Abstract

The changes of emission peak wavelength and angular intensity with viewing angles have been issues for the use of microcavity OLEDs. We will investigate Distributed Bragg Gratings (DBRs) constructed from largely dispersive index materials for reducing the viewing angle dependence. A DBR stack mirror, aiming at a symmetric structure and less number of grating period for a practical fabrication, is studied to achieve a chirp-featured grating for OLEDs with blue emission peak of 450nm. For maximizing the compensation of the viewing angle dependence, the effects of dispersive index, grating structure, thickness of each layer of the grating, grating period and chirp will be comprehensively investigated. The contributions of TE and TM modes to the angular emission power will be analyzed for the grating optimization, which have not been expressed in detail. In studying the light emission of OLEDs, we will investigate the Purcell effect which is important but has not been properly considered. Our results show that with a proper design of the DBR, not only a wider viewing angle can be achieved but also the color purity of OLEDs can be improved.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. M. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. G. Lidzey, D. D. C. Bradley, S. J. Martin, and M. A. Pate, "Pixelated multicolor microcavity displays," IEEE J. Select.Topics in Quantum Electron. 4, 113-118 (1998).Q1
  3. D. G. Lidzey, M. A. Pate, D. M. Whittaker, D. D. C. Bradley, M. S. Weaver, T. A. Fisher, and M. S. Skolnick, "Control of photoluminescence emission from a conjugated polymer using an optimised microactivity structure," Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 655-660 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, "Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2787-2789 (2002).Q2
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Neyts, P. D. Visschere, D. K. Fork, and G. B. Anderson, "Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 114-119 (2000).
  6. N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, "Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 556-558 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Hou, Q. Hou, Y. Peng, and Y. Cao, "All-organic flexible polymer microcavity light-emitting diodes using 3M reflective multilayer polymer mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243504 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. He, Y. Tang, X. Zhoa, H. Xu, D. Lin, H. Luo, and Z. Zhou, "Optical dispersion properties of tetragonal relaxor ferroelectric single crystals 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3," Opt. Mat. 29, 1055-1057 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. L. H. Chau, Y.M. Lin, A.K. Li, W.F. Su, K.S. Chang, S. L.C. Hsu, and T.L. Li, "Transparent high refractive index nanocomposite thin films," Mater. Lett. 61, 2908-2910 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, "Light outcoupling efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986-2988 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Wu, "Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-684 (1946).
  13. W. C. H. Choy and E. H. Li, "The applications of interdiffused quantum well in normally-on electro-absorptive Fabry-Perot reflection modulator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 382-393 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. H. Crawford, "Radiation from oscillating dipoles embedded in a layered system," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6017-6027 (1989).
  15. V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S.R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730-3740 (1998).
  16. X. W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy and S. He, "Efficient and rigorous modeling of light emission in planar multilayer organic light-emitting diodes", IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 110-117 (2007);Q3K. Neyts, "Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 962-970 (1998);W. Lukosz, "Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers,’’Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).
  17. P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "The role of surface plasmons in organic light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 378-386 (2002).Q4
  18. R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes", Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Kijima, N. Asai and S. Tamura, "A Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5274-5277 (1999).Q5
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Deveaud, ed, The Physics of Semiconductor Microcavities: from fundamentals to nanoscale devices, (Wiley-VCY, 2007), Ch. 12, p.245.

2007

C. He, Y. Tang, X. Zhoa, H. Xu, D. Lin, H. Luo, and Z. Zhou, "Optical dispersion properties of tetragonal relaxor ferroelectric single crystals 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3," Opt. Mat. 29, 1055-1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. H. Chau, Y.M. Lin, A.K. Li, W.F. Su, K.S. Chang, S. L.C. Hsu, and T.L. Li, "Transparent high refractive index nanocomposite thin films," Mater. Lett. 61, 2908-2910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy and S. He, "Efficient and rigorous modeling of light emission in planar multilayer organic light-emitting diodes", IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 110-117 (2007);Q3K. Neyts, "Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 962-970 (1998);W. Lukosz, "Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers,’’Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).

X. W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy and S. He, "Efficient and rigorous modeling of light emission in planar multilayer organic light-emitting diodes", IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 110-117 (2007);Q3K. Neyts, "Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 962-970 (1998);W. Lukosz, "Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers,’’Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).

X. W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy and S. He, "Efficient and rigorous modeling of light emission in planar multilayer organic light-emitting diodes", IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 110-117 (2007);Q3K. Neyts, "Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 962-970 (1998);W. Lukosz, "Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers,’’Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).

2006

C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Wu, "Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. Hou, Q. Hou, Y. Peng, and Y. Cao, "All-organic flexible polymer microcavity light-emitting diodes using 3M reflective multilayer polymer mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, "Light outcoupling efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986-2988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, "Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2787-2789 (2002).Q2
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "The role of surface plasmons in organic light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 378-386 (2002).Q4

2000

K. Neyts, P. D. Visschere, D. K. Fork, and G. B. Anderson, "Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 114-119 (2000).

1999

Y. Kijima, N. Asai and S. Tamura, "A Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5274-5277 (1999).Q5
[CrossRef]

1998

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S.R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730-3740 (1998).

D. G. Lidzey, D. D. C. Bradley, S. J. Martin, and M. A. Pate, "Pixelated multicolor microcavity displays," IEEE J. Select.Topics in Quantum Electron. 4, 113-118 (1998).Q1

1997

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, "Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 556-558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. C. H. Choy and E. H. Li, "The applications of interdiffused quantum well in normally-on electro-absorptive Fabry-Perot reflection modulator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 382-393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes", Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lidzey, M. A. Pate, D. M. Whittaker, D. D. C. Bradley, M. S. Weaver, T. A. Fisher, and M. S. Skolnick, "Control of photoluminescence emission from a conjugated polymer using an optimised microactivity structure," Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 655-660 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. M. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989

O. H. Crawford, "Radiation from oscillating dipoles embedded in a layered system," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6017-6027 (1989).

1946

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-684 (1946).

Anderson, G. B.

K. Neyts, P. D. Visschere, D. K. Fork, and G. B. Anderson, "Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 114-119 (2000).

Asai, N.

Y. Kijima, N. Asai and S. Tamura, "A Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5274-5277 (1999).Q5
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, "Light outcoupling efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986-2988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "The role of surface plasmons in organic light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 378-386 (2002).Q4

Becker, H.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, "Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 556-558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

D. G. Lidzey, D. D. C. Bradley, S. J. Martin, and M. A. Pate, "Pixelated multicolor microcavity displays," IEEE J. Select.Topics in Quantum Electron. 4, 113-118 (1998).Q1

D. G. Lidzey, M. A. Pate, D. M. Whittaker, D. D. C. Bradley, M. S. Weaver, T. A. Fisher, and M. S. Skolnick, "Control of photoluminescence emission from a conjugated polymer using an optimised microactivity structure," Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 655-660 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S.R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730-3740 (1998).

Burns, S.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, "Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 556-558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S.R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730-3740 (1998).

Cao, Y.

L. Hou, Q. Hou, Y. Peng, and Y. Cao, "All-organic flexible polymer microcavity light-emitting diodes using 3M reflective multilayer polymer mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Wu, "Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K.S.

J. L. H. Chau, Y.M. Lin, A.K. Li, W.F. Su, K.S. Chang, S. L.C. Hsu, and T.L. Li, "Transparent high refractive index nanocomposite thin films," Mater. Lett. 61, 2908-2910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chau, J. L. H.

J. L. H. Chau, Y.M. Lin, A.K. Li, W.F. Su, K.S. Chang, S. L.C. Hsu, and T.L. Li, "Transparent high refractive index nanocomposite thin films," Mater. Lett. 61, 2908-2910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. W.

X. W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy and S. He, "Efficient and rigorous modeling of light emission in planar multilayer organic light-emitting diodes", IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 110-117 (2007);Q3K. Neyts, "Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 962-970 (1998);W. Lukosz, "Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers,’’Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).

Cho, T. Y.

C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Wu, "Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choy, W. C. H.

X. W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy and S. He, "Efficient and rigorous modeling of light emission in planar multilayer organic light-emitting diodes", IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 110-117 (2007);Q3K. Neyts, "Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 962-970 (1998);W. Lukosz, "Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers,’’Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).

W. C. H. Choy and E. H. Li, "The applications of interdiffused quantum well in normally-on electro-absorptive Fabry-Perot reflection modulator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 382-393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, O. H.

O. H. Crawford, "Radiation from oscillating dipoles embedded in a layered system," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6017-6027 (1989).

Dodabalapur, A.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes", Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. M. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, T. A.

D. G. Lidzey, M. A. Pate, D. M. Whittaker, D. D. C. Bradley, M. S. Weaver, T. A. Fisher, and M. S. Skolnick, "Control of photoluminescence emission from a conjugated polymer using an optimised microactivity structure," Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 655-660 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fork, D. K.

K. Neyts, P. D. Visschere, D. K. Fork, and G. B. Anderson, "Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 114-119 (2000).

Forrest, S.R.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S.R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730-3740 (1998).

Friend, R. H.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, "Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 556-558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D. Z.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S.R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730-3740 (1998).

Gu, G.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S.R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730-3740 (1998).

He, C.

C. He, Y. Tang, X. Zhoa, H. Xu, D. Lin, H. Luo, and Z. Zhou, "Optical dispersion properties of tetragonal relaxor ferroelectric single crystals 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3," Opt. Mat. 29, 1055-1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

X. W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy and S. He, "Efficient and rigorous modeling of light emission in planar multilayer organic light-emitting diodes", IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 110-117 (2007);Q3K. Neyts, "Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 962-970 (1998);W. Lukosz, "Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers,’’Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).

Hobson, P. A.

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "The role of surface plasmons in organic light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 378-386 (2002).Q4

Hou, L.

L. Hou, Q. Hou, Y. Peng, and Y. Cao, "All-organic flexible polymer microcavity light-emitting diodes using 3M reflective multilayer polymer mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hou, Q.

L. Hou, Q. Hou, Y. Peng, and Y. Cao, "All-organic flexible polymer microcavity light-emitting diodes using 3M reflective multilayer polymer mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. L.C.

J. L. H. Chau, Y.M. Lin, A.K. Li, W.F. Su, K.S. Chang, S. L.C. Hsu, and T.L. Li, "Transparent high refractive index nanocomposite thin films," Mater. Lett. 61, 2908-2910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y. J.

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, "Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2787-2789 (2002).Q2
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes", Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Juang, F. S.

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, "Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2787-2789 (2002).Q2
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V. B.

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S.R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730-3740 (1998).

Kijima, Y.

Y. Kijima, N. Asai and S. Tamura, "A Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5274-5277 (1999).Q5
[CrossRef]

Laih, L. H.

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, "Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2787-2789 (2002).Q2
[CrossRef]

Li, A.K.

J. L. H. Chau, Y.M. Lin, A.K. Li, W.F. Su, K.S. Chang, S. L.C. Hsu, and T.L. Li, "Transparent high refractive index nanocomposite thin films," Mater. Lett. 61, 2908-2910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, E. H.

W. C. H. Choy and E. H. Li, "The applications of interdiffused quantum well in normally-on electro-absorptive Fabry-Perot reflection modulator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 382-393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.L.

J. L. H. Chau, Y.M. Lin, A.K. Li, W.F. Su, K.S. Chang, S. L.C. Hsu, and T.L. Li, "Transparent high refractive index nanocomposite thin films," Mater. Lett. 61, 2908-2910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lidzey, D. G.

D. G. Lidzey, D. D. C. Bradley, S. J. Martin, and M. A. Pate, "Pixelated multicolor microcavity displays," IEEE J. Select.Topics in Quantum Electron. 4, 113-118 (1998).Q1

D. G. Lidzey, M. A. Pate, D. M. Whittaker, D. D. C. Bradley, M. S. Weaver, T. A. Fisher, and M. S. Skolnick, "Control of photoluminescence emission from a conjugated polymer using an optimised microactivity structure," Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 655-660 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. J.

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, "Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2787-2789 (2002).Q2
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Wu, "Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D.

C. He, Y. Tang, X. Zhoa, H. Xu, D. Lin, H. Luo, and Z. Zhou, "Optical dispersion properties of tetragonal relaxor ferroelectric single crystals 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3," Opt. Mat. 29, 1055-1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.M.

J. L. H. Chau, Y.M. Lin, A.K. Li, W.F. Su, K.S. Chang, S. L.C. Hsu, and T.L. Li, "Transparent high refractive index nanocomposite thin films," Mater. Lett. 61, 2908-2910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

X. W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy and S. He, "Efficient and rigorous modeling of light emission in planar multilayer organic light-emitting diodes", IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 110-117 (2007);Q3K. Neyts, "Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 962-970 (1998);W. Lukosz, "Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers,’’Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).

Luo, H.

C. He, Y. Tang, X. Zhoa, H. Xu, D. Lin, H. Luo, and Z. Zhou, "Optical dispersion properties of tetragonal relaxor ferroelectric single crystals 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3," Opt. Mat. 29, 1055-1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S. J.

D. G. Lidzey, D. D. C. Bradley, S. J. Martin, and M. A. Pate, "Pixelated multicolor microcavity displays," IEEE J. Select.Topics in Quantum Electron. 4, 113-118 (1998).Q1

Miller, T. M.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. M. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K.

X. W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy and S. He, "Efficient and rigorous modeling of light emission in planar multilayer organic light-emitting diodes", IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 110-117 (2007);Q3K. Neyts, "Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 962-970 (1998);W. Lukosz, "Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers,’’Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).

K. Neyts, P. D. Visschere, D. K. Fork, and G. B. Anderson, "Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 114-119 (2000).

Pate, M. A.

D. G. Lidzey, D. D. C. Bradley, S. J. Martin, and M. A. Pate, "Pixelated multicolor microcavity displays," IEEE J. Select.Topics in Quantum Electron. 4, 113-118 (1998).Q1

D. G. Lidzey, M. A. Pate, D. M. Whittaker, D. D. C. Bradley, M. S. Weaver, T. A. Fisher, and M. S. Skolnick, "Control of photoluminescence emission from a conjugated polymer using an optimised microactivity structure," Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 655-660 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Y.

L. Hou, Q. Hou, Y. Peng, and Y. Cao, "All-organic flexible polymer microcavity light-emitting diodes using 3M reflective multilayer polymer mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-684 (1946).

Rothberg, L. J.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes", Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. M. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sage, I.

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "The role of surface plasmons in organic light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 378-386 (2002).Q4

Skolnick, M. S.

D. G. Lidzey, M. A. Pate, D. M. Whittaker, D. D. C. Bradley, M. S. Weaver, T. A. Fisher, and M. S. Skolnick, "Control of photoluminescence emission from a conjugated polymer using an optimised microactivity structure," Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 655-660 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes", Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. H.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, "Light outcoupling efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986-2988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, W.F.

J. L. H. Chau, Y.M. Lin, A.K. Li, W.F. Su, K.S. Chang, S. L.C. Hsu, and T.L. Li, "Transparent high refractive index nanocomposite thin films," Mater. Lett. 61, 2908-2910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, S.

Y. Kijima, N. Asai and S. Tamura, "A Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5274-5277 (1999).Q5
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

C. He, Y. Tang, X. Zhoa, H. Xu, D. Lin, H. Luo, and Z. Zhou, "Optical dispersion properties of tetragonal relaxor ferroelectric single crystals 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3," Opt. Mat. 29, 1055-1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, "Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 556-558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Visschere, P. D.

K. Neyts, P. D. Visschere, D. K. Fork, and G. B. Anderson, "Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 114-119 (2000).

Wasey, J. A. E.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, "Light outcoupling efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986-2988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "The role of surface plasmons in organic light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 378-386 (2002).Q4

Weaver, M. S.

D. G. Lidzey, M. A. Pate, D. M. Whittaker, D. D. C. Bradley, M. S. Weaver, T. A. Fisher, and M. S. Skolnick, "Control of photoluminescence emission from a conjugated polymer using an optimised microactivity structure," Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 655-660 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D. M.

D. G. Lidzey, M. A. Pate, D. M. Whittaker, D. D. C. Bradley, M. S. Weaver, T. A. Fisher, and M. S. Skolnick, "Control of photoluminescence emission from a conjugated polymer using an optimised microactivity structure," Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 655-660 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Wu, "Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

C. He, Y. Tang, X. Zhoa, H. Xu, D. Lin, H. Luo, and Z. Zhou, "Optical dispersion properties of tetragonal relaxor ferroelectric single crystals 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3," Opt. Mat. 29, 1055-1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhoa, X.

C. He, Y. Tang, X. Zhoa, H. Xu, D. Lin, H. Luo, and Z. Zhou, "Optical dispersion properties of tetragonal relaxor ferroelectric single crystals 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3," Opt. Mat. 29, 1055-1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

C. He, Y. Tang, X. Zhoa, H. Xu, D. Lin, H. Luo, and Z. Zhou, "Optical dispersion properties of tetragonal relaxor ferroelectric single crystals 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3," Opt. Mat. 29, 1055-1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. M. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, and R. H. Friend, "Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 556-558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Hou, Q. Hou, Y. Peng, and Y. Cao, "All-organic flexible polymer microcavity light-emitting diodes using 3M reflective multilayer polymer mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, "Light outcoupling efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2986-2988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Lin, T. Y. Cho, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Wu, "Enhancing light outcoupling of organic light-emitting devices by locating emitters around the second antinode of the reflective metal electrode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes", Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

D. G. Lidzey, M. A. Pate, D. M. Whittaker, D. D. C. Bradley, M. S. Weaver, T. A. Fisher, and M. S. Skolnick, "Control of photoluminescence emission from a conjugated polymer using an optimised microactivity structure," Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 655-660 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Display Technol.

X. W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy and S. He, "Efficient and rigorous modeling of light emission in planar multilayer organic light-emitting diodes", IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 110-117 (2007);Q3K. Neyts, "Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 962-970 (1998);W. Lukosz, "Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous emission rates for emitters in thin layers,’’Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

W. C. H. Choy and E. H. Li, "The applications of interdiffused quantum well in normally-on electro-absorptive Fabry-Perot reflection modulator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 382-393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "The role of surface plasmons in organic light emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 378-386 (2002).Q4

J. Chem. Phys.

O. H. Crawford, "Radiation from oscillating dipoles embedded in a layered system," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6017-6027 (1989).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

K. Neyts, P. D. Visschere, D. K. Fork, and G. B. Anderson, "Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 114-119 (2000).

Jap. J. Appl. Phys.

F. S. Juang, L. H. Laih, C. J. Lin, and Y. J. Hsu, "Angular dependence of the sharply directed emission in organic light emitting diodes with a microcavity structure," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2787-2789 (2002).Q2
[CrossRef]

Y. Kijima, N. Asai and S. Tamura, "A Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5274-5277 (1999).Q5
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett.

J. L. H. Chau, Y.M. Lin, A.K. Li, W.F. Su, K.S. Chang, S. L.C. Hsu, and T.L. Li, "Transparent high refractive index nanocomposite thin films," Mater. Lett. 61, 2908-2910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mat.

C. He, Y. Tang, X. Zhoa, H. Xu, D. Lin, H. Luo, and Z. Zhou, "Optical dispersion properties of tetragonal relaxor ferroelectric single crystals 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3," Opt. Mat. 29, 1055-1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-684 (1946).

Phys. Rev. B

V. Bulovic, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, and S.R. Forrest, "Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3730-3740 (1998).

Topics in Quantum Electron.

D. G. Lidzey, D. D. C. Bradley, S. J. Martin, and M. A. Pate, "Pixelated multicolor microcavity displays," IEEE J. Select.Topics in Quantum Electron. 4, 113-118 (1998).Q1

Other

B. Deveaud, ed, The Physics of Semiconductor Microcavities: from fundamentals to nanoscale devices, (Wiley-VCY, 2007), Ch. 12, p.245.

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