Abstract

We discuss the first airborne deployment and performance tests of a mid-IR difference frequency spectrometer system for highly sensitive measurements of formaldehyde. The laser system is based upon difference-frequency generation (DFG) at ~3.5 μm by mixing a DFB diode laser at 1562 nm and a distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser at 1083 nm in a periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal. Advanced LabVIEWTM software for lock-in, dual-beam optical noise subtraction, thermal control and active wavelength stabilization, renders a sensitivity of ~20 pptv (Absorbance ~7*10-7) for 30s of averaging. The instrument’s performance characteristics spanning more than 300 flight hours during three consecutive airborne field missions MIRAGE, IMPEX and TexAQS operating on two airborne platforms, NCAR’s C-130 and NOAA’s P-3 aircraft are demonstrated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, "Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde," Appl. Opt. 39,4436 - 4443 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D , Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, "High-sensitivity spectroscopy of CO2 around 4.25 ?m with difference-frequency radiation," Optics and Lasers in Eng. 37, 143-158 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Fischer, and M. W. Sigrist, "Trace-gas sensing in the 3.3-?m region using a diode-based difference-frequency laser photoacoustic system," Appl. Phys. B. 75, 305-310 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted difference-frequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 76, 473-477 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown and J. R. Gord, "Application of difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 ?m spectral region," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 185-197 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Richter, A. Fried, B. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, "Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection," Appl. Phys. B. 75, 281-288 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Richter and P. Weibring, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer I: Design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference-frequency generation source," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 479-486 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Weibring and D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 207-218 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, "High-power, tunable difference frequency generation source for absorption spectroscopy based on a ridge waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal," Opt. Express 15, 564-571 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Fried, Y. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Hübler, and T. Jobson, "Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: Instrument comparisons and distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4039, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000260 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).
  12. A. Stickler, H. Fischer, J. Williams, M. De Reus, R. Sander, M.G. Lawrence, J.N. Crowley, and J. Lelieveld,Fisher, "Influence of summertime deep convection on formaldehyde in the middle and upper troposphere over Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D14308, doi: 10.1029/2005JD007001 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Snow, B.G. Heikes, H. Shen, D. O’Sullivan, A. Fried, and J. Walega, "Hydrogen peroxide, methyl hydroperoxide, and formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D12S07, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007746 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Roller, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. K. Tittel, "Advances in Hardware, System Diagnostics Software, and Acqusition Procedures for High Performance Airborne Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 247-264 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Richter, US Patent application 11276874, "Precision Polarization Optimized Optical Beam Processor," filed March 17, 2006 with US Patent and Trademark Office.
  16. B. P. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4163, doi:10.1029/2002JD002872 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Werle, R. Mucke and F. Slemr, "The Limits of Signal averaging in Atmospheric Trace-Gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 57, doi: 10.1007/BF00425997 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, F. Slemr. "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy. Spectrochim," Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).
  20. B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

A. Stickler, H. Fischer, J. Williams, M. De Reus, R. Sander, M.G. Lawrence, J.N. Crowley, and J. Lelieveld,Fisher, "Influence of summertime deep convection on formaldehyde in the middle and upper troposphere over Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D14308, doi: 10.1029/2005JD007001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. K. Tittel, "Advances in Hardware, System Diagnostics Software, and Acqusition Procedures for High Performance Airborne Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 247-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown and J. R. Gord, "Application of difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 ?m spectral region," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring and D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. Richter and P. Weibring, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer I: Design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference-frequency generation source," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 479-486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, F. Slemr. "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy. Spectrochim," Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

B. P. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4163, doi:10.1029/2002JD002872 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted difference-frequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

A. Fried, Y. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Hübler, and T. Jobson, "Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: Instrument comparisons and distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4039, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, "Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection," Appl. Phys. B. 75, 281-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D , Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, "High-sensitivity spectroscopy of CO2 around 4.25 ?m with difference-frequency radiation," Optics and Lasers in Eng. 37, 143-158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Fischer, and M. W. Sigrist, "Trace-gas sensing in the 3.3-?m region using a diode-based difference-frequency laser photoacoustic system," Appl. Phys. B. 75, 305-310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mucke and F. Slemr, "The Limits of Signal averaging in Atmospheric Trace-Gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 57, doi: 10.1007/BF00425997 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Anderson, T. N.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown and J. R. Gord, "Application of difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 ?m spectral region," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Angevine, W. M.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

Atlas, E.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barron-Jimenez, R.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown and J. R. Gord, "Application of difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 ?m spectral region," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blake, D.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Blake, N.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Borri, S.

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted difference-frequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. S.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown and J. R. Gord, "Application of difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 ?m spectral region," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cancio, P.

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted difference-frequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D , Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, "High-sensitivity spectroscopy of CO2 around 4.25 ?m with difference-frequency radiation," Optics and Lasers in Eng. 37, 143-158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Caton, J. A.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown and J. R. Gord, "Application of difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 ?m spectral region," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Crawford, J.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Crawford, J. H.

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Crowley, J.N.

A. Stickler, H. Fischer, J. Williams, M. De Reus, R. Sander, M.G. Lawrence, J.N. Crowley, and J. Lelieveld,Fisher, "Influence of summertime deep convection on formaldehyde in the middle and upper troposphere over Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D14308, doi: 10.1029/2005JD007001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D’Amato, F.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, F. Slemr. "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy. Spectrochim," Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted difference-frequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D , Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, "High-sensitivity spectroscopy of CO2 around 4.25 ?m with difference-frequency radiation," Optics and Lasers in Eng. 37, 143-158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Reus, M.

A. Stickler, H. Fischer, J. Williams, M. De Reus, R. Sander, M.G. Lawrence, J.N. Crowley, and J. Lelieveld,Fisher, "Influence of summertime deep convection on formaldehyde in the middle and upper troposphere over Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D14308, doi: 10.1029/2005JD007001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Rosa, M.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, F. Slemr. "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy. Spectrochim," Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, S. G.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J. R.

A. Fried, Y. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Hübler, and T. Jobson, "Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: Instrument comparisons and distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4039, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dyroff, C.

P. Weibring and D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fehsenfeld, F. C.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, C.

C. Fischer, and M. W. Sigrist, "Trace-gas sensing in the 3.3-?m region using a diode-based difference-frequency laser photoacoustic system," Appl. Phys. B. 75, 305-310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

A. Stickler, H. Fischer, J. Williams, M. De Reus, R. Sander, M.G. Lawrence, J.N. Crowley, and J. Lelieveld,Fisher, "Influence of summertime deep convection on formaldehyde in the middle and upper troposphere over Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D14308, doi: 10.1029/2005JD007001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, "High-power, tunable difference frequency generation source for absorption spectroscopy based on a ridge waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal," Opt. Express 15, 564-571 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. K. Tittel, "Advances in Hardware, System Diagnostics Software, and Acqusition Procedures for High Performance Airborne Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 247-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring and D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4163, doi:10.1029/2002JD002872 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, "Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection," Appl. Phys. B. 75, 281-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, Y. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Hübler, and T. Jobson, "Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: Instrument comparisons and distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4039, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, "Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde," Appl. Opt. 39,4436 - 4443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Frost, G.

A. Fried, Y. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Hübler, and T. Jobson, "Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: Instrument comparisons and distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4039, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frost, G. J.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fuelberg, H.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Giusfredi, G.

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted difference-frequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D , Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, "High-sensitivity spectroscopy of CO2 around 4.25 ?m with difference-frequency radiation," Optics and Lasers in Eng. 37, 143-158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldan, P. D.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gord, J. R.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown and J. R. Gord, "Application of difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 ?m spectral region," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Halland, J.

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Hansel, A.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heikes, B.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Heikes, B. G.

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Henry, B.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4163, doi:10.1029/2002JD002872 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, Y. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Hübler, and T. Jobson, "Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: Instrument comparisons and distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4039, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, "Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde," Appl. Opt. 39,4436 - 4443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, J. S.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hubler, G.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hübler, G.

A. Fried, Y. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Hübler, and T. Jobson, "Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: Instrument comparisons and distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4039, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jobson, T.

A. Fried, Y. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Hübler, and T. Jobson, "Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: Instrument comparisons and distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4039, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, C.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Kiley, C. M.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Kuster, W. C.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

Lawrence, M.G.

A. Stickler, H. Fischer, J. Williams, M. De Reus, R. Sander, M.G. Lawrence, J.N. Crowley, and J. Lelieveld,Fisher, "Influence of summertime deep convection on formaldehyde in the middle and upper troposphere over Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D14308, doi: 10.1029/2005JD007001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

A. Fried, Y. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Hübler, and T. Jobson, "Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: Instrument comparisons and distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4039, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lefer, B.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Lelieveld, J.

A. Stickler, H. Fischer, J. Williams, M. De Reus, R. Sander, M.G. Lawrence, J.N. Crowley, and J. Lelieveld,Fisher, "Influence of summertime deep convection on formaldehyde in the middle and upper troposphere over Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D14308, doi: 10.1029/2005JD007001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lucht, R. P.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown and J. R. Gord, "Application of difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 ?m spectral region," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, K.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, F. Slemr. "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy. Spectrochim," Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mazzinghi, P.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, F. Slemr. "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy. Spectrochim," Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mazzotti, D

D , Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, "High-sensitivity spectroscopy of CO2 around 4.25 ?m with difference-frequency radiation," Optics and Lasers in Eng. 37, 143-158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mazzotti, D.

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted difference-frequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meinardi, S.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Millet, D. B.

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mucke and F. Slemr, "The Limits of Signal averaging in Atmospheric Trace-Gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 57, doi: 10.1007/BF00425997 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Neuman, J. A.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nicks, D. K.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

O’Sullivan, D.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

O’Sullivan, D.W.

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Olson, J.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Olson, J. R.

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Parrish, D. D.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Porter, M.

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Potter, W.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rauenbuehler, S.

B. P. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4163, doi:10.1029/2002JD002872 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, "High-power, tunable difference frequency generation source for absorption spectroscopy based on a ridge waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal," Opt. Express 15, 564-571 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Weibring and D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter and P. Weibring, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer I: Design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference-frequency generation source," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 479-486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, "Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection," Appl. Phys. B. 75, 281-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Roller, C.

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. K. Tittel, "Advances in Hardware, System Diagnostics Software, and Acqusition Procedures for High Performance Airborne Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 247-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Roy, S.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown and J. R. Gord, "Application of difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 ?m spectral region," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ryerson, T. B.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sander, R.

A. Stickler, H. Fischer, J. Williams, M. De Reus, R. Sander, M.G. Lawrence, J.N. Crowley, and J. Lelieveld,Fisher, "Influence of summertime deep convection on formaldehyde in the middle and upper troposphere over Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D14308, doi: 10.1029/2005JD007001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sandholm, S.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Schauffler, S.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Shetter, R.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Sigrist, M. W.

C. Fischer, and M. W. Sigrist, "Trace-gas sensing in the 3.3-?m region using a diode-based difference-frequency laser photoacoustic system," Appl. Phys. B. 75, 305-310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, F. Slemr. "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy. Spectrochim," Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mucke and F. Slemr, "The Limits of Signal averaging in Atmospheric Trace-Gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 57, doi: 10.1007/BF00425997 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Snow, J.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Snow, J. A.

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Stickler, A.

A. Stickler, H. Fischer, J. Williams, M. De Reus, R. Sander, M.G. Lawrence, J.N. Crowley, and J. Lelieveld,Fisher, "Influence of summertime deep convection on formaldehyde in the middle and upper troposphere over Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D14308, doi: 10.1029/2005JD007001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stutz, J.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sueper, D. T.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

Tadanaga, O.

Tamassia, F.

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted difference-frequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

Tittel, F. K.

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. K. Tittel, "Advances in Hardware, System Diagnostics Software, and Acqusition Procedures for High Performance Airborne Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 247-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, "Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection," Appl. Phys. B. 75, 281-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, "Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde," Appl. Opt. 39,4436 - 4443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Trainer, M.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walega, J.

B. P. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4163, doi:10.1029/2002JD002872 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Walega, J. G.

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. K. Tittel, "Advances in Hardware, System Diagnostics Software, and Acqusition Procedures for High Performance Airborne Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 247-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring and D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, "Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection," Appl. Phys. B. 75, 281-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walther, T.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown and J. R. Gord, "Application of difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 ?m spectral region," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weibring, P.

D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, "High-power, tunable difference frequency generation source for absorption spectroscopy based on a ridge waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal," Opt. Express 15, 564-571 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Weibring and D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. K. Tittel, "Advances in Hardware, System Diagnostics Software, and Acqusition Procedures for High Performance Airborne Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 247-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter and P. Weibring, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer I: Design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference-frequency generation source," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 479-486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

Werle, P.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, F. Slemr. "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy. Spectrochim," Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mucke and F. Slemr, "The Limits of Signal averaging in Atmospheric Trace-Gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 57, doi: 10.1007/BF00425997 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wert, B.

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, "Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection," Appl. Phys. B. 75, 281-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, Y. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Hübler, and T. Jobson, "Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: Instrument comparisons and distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4039, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, "Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde," Appl. Opt. 39,4436 - 4443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wert, B. P.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4163, doi:10.1029/2002JD002872 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiedinmyer, C.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J.

A. Stickler, H. Fischer, J. Williams, M. De Reus, R. Sander, M.G. Lawrence, J.N. Crowley, and J. Lelieveld,Fisher, "Influence of summertime deep convection on formaldehyde in the middle and upper troposphere over Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D14308, doi: 10.1029/2005JD007001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wisthaler, A.

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Acta A (1)

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, F. Slemr. "Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy. Spectrochim," Acta A 60, 1685-1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B. (8)

C. Roller, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, P. Weibring, and F. K. Tittel, "Advances in Hardware, System Diagnostics Software, and Acqusition Procedures for High Performance Airborne Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of formaldehyde," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 247-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Fischer, and M. W. Sigrist, "Trace-gas sensing in the 3.3-?m region using a diode-based difference-frequency laser photoacoustic system," Appl. Phys. B. 75, 305-310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted difference-frequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown and J. R. Gord, "Application of difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 ?m spectral region," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, "Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection," Appl. Phys. B. 75, 281-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter and P. Weibring, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer I: Design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference-frequency generation source," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 479-486 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring and D. Richter, A. Fried, J. G. Walega, and C. Dyroff, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 207-218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mucke and F. Slemr, "The Limits of Signal averaging in Atmospheric Trace-Gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 57, doi: 10.1007/BF00425997 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

A. Fried, Y. Lee, G. Frost, B. Wert, B. Henry, J. R. Drummond, G. Hübler, and T. Jobson, "Airborne CH2O measurements over the North Atlantic during the 1997 NARE campaign: Instrument comparisons and distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4039, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, J. Crawford, J. Olson, J. Walega, W. Potter, B. Wert, C. Jordan, B. Anderson, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, D. Blake, N. Blake, S. Meinardi, B. Heikes, D. O’Sullivan, J. Snow, H. Fuelberg, C. M. Kiley, S. Sandholm, D. Tan, G, Sachse, H. Singh, I. Faloona, C. N. Harward, and G. R. Carmichael, "Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 108,8798, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003451 (2003).

A. Stickler, H. Fischer, J. Williams, M. De Reus, R. Sander, M.G. Lawrence, J.N. Crowley, and J. Lelieveld,Fisher, "Influence of summertime deep convection on formaldehyde in the middle and upper troposphere over Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D14308, doi: 10.1029/2005JD007001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4163, doi:10.1029/2002JD002872 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, J. Walega, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, P. Weibring, D. Richter, C. Roller, F. K. Tittel, B. G. Heikes, J. A. Snow, H. Shen, D.W. O’Sullivan, M. Porter, H. Fuelberg, J. Halland, and D. B. Millet., "Formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign: Methods, Observed Distributions, and Measurement Box Model Comparison," (submitted toJ. Geophys. Res.).

B. P. Wert, M. Trainer, A. Fried, T. B. Ryerson, B. Henry, W. Potter, W. M. Angevine, E. Atlas, S. G. Donnelly, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. J. Frost, P. D. Goldan, A. Hansel, J. S. Holloway, G. Hubler, W. C. Kuster, D. K. Nicks, J. A. Neuman, D. D. Parrish, S. Schauffler, J. Stutz, D. T. Sueper, C. Wiedinmyer, and A. Wisthaler, "Signatures of terminal alkene oxidation in airborne formaldehyde measurements during TexAQS 2000", J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4104, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Optics and Lasers in Eng. (1)

D , Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, "High-sensitivity spectroscopy of CO2 around 4.25 ?m with difference-frequency radiation," Optics and Lasers in Eng. 37, 143-158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Richter, US Patent application 11276874, "Precision Polarization Optimized Optical Beam Processor," filed March 17, 2006 with US Patent and Trademark Office.

J. Snow, B.G. Heikes, H. Shen, D. O’Sullivan, A. Fried, and J. Walega, "Hydrogen peroxide, methyl hydroperoxide, and formaldehyde over North America and the North Atlantic," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D12S07, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (3851 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (828 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (1394 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (2067 KB)     

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic overview of the airborne system consisting of the laser spectrometer (lasers, DFG module, Multipass cell (MPC), and detectors), the gas handling system (inlet, calibration system, vacuum pump), the air conditioning system (AC), the uninterruptible power system (UPS) and the computer system for data acquisition and instrument control.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

DFG system mounted in the cabin of NOAA’s P-3 aircraft during the TexAQS mission. The rack to the left contains; permeation system, air compressor, pressure and flow controllers, power supplies, clean air generator and UPS. The rack to the right houses; operator monitor, service oscilloscope, control and data acquisition computer, spectrometer enclosure (lasers and DFG module, fiber amplifiers, multipass cell, detectors), and air-conditioning unit. The insert shows the inlet system mounted in an access port of the aircraft hull

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

DFG optical system mounted to the multipass cell. The components are: DL (diode laser), ISO (optical isolator), PC (polarization controller), BD (beam dump), WDM (wavelength division multiplexer), HF (hybrid fiber ball lens), FL (focusing lens), PPLN (periodically poled lithium niobate), BD (beam dump), Ge (germanium filter), IL (imaging lens), P (prism reflector), OS (optical shutter), BS (coated beam splitter), OAP (off axis parabolic focusing mirrors), RD (reference detector), CD (cell detector or sample), AMD (amplitude modulation detector), MPC (multipass cell), multipass cell front mirror (MPM) and CW (cell window). A reference cell (RC), containing pure CH2O at low pressure precedes the RD.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The gas handling system encompasses inlet, zero air generator, permeation system, multipass cell, air compressor, vacuum pump and an air cylinder. The zero air generator supplies the inlet and the permeation system with cabin air scrubbed from CH2O during powered operation. A pressure controller regulates the pressure of the two heated permeation tubes ensuring constant CH2O permeation rates. Air is drawn through the multipass cell and inlet tubing at a flow rate ~8.7 slm yielding a cell residence time of less than two seconds. A pressure controller mounted in the inlet maintains the cell pressure around 50 Torr.

Fig. 5(a).
Fig. 5(a).

(0.83 MB) CD (cell detector, white trace) and R×CD-AMD (background corrected cell detector, red trace) detector combinations (arb. units) as a function of wavelength (channel numbers) before fiber stabilization during take off (research flight 6 MIRAGE) (3.85 MB version) [Media 2].

Fig. 5(b).
Fig. 5(b).

(1.39 MB) CD (cell detector, white trace) and R×CD-AMD (background corrected cell detector, red trace) detector combinations (arb. units) as a function of wavelength (channel numbers) after fiber stabilization implementations take off (research flight 10 INTEX-B) [Media 3].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(2.07 MB) CD (cell detector, white trace, left scale, arb. units) and R×CD-AMD (background corrected cell detector, red trace, right scale, arb. units) detector combination signals and the air temperature at the fiber amplifier position in the enclosure during an induced 2 degree C temperature disturbance. [Media 4]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Temperature stratification monitored at four different locations in the spectrometer enclosure before modifications were made to improve temperature stability. Diode laser platform (blue trace), DFG and detection module (black trace), Multipass cell (green trace) and Fiber amplifier site (red trace).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison of measurement data and instrument diagnostic data. The scale on the left hand side applies to; the formaldehyde concentration (Amb. Conc.) with a 1400 pptv offset, the cabin pressure (CPressure) and the LODs with no offset. The scale of the figure of merit parameters IDs, BARs and FBAAs are arbitrary.

Fig. 9(a).
Fig. 9(a).

Allan variance measurements showing the spectrometer LODs for the MIRAGE campaign. Ground based operation (black trace) airborne operation before (blue trace) and after (red trace) fiber stabilization.

Fig. 9(b).
Fig. 9(b).

Allan variance measurements showing the spectrometer LODs for the IMPEX campaign. Ground based operation (black trace) airborne operation (red trace).

Figure 10.
Figure 10.

Airborne intercomparison of DFG and Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) measurements of CH2O flying on respectively, the NCAR C-130 and the NASA DC-8 airplanes. The two aircraft were flying in close formation on March 19, 2006 over Mexico City. The 1-second TDL measurements were averaged over the DFG time base.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Research flight 7 TexAQS2006, September 21, 2006 over Houston and surroundings. The flight path (lat/long) is overlaid with the CH2O concentration scaled by point size and color. The insert shows a sample of high resolution (1s) data from a high altitude leg, indicating a 1s LOD of ~90 pptv.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Instrument performance in terms of sensitivity, duty cycle and data coverage for MIRAGE, IMPEX and TexAQS campaigns. The instrument measurement cycle includes background acquisition time, i.e. 100% data coverage of “flight minutes” translates to 55% ambient coverage for MIRAGE/IMPEX and 70% ambient coverage for TexAQS.

Equations (1)

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[C H 2 O]DFG=(279±102)pptv+(0.82±0.05)*[C H 2 O]TDL,N=23, r 2 =0.92.

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