Abstract

We report the integration of a hybrid silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector with a hybrid silicon evanescent optical amplifier. The device operates at 1550 nm with a responsivity of 5.7 A/W and a receiver sensitivity of -17.5 dBm at 2.5 Gb/s. The transition between the passive silicon waveguide and the hybrid waveguide of the amplifier is tapered to increase coupling efficiency and to minimize reflections.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Ahn, C. -Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Express 15, 3916-3921 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Liu, D. Ahn, C.-y Hong, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, C. Hill, J. Beattie, K. Tu, Y. Chen, S. Patel, M. Rasras, A. White, and D. Gill, "Waveguide-Integrated Ge Photodetectors on Si for Electronic and Photonic Integration," Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (IPNRA), ITuE2, (2007).
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  4. A. O. Splett, T. Zinke, B. Schueppert, K. Petermann, H. Kibbel, H. Herzog, and H. Presting, "Integrated optoelectronic waveguide detectors in SiGe for optical communications," Proc. SPIE 2550, 224-234 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-Compatible All-Si High-Speed Waveguide Photodiodes With High Responsivity in Near-Infrared Communication Band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Raring and L. A. Coldren, "40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Transceivers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 3-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An electrically pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C. -Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Express 15, 3916-3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

A. O. Splett, T. Zinke, B. Schueppert, K. Petermann, H. Kibbel, H. Herzog, and H. Presting, "Integrated optoelectronic waveguide detectors in SiGe for optical communications," Proc. SPIE 2550, 224-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. Demiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young. "Electric field screening by photogenerated holes in MQWs: A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Beals, M.

Bowers, J. E.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An electrically pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. Demiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young. "Electric field screening by photogenerated holes in MQWs: A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Cohen, O.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An electrically pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

J. W. Raring and L. A. Coldren, "40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Transceivers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 3-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Demiguel, J. L.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. Demiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young. "Electric field screening by photogenerated holes in MQWs: A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Deneault, S.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-Compatible All-Si High-Speed Waveguide Photodiodes With High Responsivity in Near-Infrared Communication Band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An electrically pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gan, F.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-Compatible All-Si High-Speed Waveguide Photodiodes With High Responsivity in Near-Infrared Communication Band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-Compatible All-Si High-Speed Waveguide Photodiodes With High Responsivity in Near-Infrared Communication Band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giziewicz, W.

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Grein, M. E.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-Compatible All-Si High-Speed Waveguide Photodiodes With High Responsivity in Near-Infrared Communication Band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Herzog, H.

A. O. Splett, T. Zinke, B. Schueppert, K. Petermann, H. Kibbel, H. Herzog, and H. Presting, "Integrated optoelectronic waveguide detectors in SiGe for optical communications," Proc. SPIE 2550, 224-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. -Y.

Johnson, B. C.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. Demiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young. "Electric field screening by photogenerated holes in MQWs: A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An electrically pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaertner, F. X.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-Compatible All-Si High-Speed Waveguide Photodiodes With High Responsivity in Near-Infrared Communication Band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kibbel, H.

A. O. Splett, T. Zinke, B. Schueppert, K. Petermann, H. Kibbel, H. Herzog, and H. Presting, "Integrated optoelectronic waveguide detectors in SiGe for optical communications," Proc. SPIE 2550, 224-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Koren, U.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. Demiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young. "Electric field screening by photogenerated holes in MQWs: A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lennon, D. M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-Compatible All-Si High-Speed Waveguide Photodiodes With High Responsivity in Near-Infrared Communication Band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-Compatible All-Si High-Speed Waveguide Photodiodes With High Responsivity in Near-Infrared Communication Band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Miller, B. I.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. Demiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young. "Electric field screening by photogenerated holes in MQWs: A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An electrically pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An electrically pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pastalan, J. Z.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. Demiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young. "Electric field screening by photogenerated holes in MQWs: A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

A. O. Splett, T. Zinke, B. Schueppert, K. Petermann, H. Kibbel, H. Herzog, and H. Presting, "Integrated optoelectronic waveguide detectors in SiGe for optical communications," Proc. SPIE 2550, 224-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Presting, H.

A. O. Splett, T. Zinke, B. Schueppert, K. Petermann, H. Kibbel, H. Herzog, and H. Presting, "Integrated optoelectronic waveguide detectors in SiGe for optical communications," Proc. SPIE 2550, 224-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Raday, O.

Raring, J. W.

J. W. Raring and L. A. Coldren, "40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Transceivers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 3-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schueppert, B.

A. O. Splett, T. Zinke, B. Schueppert, K. Petermann, H. Kibbel, H. Herzog, and H. Presting, "Integrated optoelectronic waveguide detectors in SiGe for optical communications," Proc. SPIE 2550, 224-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schulein, R. T.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-Compatible All-Si High-Speed Waveguide Photodiodes With High Responsivity in Near-Infrared Communication Band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-Compatible All-Si High-Speed Waveguide Photodiodes With High Responsivity in Near-Infrared Communication Band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Splett, A. O.

A. O. Splett, T. Zinke, B. Schueppert, K. Petermann, H. Kibbel, H. Herzog, and H. Presting, "Integrated optoelectronic waveguide detectors in SiGe for optical communications," Proc. SPIE 2550, 224-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sysak, M. N.

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T. H.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. Demiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young. "Electric field screening by photogenerated holes in MQWs: A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J. U.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-Compatible All-Si High-Speed Waveguide Photodiodes With High Responsivity in Near-Infrared Communication Band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Young, M. G.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. Demiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young. "Electric field screening by photogenerated holes in MQWs: A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zinke, T.

A. O. Splett, T. Zinke, B. Schueppert, K. Petermann, H. Kibbel, H. Herzog, and H. Presting, "Integrated optoelectronic waveguide detectors in SiGe for optical communications," Proc. SPIE 2550, 224-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. H. Wood, J. Z. Pastalan, C. A. Burrus, B. C. Johnson, B. I. Miller, J. L. Demiguel, U. Koren and M. G. Young. "Electric field screening by photogenerated holes in MQWs: A new mechanism for absorption saturation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1081-1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

J. W. Raring and L. A. Coldren, "40-Gb/s Widely Tunable Transceivers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 3-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-Compatible All-Si High-Speed Waveguide Photodiodes With High Responsivity in Near-Infrared Communication Band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "An electrically pumped AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 230-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, "Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the bandgap of quantum well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 1043-1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. O. Splett, T. Zinke, B. Schueppert, K. Petermann, H. Kibbel, H. Herzog, and H. Presting, "Integrated optoelectronic waveguide detectors in SiGe for optical communications," Proc. SPIE 2550, 224-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Liu, D. Ahn, C.-y Hong, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, F. X. Kärtner, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, C. Hill, J. Beattie, K. Tu, Y. Chen, S. Patel, M. Rasras, A. White, and D. Gill, "Waveguide-Integrated Ge Photodetectors on Si for Electronic and Photonic Integration," Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (IPNRA), ITuE2, (2007).

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, "A Four-Channel, 10 Gbps Monolithic Optical Receiver in 130nm CMOS with Integrated Ge Waveguide Photodetectors," Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), PDP 31, (2007).

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Y.-H. Kuo, H. Park, A. W. Fang, J. E. Bowers, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "High speed data amplification using hybrid silicon evanescent amplifier," The Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CTuII1, (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, A. Chen, D. Lambert, P. Chavarkar, A. Mathur, J. Bäck, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, C. Joyner, J. Rossi, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch "Monolithic, 10 and 40 Channel InP Receiver Photonic Integrated Circuits with On-Chip Amplification," Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), PDP 32, (2007).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Top view of a hybrid silicon evanescent pre-amplified receiver (b) device cross section of the hybrid amplifier (not in scale) (c) device cross section of the hybrid photodetector

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of (a) eight fabricated devices, (b) III-V taper of the amplifier. (c) 3 μm wide III-V mesa of the detector. Images were taken before the p-probe metal deposition.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Quantum efficiency as a function of reverse bias at 1550 nm and 1575 nm (b) Spectral response for TE polarization.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). IV characteristics of the detector (b) Bias dependence of the detector capacitance.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). The amplifier chip gain as a function of the current at 1550 nm and 1575 nm (b) The amplifier gain spectrum with three different currents. The chip gain shown here is for TE polarization.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). ASE spectra of the amplifier (b) estimated III-V taper loss (inset) calculated III-V taper loss with different taper lengths.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Saturation characteristics of the receiver.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Impulse response of the detector.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a). Eye diagrams of 2.5 Gb/s and 5 Gb/s PRBS input signal. (Top) with the amplifier (bottom) without the amplifier (b). Bit error rate curves measured with 231-1 NRZ 2.5 Gb/s transmissions with different amplifier gains.

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