Abstract

We demonstrate experimentally that bending loss in large mode area photonic crystal fibers oscillates with wavelength. To do so we carried out loss measurements for different fiber bend radii and for different angular orientations. These results confirm the oscillatory behavior of bending loss vs. wavelength as predicted recently by numerical analysis [J. Olszewski et al., Opt. Express 13, 6015 (2005)]. We also found good agreement between our measurement results and our simulations relying on a finite element method with perfectly matched layers and an equivalent index model.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. St.J. Russell, "Photonic-Crystal Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,4729-4749 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22,961-963 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37,287-289 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, and J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149,206-210 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M.D. Nielsen, J.R. Folkenberg, N.A. Mortensen, and A. Bjarklev, "Bandwidth comparison of photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers," Opt. Express 12,430 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-430.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. D. Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, M. Albertsen, J. R. Folkenberg, A. Bjarklev, and D. Bonacinni "Predicting macrobending loss for large-mode area photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12,1775 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1775.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa,V. Finazzi, D.J. Richardson. "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227,317-335 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Tsuchida, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba "Design and characterisation of single-mode holey fibers with low bending losses," Opt. Express 13,4770 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4770.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbanczyk, "Effect of coupling between fundamental and cladding modes on bending losses in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13,6015 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6015.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, "Analytical evaluation of bending loss oscillations in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 269,261-270 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. J. Harris and P.F. Castle, "Bend loss measurement on high numerical aperture single-mode fibers as function of wavelength and bend radius," J. Lightwave Technol. 4,34-40 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Morgan, J.S. Barton, P.G. Harper and J.D.C. Jones, "Wavelength dependence of bending loss in mononmode optical fibers: effect of the fiber buffer coating," Opt. Lett. 15,947-949 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Renner, "Bending losses of coated single-mode fibers: a simple approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 10,544-551 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Faustini and G. Martini, "Bend loss in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15,671-679 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Wang, G. Farrell, T. Freir, "Theoretical and experimental investigations of macro-bend losses for standard single mode fibers," Opt. Express 13,4476 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4476.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, "Complex modal analysis of curved optical waveguides using a full-vectorial finite element method with perfectly matched layer boundary conditions," Electromagnetics 24,39-48 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, T. Matsui, C. Fukai, I. Sankawa, "PMD characteristics of twisted photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 41,403 - 405 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, "Analytical evaluation of bending loss oscillations in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 269,261-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa,V. Finazzi, D.J. Richardson. "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227,317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, and J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149,206-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37,287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22,961-963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Faustini and G. Martini, "Bend loss in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15,671-679 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Renner, "Bending losses of coated single-mode fibers: a simple approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 10,544-551 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

A. J. Harris and P.F. Castle, "Bend loss measurement on high numerical aperture single-mode fibers as function of wavelength and bend radius," J. Lightwave Technol. 4,34-40 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Albertsen, M.

Baggett, J. C.

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa,V. Finazzi, D.J. Richardson. "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227,317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J.S.

Berghmans, F.

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, "Analytical evaluation of bending loss oscillations in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 269,261-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

M. D. Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, M. Albertsen, J. R. Folkenberg, A. Bjarklev, and D. Bonacinni "Predicting macrobending loss for large-mode area photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12,1775 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1775.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.D. Nielsen, J.R. Folkenberg, N.A. Mortensen, and A. Bjarklev, "Bandwidth comparison of photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers," Opt. Express 12,430 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-430.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, and J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149,206-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37,287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bonacinni, D.

Broeng, J.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, and J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149,206-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37,287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Castle, P.F.

A. J. Harris and P.F. Castle, "Bend loss measurement on high numerical aperture single-mode fibers as function of wavelength and bend radius," J. Lightwave Technol. 4,34-40 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, G.

Faustini, L.

L. Faustini and G. Martini, "Bend loss in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15,671-679 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, V.

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa,V. Finazzi, D.J. Richardson. "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227,317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Folkenberg, J.R.

Freir, T.

Fukai, C.

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, T. Matsui, C. Fukai, I. Sankawa, "PMD characteristics of twisted photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 41,403 - 405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa,V. Finazzi, D.J. Richardson. "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227,317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, and J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149,206-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harper, P.G.

Harris, A. J.

A. J. Harris and P.F. Castle, "Bend loss measurement on high numerical aperture single-mode fibers as function of wavelength and bend radius," J. Lightwave Technol. 4,34-40 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. R.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, and J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149,206-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J.D.C.

Knight, J. C.

Knudsen, E.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, and J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149,206-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37,287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Y. Tsuchida, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba "Design and characterisation of single-mode holey fibers with low bending losses," Opt. Express 13,4770 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4770.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, "Complex modal analysis of curved optical waveguides using a full-vectorial finite element method with perfectly matched layer boundary conditions," Electromagnetics 24,39-48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, K.

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, T. Matsui, C. Fukai, I. Sankawa, "PMD characteristics of twisted photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 41,403 - 405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Libori, S. E. B.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, and J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149,206-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37,287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martini, G.

L. Faustini and G. Martini, "Bend loss in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15,671-679 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martynkien, T.

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, "Analytical evaluation of bending loss oscillations in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 269,261-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, T. Matsui, C. Fukai, I. Sankawa, "PMD characteristics of twisted photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 41,403 - 405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa,V. Finazzi, D.J. Richardson. "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227,317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, R.

Mortensen, N. A.

Mortensen, N.A.

Nakajima, K.

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, T. Matsui, C. Fukai, I. Sankawa, "PMD characteristics of twisted photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 41,403 - 405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nasilowski, T.

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, "Analytical evaluation of bending loss oscillations in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 269,261-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. D.

Nielsen, M.D.

Olszewski, J.

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, "Analytical evaluation of bending loss oscillations in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 269,261-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbanczyk, "Effect of coupling between fundamental and cladding modes on bending losses in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13,6015 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6015.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renner, H.

H. Renner, "Bending losses of coated single-mode fibers: a simple approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 10,544-551 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D.J.

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa,V. Finazzi, D.J. Richardson. "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227,317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St.J.

Saitoh, K.

Sankawa, I.

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, T. Matsui, C. Fukai, I. Sankawa, "PMD characteristics of twisted photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 41,403 - 405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H. R.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, and J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149,206-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, T.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, and J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149,206-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37,287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Szpulak, M.

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, "Analytical evaluation of bending loss oscillations in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 269,261-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbanczyk, "Effect of coupling between fundamental and cladding modes on bending losses in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13,6015 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6015.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajima, K.

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, T. Matsui, C. Fukai, I. Sankawa, "PMD characteristics of twisted photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 41,403 - 405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, "Analytical evaluation of bending loss oscillations in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 269,261-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, Y.

Tsuji, Y.

Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, "Complex modal analysis of curved optical waveguides using a full-vectorial finite element method with perfectly matched layer boundary conditions," Electromagnetics 24,39-48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Urbanczyk, W.

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, "Analytical evaluation of bending loss oscillations in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 269,261-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbanczyk, "Effect of coupling between fundamental and cladding modes on bending losses in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13,6015 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6015.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, T. Matsui, C. Fukai, I. Sankawa, "PMD characteristics of twisted photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 41,403 - 405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electromagnetics (1)

Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, "Complex modal analysis of curved optical waveguides using a full-vectorial finite element method with perfectly matched layer boundary conditions," Electromagnetics 24,39-48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, T. Matsui, C. Fukai, I. Sankawa, "PMD characteristics of twisted photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 41,403 - 405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37,287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

P. St.J. Russell, "Photonic-Crystal Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,4729-4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Harris and P.F. Castle, "Bend loss measurement on high numerical aperture single-mode fibers as function of wavelength and bend radius," J. Lightwave Technol. 4,34-40 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Renner, "Bending losses of coated single-mode fibers: a simple approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 10,544-551 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Faustini and G. Martini, "Bend loss in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15,671-679 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, "Analytical evaluation of bending loss oscillations in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 269,261-270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa,V. Finazzi, D.J. Richardson. "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227,317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optoelectron. (1)

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, and J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149,206-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectral dependence of bending loss (a) for different angular orientations of the fiber with respect to the bending plane (b). Numbers associated to selected loss peaks correspond to the order of the phase matched cladding modes shown in Fig. 2. Calculations were carried out for a bending radius R = 80 mm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Distribution of the dominant component of the electric field in selected, y-polarized cladding modes. The calculations were performed for the angular orientations φ= 0° (a). φ= 30° (b) and φ= 15° (c) of the fiber with respect to the bending plane and for radii assuring phase matching condition of respective cladding modes with the fundamental mode, λ = 0.83 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross-section of the investigated large mode area fiber LMA-20 (a) and scheme of the experimental set-up for bending loss measurements (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagram illustrating the procedure of angular alignment using an inspection microscope (a). Side view and corresponding diagrams of the fiber cross-sections for different angular orientations with respect to the bending plane (dashed line) (b - d).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Bending loss measured vs. wavelength for different angular orientations of the LMA-20 fiber (a - d), bending radius R = 25 mm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Bending loss measured as a function of angular orientation of the LMA-20 fiber for different wavelengths and for the same bending radius R = 25 mm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Bending losses measured vs. wavelength for different bending radii. All characteristics are obtained for xz-bending plane. The positions of corresponding primary peaks are marked with black and blue arrows.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Bending losses calculated vs. wavelength for different bending radii.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison of measured (blue lines) and calculated (red lines) bending loss characteristics obtained for the xz-bending plane, R = 35 mm (a) and R = 50 mm (b). The markers P1 and P2 indicate the corresponding loss peaks in numerical and experimental characteristics.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Comparison of experimental (blue circle and lines) and calculated (red circle and lines) wavelength shift corresponding to the P1 (a) and P2 (b) peaks vs. bending curvature 1/R.

Equations (1)

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n eq x y = n x y exp ( p R ) ,

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