Abstract

We demonstrate projection of highly stabilized, aberration-corrected stimuli directly onto the retina by means of real-time retinal image motion signals in combination with high speed modulation of a scanning laser. In three subjects with good fixation stability, stimulus location accuracy averaged 0.26 arcminutes or approximately 1.3 microns, which is smaller than the cone-to-cone spacing at the fovea. We also demonstrate real-time correction for image distortions in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) with an intraframe accuracy of about 7 arcseconds.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. E. Arend and G. T. Timberlake, "What is psychophysically perfect image stabilization? Do perfectly stabilized images always disappear?," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 235-241 (1986).
  2. M. Rucci and G. Desbordes, "Contributions of fixational eye movements to the discrimination of briefly presented stimuli," J. Vision 3, 852-864 (2003).
  3. A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
  4. S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Refract. Surg. 21, S575-S580 (2005).
  5. M. Stetter, R. A. Sendtner, and G. T. Timberlake, "A novel method for measuring saccade profiles using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 36, 1987-1994 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, "Retinal motion estimation and image dewarping in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 487-497 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, "Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy" in Ophthalmic Technologies XI, F. Manns, P. Soderberg, and A. Ho, eds., (SPIE, Bellingham, WA 2005).
  8. D. W. Arathorn, Map-Seeking Circuits in Visual Cognition (Stanford University Press, Stanford 2002).
  9. H. B. Barlow, "Eye movements during fixation," J. Physiol 116, 290-306 (1952).
  10. M. Eizenman, P. E. Hallet, and R. C. Frecker, "Power spectra for ocular drift and tremor," Vision Res. 25, 1635-1640 (1985).
  11. S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, "The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 229-240 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. A. Riggs, J. C. Armington, and F. Ratliff, "Motions of the retinal image during fixation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 315-321 (1954).
  13. T. N. Cornsweet, "Determination of the stimuli for involuntary drifts and saccadic eye movements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 987-993 (1956).
  14. G. Kumar, S. B. Stevenson, and A. Roorda, "Saccadic targeting variability revealed by high magnification retinal imaging," J. Vision 6, 495 (2006). http://journalofvision.org/6/6/495/
  15. R. Engbert and R. Kliegl, "Microsaccades keep the eyes' balance during fixation," Psychol. Sci. 15, 431-436 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. W. Arathorn, "Computation in higher visual cortices: Map-seeking circuit theory and application to machine vision" in IEEE Advances in Image Pattern Recognition, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York 2004).
  17. D. W. Arathorn, "Memory-driven visual attention: an emergent behavior of map-seeking circuits" in Neurobiology of Attention, L. Itti, G. Rees, and J. Tsotsos, eds., (Elsevier, 2004).
  18. D. W. Arathorn, "A cortically-plausible inverse problem solving method applied to recognizing static and kinematic 3D objects" in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, (MIT Press, 2005).
  19. D. W. Arathorn, "Cortically plausible inverse problem method applied to complex perceptual and planning tasks" Proc SPIE 6229, 62290E (2006).
  20. ANSI, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1-2000 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando 2000).
  21. H. D. Crane and C. M. Steele, "Generation-V dual-Purkinje-image eyetracker," Appl. Opt. 24, 527-537 (1985).
  22. L. A. Riggs and A. M. Schick, "Accuracy of retinal image stabilization achieved with a plane mirror on a tightly fitting contact lens," Vision Res. 8, 159-169 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Deubel and B. Bridgeman, "Fourth Purkinje image signals reveal eye-lens deviations and retinal image distortions during saccades," Vision Res. 35, 529-538 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Rucci, R. Iovin, M. Poletti, and F. Santini, "Miniature eye movements enhance fine spatial detail," Nature 447, 852-855 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and O. Pomerantzeff, "Flying spot TV ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 19, 2991-2997 (1980).
  26. H. Hofer, B. Singer, and D. R. Williams, "Different sensations from cones with the same pigment," J. Vision 5, 444-454 (2005). http://journalofvision.org/5/5/5/
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Grieve, P. Tiruveedhula, Y. Zhang, and A. Roorda, "Multi-wavelength imaging with the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Opt. Express 14, 12230-12242 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2007

M. Rucci, R. Iovin, M. Poletti, and F. Santini, "Miniature eye movements enhance fine spatial detail," Nature 447, 852-855 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Kumar, S. B. Stevenson, and A. Roorda, "Saccadic targeting variability revealed by high magnification retinal imaging," J. Vision 6, 495 (2006). http://journalofvision.org/6/6/495/

D. W. Arathorn, "Cortically plausible inverse problem method applied to complex perceptual and planning tasks" Proc SPIE 6229, 62290E (2006).

C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, "Retinal motion estimation and image dewarping in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 487-497 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Grieve, P. Tiruveedhula, Y. Zhang, and A. Roorda, "Multi-wavelength imaging with the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Opt. Express 14, 12230-12242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Refract. Surg. 21, S575-S580 (2005).

H. Hofer, B. Singer, and D. R. Williams, "Different sensations from cones with the same pigment," J. Vision 5, 444-454 (2005). http://journalofvision.org/5/5/5/
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, "The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 229-240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Engbert and R. Kliegl, "Microsaccades keep the eyes' balance during fixation," Psychol. Sci. 15, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Rucci and G. Desbordes, "Contributions of fixational eye movements to the discrimination of briefly presented stimuli," J. Vision 3, 852-864 (2003).

2002

1996

M. Stetter, R. A. Sendtner, and G. T. Timberlake, "A novel method for measuring saccade profiles using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 36, 1987-1994 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Deubel and B. Bridgeman, "Fourth Purkinje image signals reveal eye-lens deviations and retinal image distortions during saccades," Vision Res. 35, 529-538 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

M. Eizenman, P. E. Hallet, and R. C. Frecker, "Power spectra for ocular drift and tremor," Vision Res. 25, 1635-1640 (1985).

H. D. Crane and C. M. Steele, "Generation-V dual-Purkinje-image eyetracker," Appl. Opt. 24, 527-537 (1985).

1980

1968

L. A. Riggs and A. M. Schick, "Accuracy of retinal image stabilization achieved with a plane mirror on a tightly fitting contact lens," Vision Res. 8, 159-169 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1956

1954

1952

H. B. Barlow, "Eye movements during fixation," J. Physiol 116, 290-306 (1952).

Arathorn, D. W.

D. W. Arathorn, "Cortically plausible inverse problem method applied to complex perceptual and planning tasks" Proc SPIE 6229, 62290E (2006).

C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, "Retinal motion estimation and image dewarping in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 487-497 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arend, L. E.

Armington, J. C.

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, "Eye movements during fixation," J. Physiol 116, 290-306 (1952).

Bridgeman, B.

H. Deubel and B. Bridgeman, "Fourth Purkinje image signals reveal eye-lens deviations and retinal image distortions during saccades," Vision Res. 35, 529-538 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M. C. W.

Carroll, J.

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christie, N.

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cornsweet, T. N.

Crane, H. D.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Desbordes, G.

M. Rucci and G. Desbordes, "Contributions of fixational eye movements to the discrimination of briefly presented stimuli," J. Vision 3, 852-864 (2003).

Deubel, H.

H. Deubel and B. Bridgeman, "Fourth Purkinje image signals reveal eye-lens deviations and retinal image distortions during saccades," Vision Res. 35, 529-538 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, W. J.

Eizenman, M.

M. Eizenman, P. E. Hallet, and R. C. Frecker, "Power spectra for ocular drift and tremor," Vision Res. 25, 1635-1640 (1985).

Engbert, R.

R. Engbert and R. Kliegl, "Microsaccades keep the eyes' balance during fixation," Psychol. Sci. 15, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frecker, R. C.

M. Eizenman, P. E. Hallet, and R. C. Frecker, "Power spectra for ocular drift and tremor," Vision Res. 25, 1635-1640 (1985).

Grieve, K.

Hallet, P. E.

M. Eizenman, P. E. Hallet, and R. C. Frecker, "Power spectra for ocular drift and tremor," Vision Res. 25, 1635-1640 (1985).

Hebert, T. J.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Henry, L.

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Refract. Surg. 21, S575-S580 (2005).

Hofer, H.

H. Hofer, B. Singer, and D. R. Williams, "Different sensations from cones with the same pigment," J. Vision 5, 444-454 (2005). http://journalofvision.org/5/5/5/
[CrossRef]

Hubel, D. H.

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, "The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 229-240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, G. W.

Iovin, R.

M. Rucci, R. Iovin, M. Poletti, and F. Santini, "Miniature eye movements enhance fine spatial detail," Nature 447, 852-855 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kliegl, R.

R. Engbert and R. Kliegl, "Microsaccades keep the eyes' balance during fixation," Psychol. Sci. 15, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G.

G. Kumar, S. B. Stevenson, and A. Roorda, "Saccadic targeting variability revealed by high magnification retinal imaging," J. Vision 6, 495 (2006). http://journalofvision.org/6/6/495/

Lin, J.

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macknik, S. L.

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, "The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 229-240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Makous, W.

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Conde, S.

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, "The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 229-240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parker, A.

Patel, S.

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Refract. Surg. 21, S575-S580 (2005).

Poletti, M.

M. Rucci, R. Iovin, M. Poletti, and F. Santini, "Miniature eye movements enhance fine spatial detail," Nature 447, 852-855 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pomerantzeff, O.

Poonja, S.

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Refract. Surg. 21, S575-S580 (2005).

Queener, H.

Ratliff, F.

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and A. M. Schick, "Accuracy of retinal image stabilization achieved with a plane mirror on a tightly fitting contact lens," Vision Res. 8, 159-169 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Riggs, J. C. Armington, and F. Ratliff, "Motions of the retinal image during fixation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 315-321 (1954).

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Rucci, M.

M. Rucci, R. Iovin, M. Poletti, and F. Santini, "Miniature eye movements enhance fine spatial detail," Nature 447, 852-855 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Rucci and G. Desbordes, "Contributions of fixational eye movements to the discrimination of briefly presented stimuli," J. Vision 3, 852-864 (2003).

Santini, F.

M. Rucci, R. Iovin, M. Poletti, and F. Santini, "Miniature eye movements enhance fine spatial detail," Nature 447, 852-855 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schick, A. M.

L. A. Riggs and A. M. Schick, "Accuracy of retinal image stabilization achieved with a plane mirror on a tightly fitting contact lens," Vision Res. 8, 159-169 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sendtner, R. A.

M. Stetter, R. A. Sendtner, and G. T. Timberlake, "A novel method for measuring saccade profiles using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 36, 1987-1994 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Singer, B.

H. Hofer, B. Singer, and D. R. Williams, "Different sensations from cones with the same pigment," J. Vision 5, 444-454 (2005). http://journalofvision.org/5/5/5/
[CrossRef]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Steele, C. M.

Stetter, M.

M. Stetter, R. A. Sendtner, and G. T. Timberlake, "A novel method for measuring saccade profiles using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 36, 1987-1994 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, S. B.

G. Kumar, S. B. Stevenson, and A. Roorda, "Saccadic targeting variability revealed by high magnification retinal imaging," J. Vision 6, 495 (2006). http://journalofvision.org/6/6/495/

Timberlake, G. T.

M. Stetter, R. A. Sendtner, and G. T. Timberlake, "A novel method for measuring saccade profiles using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 36, 1987-1994 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Arend and G. T. Timberlake, "What is psychophysically perfect image stabilization? Do perfectly stabilized images always disappear?," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 235-241 (1986).

Tiruveedhula, P.

Vogel, C. R.

Webb, R. H.

Williams, D. R.

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, B. Singer, and D. R. Williams, "Different sensations from cones with the same pigment," J. Vision 5, 444-454 (2005). http://journalofvision.org/5/5/5/
[CrossRef]

Wolfing, J. I.

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Opt.

Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Neurol.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Physiol

H. B. Barlow, "Eye movements during fixation," J. Physiol 116, 290-306 (1952).

J. Refract. Surg.

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Refract. Surg. 21, S575-S580 (2005).

J. Vision

M. Rucci and G. Desbordes, "Contributions of fixational eye movements to the discrimination of briefly presented stimuli," J. Vision 3, 852-864 (2003).

G. Kumar, S. B. Stevenson, and A. Roorda, "Saccadic targeting variability revealed by high magnification retinal imaging," J. Vision 6, 495 (2006). http://journalofvision.org/6/6/495/

H. Hofer, B. Singer, and D. R. Williams, "Different sensations from cones with the same pigment," J. Vision 5, 444-454 (2005). http://journalofvision.org/5/5/5/
[CrossRef]

Nat. Rev. Neurosci.

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, and D. H. Hubel, "The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 229-240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Rucci, R. Iovin, M. Poletti, and F. Santini, "Miniature eye movements enhance fine spatial detail," Nature 447, 852-855 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc SPIE

D. W. Arathorn, "Cortically plausible inverse problem method applied to complex perceptual and planning tasks" Proc SPIE 6229, 62290E (2006).

Psychol. Sci.

R. Engbert and R. Kliegl, "Microsaccades keep the eyes' balance during fixation," Psychol. Sci. 15, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res.

L. A. Riggs and A. M. Schick, "Accuracy of retinal image stabilization achieved with a plane mirror on a tightly fitting contact lens," Vision Res. 8, 159-169 (1968).
[CrossRef]

H. Deubel and B. Bridgeman, "Fourth Purkinje image signals reveal eye-lens deviations and retinal image distortions during saccades," Vision Res. 35, 529-538 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Eizenman, P. E. Hallet, and R. C. Frecker, "Power spectra for ocular drift and tremor," Vision Res. 25, 1635-1640 (1985).

M. Stetter, R. A. Sendtner, and G. T. Timberlake, "A novel method for measuring saccade profiles using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 36, 1987-1994 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, "Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning laser ophthalmoscopy" in Ophthalmic Technologies XI, F. Manns, P. Soderberg, and A. Ho, eds., (SPIE, Bellingham, WA 2005).

D. W. Arathorn, Map-Seeking Circuits in Visual Cognition (Stanford University Press, Stanford 2002).

ANSI, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1-2000 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando 2000).

D. W. Arathorn, "Computation in higher visual cortices: Map-seeking circuit theory and application to machine vision" in IEEE Advances in Image Pattern Recognition, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York 2004).

D. W. Arathorn, "Memory-driven visual attention: an emergent behavior of map-seeking circuits" in Neurobiology of Attention, L. Itti, G. Rees, and J. Tsotsos, eds., (Elsevier, 2004).

D. W. Arathorn, "A cortically-plausible inverse problem solving method applied to recognizing static and kinematic 3D objects" in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, (MIT Press, 2005).

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