Abstract

Employing an interferometric cavity ring-down technique we study the launching, propagation and reflection of surface plasmons on a smooth gold-air interface that is intersected by two parallel, sub-wavelength wide slits. Inside the low-finesse optical cavity defined by these slits the surface plasmon is observed to make multiple bounces. Our experimental data allow us to determine the surface-plasmon group velocity (v group = 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10-8 m/s at λ = 770 nm) and the reflection coefficient (R ≈ 0.04) of each of our slits for an incident surface plasmon. Moreover, we find that the phase jump upon reflection off a slit is equal to the scattering phase acquired when light is converted into a plasmon at one slit and back-converted to light at the other slit. This allows us to explain fine details in the transmission spectrum of our double slits.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (6)

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 205401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Gan, G. Gbur, and T. D. Visser, "Surface plasmons modulate the spatial coherence of light in Young’s interference experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, "Gain assisted surface plasmon polariton in quantum wells structures," Opt. Express 15, 176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuzmin, H. F. Schouten, G. Gbur, G. W. ’t Hooft, E. R. Eliel, and T. D. Visser, "Enhancement of spatial coherence by surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 32, 445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Temnov, U. Woggon, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon interferometry: measuring group velocity of surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 32, 1235 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. T. A. Janssen, H. P. Urbach, and G. W. ‘t Hooft, "On the phase of plasmons excited by slits in a metal film," Opt. Express 14, 11823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. K. E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45? surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, "Quantum optics with surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, J. Elliott, G. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, "Digital resolution enhancement in surface plasmon microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 84, 253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

H. F. Schouten, N. V. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface-plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Bai, C. Guerrero, S. Ioanid, E. Paz, M. Sanz, and N. Garcia, "Measuring the speed of a surface plasmon," Phys. Rev. B 69, 115416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Yu, S. Tian, D. Yao, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon enhanced diffraction for label-free biosensing," Anal. Chem. 76, 3530 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

J. Seidel, S. Grafstr¨om, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Okamoto, K. Kakutani, T. Yoshizaki, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Experimental evaluation of reflectance of surface plasmon polariton at metal step barrier," Surf. Sci. 544, 67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, F. Marabelli, and G. Guizzetti, "Direct measurement of refractive-index dispersion of transparent media by white-light interferometry," Appl. Opt. 42, 3910 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. G¨untherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. V. Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. and Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. J. Kop and R. Sprik, "Phase-sensitive interferometry with ultrashort optical pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. F. Wallis, A. A. Maradudin, and G. I. Stegeman, "Surface polariton reflection and radiation at end faces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 764 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

U. Fano, "Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts," Phys. Rev. 124, 1866 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

‘t Hooft, G. W.

’t Hooft, G. W.

N. V. Kuzmin, H. F. Schouten, G. Gbur, G. W. ’t Hooft, E. R. Eliel, and T. D. Visser, "Enhancement of spatial coherence by surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 32, 445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. V. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aitchison, J. S.

Alam, M. Z.

Alkemade, P. F. A.

H. F. Schouten, N. V. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, M.

M. Bai, C. Guerrero, S. Ioanid, E. Paz, M. Sanz, and N. Garcia, "Measuring the speed of a surface plasmon," Phys. Rev. B 69, 115416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baudrion, A. L.

M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. K. E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45? surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Blok, H.

H. F. Schouten, N. V. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. G¨untherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. V. Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L.

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 205401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D. E.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, "Quantum optics with surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, J. Elliott, G. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, "Digital resolution enhancement in surface plasmon microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 84, 253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. K. E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45? surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

Devaux, J. R. K. E.

M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. K. E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45? surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dintinger, J.

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubois, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. V. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Temnov, U. Woggon, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon interferometry: measuring group velocity of surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 32, 1235 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. K. E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45? surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eliel, E. R.

N. V. Kuzmin, H. F. Schouten, G. Gbur, G. W. ’t Hooft, E. R. Eliel, and T. D. Visser, "Enhancement of spatial coherence by surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 32, 445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. V. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elliott, J.

I. I. Smolyaninov, J. Elliott, G. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, "Digital resolution enhancement in surface plasmon microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 84, 253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fano, U.

U. Fano, "Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts," Phys. Rev. 124, 1866 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, M.

T. Okamoto, K. Kakutani, T. Yoshizaki, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Experimental evaluation of reflectance of surface plasmon polariton at metal step barrier," Surf. Sci. 544, 67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

Gan, C. H.

C. H. Gan, G. Gbur, and T. D. Visser, "Surface plasmons modulate the spatial coherence of light in Young’s interference experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, N.

M. Bai, C. Guerrero, S. Ioanid, E. Paz, M. Sanz, and N. Garcia, "Measuring the speed of a surface plasmon," Phys. Rev. B 69, 115416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gbur, G.

C. H. Gan, G. Gbur, and T. D. Visser, "Surface plasmons modulate the spatial coherence of light in Young’s interference experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Kuzmin, H. F. Schouten, G. Gbur, G. W. ’t Hooft, E. R. Eliel, and T. D. Visser, "Enhancement of spatial coherence by surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 32, 445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. V. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, M. U.

M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. K. E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45? surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guerrero, C.

M. Bai, C. Guerrero, S. Ioanid, E. Paz, M. Sanz, and N. Garcia, "Measuring the speed of a surface plasmon," Phys. Rev. B 69, 115416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guizzetti, G.

Haraguchi, M.

T. Okamoto, K. Kakutani, T. Yoshizaki, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Experimental evaluation of reflectance of surface plasmon polariton at metal step barrier," Surf. Sci. 544, 67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hemmer, P. R.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, "Quantum optics with surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, F.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huser, T.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. G¨untherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. V. Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ioanid, S.

M. Bai, C. Guerrero, S. Ioanid, E. Paz, M. Sanz, and N. Garcia, "Measuring the speed of a surface plasmon," Phys. Rev. B 69, 115416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, O. T. A.

Kakutani, K.

T. Okamoto, K. Kakutani, T. Yoshizaki, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Experimental evaluation of reflectance of surface plasmon polariton at metal step barrier," Surf. Sci. 544, 67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

F. Yu, S. Tian, D. Yao, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon enhanced diffraction for label-free biosensing," Anal. Chem. 76, 3530 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kop, R. H. J.

R. H. J. Kop and R. Sprik, "Phase-sensitive interferometry with ultrashort optical pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzmin, N. V.

N. V. Kuzmin, H. F. Schouten, G. Gbur, G. W. ’t Hooft, E. R. Eliel, and T. D. Visser, "Enhancement of spatial coherence by surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 32, 445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. V. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

H. F. Schouten, N. V. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. and Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, "Quantum optics with surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundstrom, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. and Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marabelli, F.

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface-plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Wallis, A. A. Maradudin, and G. I. Stegeman, "Surface polariton reflection and radiation at end faces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 764 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J.

Mojahedi, M.

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. and Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O’Keefe, A.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, T.

T. Okamoto, K. Kakutani, T. Yoshizaki, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Experimental evaluation of reflectance of surface plasmon polariton at metal step barrier," Surf. Sci. 544, 67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 205401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 205401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paul, J. B.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paz, E.

M. Bai, C. Guerrero, S. Ioanid, E. Paz, M. Sanz, and N. Garcia, "Measuring the speed of a surface plasmon," Phys. Rev. B 69, 115416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rodier, J. C.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, M.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanz, M.

M. Bai, C. Guerrero, S. Ioanid, E. Paz, M. Sanz, and N. Garcia, "Measuring the speed of a surface plasmon," Phys. Rev. B 69, 115416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, J. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schouten, H. F.

N. V. Kuzmin, H. F. Schouten, G. Gbur, G. W. ’t Hooft, E. R. Eliel, and T. D. Visser, "Enhancement of spatial coherence by surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 32, 445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. V. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidel, J.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstr¨om, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, J. Elliott, G. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, "Digital resolution enhancement in surface plasmon microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 84, 253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface-plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, A. S.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, "Quantum optics with surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprik, R.

R. H. J. Kop and R. Sprik, "Phase-sensitive interferometry with ultrashort optical pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

R. F. Wallis, A. A. Maradudin, and G. I. Stegeman, "Surface polariton reflection and radiation at end faces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 764 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. K. E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45? surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tamaru, H.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. G¨untherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. V. Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Temnov, V. V.

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tian, S.

F. Yu, S. Tian, D. Yao, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon enhanced diffraction for label-free biosensing," Anal. Chem. 76, 3530 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbach, H. P.

Visser, T. D.

N. V. Kuzmin, H. F. Schouten, G. Gbur, G. W. ’t Hooft, E. R. Eliel, and T. D. Visser, "Enhancement of spatial coherence by surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 32, 445 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Gan, G. Gbur, and T. D. Visser, "Surface plasmons modulate the spatial coherence of light in Young’s interference experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. V. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, D.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallis, R. F.

R. F. Wallis, A. A. Maradudin, and G. I. Stegeman, "Surface polariton reflection and radiation at end faces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 764 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. K. E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45? surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, U.

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G.

I. I. Smolyaninov, J. Elliott, G. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, "Digital resolution enhancement in surface plasmon microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 84, 253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yao, D.

F. Yu, S. Tian, D. Yao, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon enhanced diffraction for label-free biosensing," Anal. Chem. 76, 3530 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshizaki, T.

T. Okamoto, K. Kakutani, T. Yoshizaki, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Experimental evaluation of reflectance of surface plasmon polariton at metal step barrier," Surf. Sci. 544, 67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F.

F. Yu, S. Tian, D. Yao, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon enhanced diffraction for label-free biosensing," Anal. Chem. 76, 3530 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

I. I. Smolyaninov, J. Elliott, G. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, "Digital resolution enhancement in surface plasmon microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 84, 253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface-plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

F. Yu, S. Tian, D. Yao, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon enhanced diffraction for label-free biosensing," Anal. Chem. 76, 3530 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

I. I. Smolyaninov, J. Elliott, G. Wurtz, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, "Digital resolution enhancement in surface plasmon microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 84, 253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. F. Wallis, A. A. Maradudin, and G. I. Stegeman, "Surface polariton reflection and radiation at end faces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 764 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Seidel, S. Grafstr¨om, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. and Bioelectron. (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. and Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (2)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface-plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

U. Fano, "Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts," Phys. Rev. 124, 1866 (1961).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 205401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. K. E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45? surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. G¨untherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. V. Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Bai, C. Guerrero, S. Ioanid, E. Paz, M. Sanz, and N. Garcia, "Measuring the speed of a surface plasmon," Phys. Rev. B 69, 115416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, "Quantum optics with surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. V. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Gan, G. Gbur, and T. D. Visser, "Surface plasmons modulate the spatial coherence of light in Young’s interference experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043908 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. H. J. Kop and R. Sprik, "Phase-sensitive interferometry with ultrashort optical pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

T. Okamoto, K. Kakutani, T. Yoshizaki, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Experimental evaluation of reflectance of surface plasmon polariton at metal step barrier," Surf. Sci. 544, 67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

F. Lopez-Tejeira, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Scattering of surface plasmons by one-dimensional periodic nanoindented surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 72, 161405(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Cambridge University Press, 1999).

J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort laser pulse phenomena, (Academic Press, 1996).

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of optical constants of solids, (Academic Press, 1985).

H. Raether, Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings, (Springer, 1988).

C. Bohren and F. Huffman, "Absorption and scattering of light by small particles," (Wiley, 1983).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers, (University Science Books, USA, 1986).

V. Shalaev and S. Kawata, Nanophotonics with surface plasmons, (Elsevier, 2006).

M. L. Brongersma and P. G. Kik, Surface plasmon nanophotonics, (Springer, 2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The coupling of incident TM-polarized light into surface plasmons (blue) propagating along the metal-dielectric interface on top, accompanied by direct transmission (red); (b) Incident surface plasmon out-coupling to free-propagating light, back-reflection and tunneling through the slit. Bottom interface is covered with metal (Ti) that suppresses surface plasmon propagation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental interferometer setup. The output of a wavelength tunable ultrashort pulsed Ti:sapphire laser, λ = 770–800 nm, is incident on a 50/50 beamsplitter (BS). The light reflects from two broadband dielectric mirrors (M1,M2) and is recombined at the beamsplitter. Behind the sample (S) the light is detected by a Si photodiode detector (D). The pump-probe delay is varied by moving mirror M2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental interferograms measured without sample (a) and with a sample containing a sub-wavelength slit pair with 25 μm slit separation (b). The insets show details of the interference signal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Carrier envelopes of the demodulated experimental signal for samples with slit separation equal to 25 μm (a) and 50 μm (b), respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Delay between peaks A (direct transmission) and B (representing the surface plasmon wavepacket) for different slit separations L. The slope of the line through the points determines the value of 1/v group; (b) Ratio of the second to first peaks (B/A) as a function of the slit separation L; (c) Ratio of the third to second peaks (C/B) for different values of the slit spacing.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectral representation of the two-slit transfer function G(ω) and field E(ω) (a–c).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Calculated and experimental interferograms for various values of the tuning of the laser wavelength. Frames a) and d) show calculated data for the case that the phase parameter u = 0, while frames b) and c) show such data for the case that u = π. Frames e) and f) show experimental results for two different wavelength settings of the laser: in e) the laser is tuned to a transmission maximum; in f) to a transmission minimum.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Double-slit transmission spectrum for TM-polarized incident light. The circles show the experimental data, the solid lines calculated spectra for |α| = |r| = 0.2. The red line shows the result for u = 0, while the blue line represents a u = π spectrum.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k sp ( ω ) = ω c ε m ( ω ) ε d ( ω ) ε m ( ω ) + ε d ( ω ) ,
G ( ω ) = 1 + α exp [ ikL ] + α r exp [ 2 ikL ] + α r 2 exp [ 3 ikL ] + ,
= 1 + α exp [ ikL ] 1 r exp [ ikL ] ,
R ( ω ) = r ( 1 ( 1 r 2 ) exp [ 2 i k 0 L ] 1 r 2 exp [ 2 i k 0 L ] ) .
I ( t ) = 2 + E ( ω ) G ( ω ) 2 cos ( ω t ) d ω ,

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