gap Guidance in Optical Fibers," Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, M. T.

Cordeiro, C. B.

Couny, F.

de Sterke, C. M.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Douay, M.

Dunn, S. C.

Eggleton, B. J.

Fan, S.

George, A. K.

Headley, C.

Kim, H. K.

Kino, G. S.

Knight, J. C.

J. M. Stone, G. J. Pearce, F. Luan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, A. K. George, D. M. Bird, "An improved photonic bandgap fiber based on an array of rings," Opt. Express 14, 6291 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks and D. M. Birds, "Solid Photonic Badgap Fibres and Applications," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6059 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic Band Gap Guidance in Optical Fibers," Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Laegsgaard, J.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Litchinister, N. M.

Litchinitser, N. M.

Lopez, F.

Luan, F.

Luo, J.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, J. Luo, " Design of all-solid Bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  18, 24 (2006).

Maier, S. A.

Martijn de Sterke, C.

McPhedran, R. C.

Pathmanandavel, K.

Pearce, G. J.

Provino, L.

Quiquempois, Y.

Ren, G.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, J. Luo, " Design of all-solid Bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  18, 24 (2006).

Renversez, G.

Roberts, P. J.

Russell, P. S. J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic Band Gap Guidance in Optical Fibers," Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sagrini, A.

Shin, J.

Shum, P.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, J. Luo, " Design of all-solid Bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  18, 24 (2006).

Sondergaard, T.

J. Broeng, T. Sondergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, A. Bjarklev, "Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres," J. Opt. A : Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J. M.

Tong, W.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, J. Luo, " Design of all-solid Bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  18, 24 (2006).

Usner, B.

Wang, A.

J. C. Knight, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks and D. M. Birds, "Solid Photonic Badgap Fibres and Applications," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6059 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks and D. M. Birds, "Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibres," Opt. Express 14, 5688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

Yan, M.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, J. Luo, " Design of all-solid Bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  18, 24 (2006).

Yu, X.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, J. Luo, " Design of all-solid Bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  18, 24 (2006).

Zhang, L.

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, J. Luo, " Design of all-solid Bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  18, 24 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, J. Luo, " Design of all-solid Bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  18, 24 (2006).

J. Comp. Phys. (1)

J. P. B’erenger,"A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electomagnetic waves," J. Comp. Phys. 114, 185 (1994).

J. Opt. A : Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Broeng, T. Sondergaard, S. E. Barkou, P. M. Barbeito, A. Bjarklev, "Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres," J. Opt. A : Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. C. Knight, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks and D. M. Birds, "Solid Photonic Badgap Fibres and Applications," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6059 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (13)

N. M. Litchinister, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1243 (2003).

M. J. F. Digonnet, H. K. Kim, J. Shin, S. Fan, G. S. Kino, " Simple geometric criterion to predict the existence of surface modes in air-core photonic-bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, and Russell, "Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent," Opt. Express 13, 309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, F. Lopez, L. Provino, M. Douay, "Fabrication and characterization of an all-solid 2D photonic bandgap fiber with a low-loss region (< 20 dB/km) around 1550 nm," Opt. Express 13, 8452 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cerqueira S. Jr., F. Luan, C. M. B. Cordeiro, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, "Hybrid Photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Renversez, P. Boyer and A. Sagrini, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide microstructured fibers revisited: a new analysis based on leaky mode coupling," Opt. Express 14, 5682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks and D. M. Birds, "Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibres," Opt. Express 14, 5688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Stone, G. J. Pearce, F. Luan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, A. K. George, D. M. Bird, "An improved photonic bandgap fiber based on an array of rings," Opt. Express 14, 6291 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, G. J. Pearce, D.M. Bird, "Approximate band structure calculation for photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Express 14, 9483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Kuhlmey, K. Pathmanandavel, R. C. McPhedran, "Multipole analysis of photonic crystal fibers with coated inclusions," Opt. Express 14, 10851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Betourne, V. Pureur, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, L. Bigot, M. Perrin, M. Douay, "Solid photonic bandgap fiber assisted by and extra air-clad structure for low-loss operation around 1.5 ?m," Opt. Express 15, 316 (2007).

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, M. T. Burnett, S. A. Maier, "Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding," Opt. Express 15, 325 (2007).

A. K. Abeeluck, N. M. Litchinitser, C. Headley, B. J. Eggleton, "Analysis of spectral characteristics of photonic bandgap waveguides," Opt. Express 10, 1320 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic Band Gap Guidance in Optical Fibers," Science 282, 1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

MPB software, URL: http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb/>

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed., (John Wiley & Sons 1988) Chap. 22.8 627-640.

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, (Wiley, 2004).

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, A. S. Bjarklev, "Photonic Crystal Fibers," (Kluwer Academic Publishers, see section 6.4.2.2).

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: molding the flow of light, (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

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