Abstract

We report a bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna that can confine coherent mid-infrared radiation well below the diffraction limit. The antenna is fabricated on the facet of a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser and consists of a pair of gold fan-like segments, whose narrow ends are separated by a nanometric gap. Compared with a nano-rod antenna composed of a pair of nano-rods, the bowtie antenna efficiently suppresses the field enhancement at the outer ends of the structure, making it more suitable for spatially-resolved high-resolution chemical and biological imaging and spectroscopy. The antenna near field is characterized by an apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope; field confinement as small as 130 nm is demonstrated at a wavelength of 7.0 μm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  27. B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, "Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 182, 321-328 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Höfler, and F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1060 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Novotny, "Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lonèar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, "Plasmonic laser antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution," Nano Lett. 6, 1307-1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, "Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Höfler, and F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1060 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Raschke, L. Molina, T. Elsaesser, D. H. Kim, W. Knoll, and K. Hinrichs, "Apertureless near-field vibrational imaging of block-copolymer nanostructures with ultrahigh spatial resolution," ChemPhysChem 6, 2197-2203 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064-5066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Optical antennas: resonators for local field enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632-4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

N. Calander and M. Willander, "Theory of surface-plasmon resonance optical-field enhancement at prolate spheroids," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4787-4884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 77-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, "Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 182, 321-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis," Anal. Chem. 72, 1645-1648 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. Jersch, F. Demming, L. J. Hildenhagen, and K. Dickmann, "Field enhancement of optical radiation in the nearfield of scanning probe microscope tips," Appl. Phys. A. 66, 29-34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, "Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assayag, O.

M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Höfler, and F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1060 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

Beck, M.

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis," Anal. Chem. 72, 1645-1648 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boccara, A. C.

Bour, D.

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lonèar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Höfler, and F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1060 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brehm, M.

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution," Nano Lett. 6, 1307-1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calander, N.

N. Calander and M. Willander, "Theory of surface-plasmon resonance optical-field enhancement at prolate spheroids," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4787-4884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, "Plasmonic laser antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lonèar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Höfler, and F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1060 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornelius, T. W.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, "Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S.

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lonèar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Höfler, and F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1060 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, "Plasmonic laser antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Optical antennas: resonators for local field enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632-4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, "Plasmonic laser antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Demming, F.

J. Jersch, F. Demming, L. J. Hildenhagen, and K. Dickmann, "Field enhancement of optical radiation in the nearfield of scanning probe microscope tips," Appl. Phys. A. 66, 29-34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dickmann, K.

J. Jersch, F. Demming, L. J. Hildenhagen, and K. Dickmann, "Field enhancement of optical radiation in the nearfield of scanning probe microscope tips," Appl. Phys. A. 66, 29-34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lonèar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Höfler, and F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1060 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

M. B. Raschke, L. Molina, T. Elsaesser, D. H. Kim, W. Knoll, and K. Hinrichs, "Apertureless near-field vibrational imaging of block-copolymer nanostructures with ultrahigh spatial resolution," ChemPhysChem 6, 2197-2203 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fahsold, G.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, "Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis," Anal. Chem. 72, 1645-1648 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, J.

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis," Anal. Chem. 72, 1645-1648 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleyzes, P.

Hildenhagen, L. J.

J. Jersch, F. Demming, L. J. Hildenhagen, and K. Dickmann, "Field enhancement of optical radiation in the nearfield of scanning probe microscope tips," Appl. Phys. A. 66, 29-34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution," Nano Lett. 6, 1307-1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064-5066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 77-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinrichs, K.

M. B. Raschke, L. Molina, T. Elsaesser, D. H. Kim, W. Knoll, and K. Hinrichs, "Apertureless near-field vibrational imaging of block-copolymer nanostructures with ultrahigh spatial resolution," ChemPhysChem 6, 2197-2203 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höfler, G.

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lonèar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Höfler, and F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1060 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jersch, J.

J. Jersch, F. Demming, L. J. Hildenhagen, and K. Dickmann, "Field enhancement of optical radiation in the nearfield of scanning probe microscope tips," Appl. Phys. A. 66, 29-34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karim, S.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, "Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution," Nano Lett. 6, 1307-1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064-5066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 77-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, "Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 182, 321-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. H.

M. B. Raschke, L. Molina, T. Elsaesser, D. H. Kim, W. Knoll, and K. Hinrichs, "Apertureless near-field vibrational imaging of block-copolymer nanostructures with ultrahigh spatial resolution," ChemPhysChem 6, 2197-2203 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Optical antennas: resonators for local field enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632-4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, B.

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 77-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, "Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 182, 321-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

M. B. Raschke, L. Molina, T. Elsaesser, D. H. Kim, W. Knoll, and K. Hinrichs, "Apertureless near-field vibrational imaging of block-copolymer nanostructures with ultrahigh spatial resolution," ChemPhysChem 6, 2197-2203 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolb, T.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, "Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kort, E. A.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, "Plasmonic laser antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lahrech, A.

Lee, B. G.

M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Höfler, and F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1060 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lendl, B.

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis," Anal. Chem. 72, 1645-1648 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lonèar, M.

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lonèar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lovrincic, R.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, "Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Molina, L.

M. B. Raschke, L. Molina, T. Elsaesser, D. H. Kim, W. Knoll, and K. Hinrichs, "Apertureless near-field vibrational imaging of block-copolymer nanostructures with ultrahigh spatial resolution," ChemPhysChem 6, 2197-2203 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, A.

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis," Anal. Chem. 72, 1645-1648 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neubrech, F.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, "Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, R.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, "Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, "Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Boyle, M. P.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pucci, A.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, "Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quate, C. F.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Optical antennas: resonators for local field enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632-4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, M. B.

M. B. Raschke, L. Molina, T. Elsaesser, D. H. Kim, W. Knoll, and K. Hinrichs, "Apertureless near-field vibrational imaging of block-copolymer nanostructures with ultrahigh spatial resolution," ChemPhysChem 6, 2197-2203 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schindler, R.

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis," Anal. Chem. 72, 1645-1648 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaramurthy, A.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Optical antennas: resonators for local field enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632-4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taubner, T.

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution," Nano Lett. 6, 1307-1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064-5066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toimil-Molares, M. E.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, "Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Troccoli, M.

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lonèar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Höfler, and F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1060 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Willander, M.

N. Calander and M. Willander, "Theory of surface-plasmon resonance optical-field enhancement at prolate spheroids," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4787-4884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lonèar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Höfler, and F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1060 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

B. Lendl, J. Frank, R. Schindler, A. Müller, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers for flow injection analysis," Anal. Chem. 72, 1645-1648 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A. (1)

J. Jersch, F. Demming, L. J. Hildenhagen, and K. Dickmann, "Field enhancement of optical radiation in the nearfield of scanning probe microscope tips," Appl. Phys. A. 66, 29-34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, "Plasmonic laser antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064-5066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Lonèar, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, "Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

ChemPhysChem (1)

M. B. Raschke, L. Molina, T. Elsaesser, D. H. Kim, W. Knoll, and K. Hinrichs, "Apertureless near-field vibrational imaging of block-copolymer nanostructures with ultrahigh spatial resolution," ChemPhysChem 6, 2197-2203 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Höfler, and F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1060 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, "Optical antennas: resonators for local field enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632-4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Calander and M. Willander, "Theory of surface-plasmon resonance optical-field enhancement at prolate spheroids," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4787-4884 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 77-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution," Nano Lett. 6, 1307-1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, "Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 182, 321-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Novotny, "Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (10)

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho. Phys. Today. "Quantum cascade lasers," 55, 34-40 (2002).

J. W. Cooper, Spectroscopic Techniques for Organic Chemists (John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1980), Chap. 1.

FDTD simulations were performed using a commercial software XFdtd (Remcom Inc.): http://www.remcom.com/>

R. W. P. King, H. R. Mimno, and A. H. Wing, Transmission Lines, Antennas and Wave Guides (McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1945), Sec. 29.

W. L. Stutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1981), Chap. 5.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, "Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna," in CLEO/QELS Conference2007 (American Physical Society, IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, and Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JMA6.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and F. Capasso, "Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. (unpublised).
[PubMed]

K. S. Kunz and R. J. Luebbers, the Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics (CRC Press, 1993), Chap. 8.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, 1985).

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, C. Pflügl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, "Near-field imaging of quantum cascade laser transverse modes," Opt. Express (unpublished).
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A comparative study of the mid-infrared nano-rod antenna and the bowtie antenna by FDTD simulations. The free space wavelength of the incident plane wave normal to the plane is assumed to be 7 μm. (a) Simulated antenna structures. Left panel: a schematic of the nano-rod antenna. It is composed of two gold nano-rods separated by a nanometric gap. The size of the gap, the length and the width of the nano-rods, are indicated in the figure as g, Lrod , and w, respectively. Right panel: a schematic of the bowtie antenna. It consists of two gold fan-like segments separated by a nanometric gap. The geometries of the antenna are indicated in the figure. Both antennas have a thickness of 70 nm and they are defined on the output facets of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). The facets are assumed to be coated with a 70 nm-thick electrically insulating layer of alumina. The antenna axes (dotted lines) are aligned with the polarization of the incident electric field. (b) Electric field amplitude enhancement vs. the antenna length L for the nano-rod antenna and the bowtie antenna. The field is calculated in the middle of the antenna gap at the level of the antenna top surface and is normalized to the amplitude of the incident field. The antenna length L is varied; other geometric parameters are kept unchanged and have the values as indicated in (a). (c) FDTD simulation results showing the electric field amplitude enhancement distribution of the two antennas at the first resonance (Lrod =1.4 μm and Lbowtie =1.2 μm). The enhancement is calculated on the plane that is at the same level as the antenna top surface. (d) Line scans of (c) along the antenna axes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A sketch of the apertureless mid-ir near-field scanning optical microscope used to characterize the laser transverse modes and the antenna near field on the facets of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Bowtie antenna fabricated by focused ion beam milling. (a) A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the antenna defined on the facet of a λ=7.0 μm quantum cascade laser (QCL). The dotted lines indicate the boundary of the cross section of the laser active region. The darker area is the milled region, in which the underlining alumina layer has been exposed. The lighter area is gold. (b) A zoom-in view of the antenna shown in (a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mid-ir apertureless-NSOM imaging of the bowtie plasmonic laser antenna. (a) NSOM image (left) and AFM topography (right) for the antenna shown in Fig. 3. The antenna is designed to be working at the first dipolar resonance with λ=7.0 μm. (b) Line scan of the NSOM image in (a) along the antenna axis. (c) A 3D view of the NSOM image in (a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Characterizations of another bowtie plasmonic laser antenna. (a) A scanning electron microscope image of the antenna. It has a smaller gap size compared with the antenna shown in Figs. 3 and 4. (b) Simultaneous NSOM image and AFM topography for the antenna. It is designed to be working at the first dipolar resonance with λ=7.0 μm. (c) Line scan of the NSOM image along the antenna axis. The center peak has a full-width at half-maximum of about 130 nm.

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