Abstract

We demonstrate the generation μJ-level, single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large-aperture ZnTe single crystal wafer. Energies up to 1.5 μJ per pulse and a spectral range extending to 3 THz were obtained using a 100 Hz Ti:sapphire laser source and a 75-mm-diameter, 0.5-mm-thick, (110) ZnTe crystal, corresponding to an average power of 150 μW and an energy conversion efficiency of 3.1 × 10-5. We also demonstrate real-time imaging of the focused terahertz beam using a pyroelectric infrared camera.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (5)

2006 (4)

G. Chang, C. J. Divin, C.-H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauska and T. B. Norris, "Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 14, 7909 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xing, L. Lang, Z. Tian, N. Zhang, S. Li, K. Wang, L. Chai and Q. Wang, "The effect of two-photon absorption and optical excitation area on the generation of THz radiation," Opt. Commun. 267, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Williams, "Filling the THz gap - high power sources and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2004 (2)

M. Reid and R. Fedosejevs, "Quantitative comparison of THz emission from (100) InAs surfaces and GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch at high fluences," Appl. Opt. 44, 149 (2004).

C. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures," Appl. Phys. A 78, 435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, "High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons," Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hattori, K. Tukamoto, and H. Nakatsuka, "Time-resolved study of intense terahertz pulses generated by a large-aperture photoconductive antenna," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4907 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. C. M. Planken, H.-K. Nienhuys, H. J. Bakkar and T. Wenckebach, "Measurement and calculation of the orientation dependence of terahertz pulse detection in ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. J. Cook, J. X. Chen, E. A. Morlino, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Terahertz-field-induced second-harmonic generation measurements of liquid dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

A. G. Markelz and E. G. Gwinn, "Nonlinear response of quantum-confined electrons in nonparabolic subbands," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 2533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeon, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from (110) zincblende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Rodriguez, S. R. Caceres, and A. J. Taylor, "Modeling of terahertz radiation from biased photoconductors - transient velocity effects," Opt. Lett. 19, 1994 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

D. You, R. R. Jones, P. H. Bucksbaum, and D. R. Dykaar, "Generation of high-power sub-cycle 500-fs electromagnetic pulses," Opt. Lett. 18, 290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Jones, D. You, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1236 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexander, M.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from (110) zincblende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Almasi, G.

Almási, G.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle and J. Hebling, "Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. B. 86, 419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bakkar, H. J.

Bartal, B.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle and J. Hebling, "Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. B. 86, 419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bartel, T.

Bliss, D.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from (110) zincblende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeon, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

D. You, R. R. Jones, P. H. Bucksbaum, and D. R. Dykaar, "Generation of high-power sub-cycle 500-fs electromagnetic pulses," Opt. Lett. 18, 290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Jones, D. You, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1236 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Budiarto, E.

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeon, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caceres, S. R.

Carr, G. L.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, "High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons," Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chai, L.

Q. Xing, L. Lang, Z. Tian, N. Zhang, S. Li, K. Wang, L. Chai and Q. Wang, "The effect of two-photon absorption and optical excitation area on the generation of THz radiation," Opt. Commun. 267, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

Chen, J. X.

D. J. Cook, J. X. Chen, E. A. Morlino, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Terahertz-field-induced second-harmonic generation measurements of liquid dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, D. J.

D. J. Cook, J. X. Chen, E. A. Morlino, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Terahertz-field-induced second-harmonic generation measurements of liquid dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dakovski, G. L.

Divin, C. J.

Dykaar, D. R.

Elsaesser, T.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes," Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures," Appl. Phys. A 78, 435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Reimann, R. P. Smith, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, "Direct field-resolved detection of terahertz transients with amplitudes of megavolts per centimeter," Opt. Lett. 28, 471 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedosejevs, R.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, P.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes," Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galvanauska, A.

Gwinn, E. G.

A. G. Markelz and E. G. Gwinn, "Nonlinear response of quantum-confined electrons in nonparabolic subbands," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 2533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, T.

Hattori, T.

T. Hattori and K. Takeuchi, "Simulation study on cascaded terahertz pulse generation in electro-optic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 8076 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hattori, K. Tukamoto, and H. Nakatsuka, "Time-resolved study of intense terahertz pulses generated by a large-aperture photoconductive antenna," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4907 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hebling, J.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle and J. Hebling, "Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. B. 86, 419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almasi, and J. Hebling, "Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification," Opt. Express 13, 5762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hey, R.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

D. J. Cook, J. X. Chen, E. A. Morlino, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Terahertz-field-induced second-harmonic generation measurements of liquid dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M. C.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, F.

James, G. H.

Jeon, S.

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeon, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from (110) zincblende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. R.

D. You, R. R. Jones, P. H. Bucksbaum, and D. R. Dykaar, "Generation of high-power sub-cycle 500-fs electromagnetic pulses," Opt. Lett. 18, 290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Jones, D. You, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1236 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, K.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, "High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons," Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-Y.

King, B. T.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozma, I. Z.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle and J. Hebling, "Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. B. 86, 419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almasi, and J. Hebling, "Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification," Opt. Express 13, 5762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubera, B.

Kuhl, J.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle and J. Hebling, "Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. B. 86, 419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almasi, and J. Hebling, "Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification," Opt. Express 13, 5762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, L.

Q. Xing, L. Lang, Z. Tian, N. Zhang, S. Li, K. Wang, L. Chai and Q. Wang, "The effect of two-photon absorption and optical excitation area on the generation of THz radiation," Opt. Commun. 267, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, J.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from (110) zincblende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

Q. Xing, L. Lang, Z. Tian, N. Zhang, S. Li, K. Wang, L. Chai and Q. Wang, "The effect of two-photon absorption and optical excitation area on the generation of THz radiation," Opt. Commun. 267, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-H.

Löffler, T.

Luo, C.

C. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures," Appl. Phys. A 78, 435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. F.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from (110) zincblende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Margolies, J.

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeon, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Markelz, A. G.

A. G. Markelz and E. G. Gwinn, "Nonlinear response of quantum-confined electrons in nonparabolic subbands," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 2533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. C.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, "High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons," Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinney, W. R.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, "High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons," Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morlino, E. A.

D. J. Cook, J. X. Chen, E. A. Morlino, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Terahertz-field-induced second-harmonic generation measurements of liquid dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, H.

T. Hattori, K. Tukamoto, and H. Nakatsuka, "Time-resolved study of intense terahertz pulses generated by a large-aperture photoconductive antenna," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4907 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neil, G. R.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, "High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons," Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, K. A.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nienhuys, H.-K.

Norris, T. B.

Planken, P. C. M.

Ploog, K. H.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, M.

Reimann, K.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes," Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures," Appl. Phys. A 78, 435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Reimann, R. P. Smith, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, "Direct field-resolved detection of terahertz transients with amplitudes of megavolts per centimeter," Opt. Lett. 28, 471 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, A.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from (110) zincblende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Riedle, E.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle and J. Hebling, "Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. B. 86, 419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almasi, and J. Hebling, "Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification," Opt. Express 13, 5762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguer, G.

Rodriguez, G.

Roskos, H. G.

Schroeder, C. B.

Shan, J.

Sherwin, M. S.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. P.

Song, J.

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeon, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C. R.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A. G.

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle and J. Hebling, "Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. B. 86, 419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Almasi, and J. Hebling, "Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification," Opt. Express 13, 5762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeuchi, K.

Taylor, A. J.

Thomson, M.

Tian, Z.

Q. Xing, L. Lang, Z. Tian, N. Zhang, S. Li, K. Wang, L. Chai and Q. Wang, "The effect of two-photon absorption and optical excitation area on the generation of THz radiation," Opt. Commun. 267, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tukamoto, K.

T. Hattori, K. Tukamoto, and H. Nakatsuka, "Time-resolved study of intense terahertz pulses generated by a large-aperture photoconductive antenna," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4907 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Tilborg, J.

Wang, K.

Q. Xing, L. Lang, Z. Tian, N. Zhang, S. Li, K. Wang, L. Chai and Q. Wang, "The effect of two-photon absorption and optical excitation area on the generation of THz radiation," Opt. Commun. 267, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Xing, L. Lang, Z. Tian, N. Zhang, S. Li, K. Wang, L. Chai and Q. Wang, "The effect of two-photon absorption and optical excitation area on the generation of THz radiation," Opt. Commun. 267, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Wenckebach, T.

Williams, G. P.

G. P. Williams, "Filling the THz gap - high power sources and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, "High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons," Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J. B.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williamson, S. L.

Woerner, M.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes," Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures," Appl. Phys. A 78, 435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Reimann, R. P. Smith, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, "Direct field-resolved detection of terahertz transients with amplitudes of megavolts per centimeter," Opt. Lett. 28, 471 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Q.

Q. Xing, L. Lang, Z. Tian, N. Zhang, S. Li, K. Wang, L. Chai and Q. Wang, "The effect of two-photon absorption and optical excitation area on the generation of THz radiation," Opt. Commun. 267, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

You, D.

D. You, R. R. Jones, P. H. Bucksbaum, and D. R. Dykaar, "Generation of high-power sub-cycle 500-fs electromagnetic pulses," Opt. Lett. 18, 290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Jones, D. You, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1236 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, N.

Q. Xing, L. Lang, Z. Tian, N. Zhang, S. Li, K. Wang, L. Chai and Q. Wang, "The effect of two-photon absorption and optical excitation area on the generation of THz radiation," Opt. Commun. 267, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from (110) zincblende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

C. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures," Appl. Phys. A 78, 435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

B. Bartal, I. Z. Kozma, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, J. Kuhl, E. Riedle and J. Hebling, "Toward generation of μJ range sub-ps THz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. B. 86, 419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from (110) zincblende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. J. Cook, J. X. Chen, E. A. Morlino, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Terahertz-field-induced second-harmonic generation measurements of liquid dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 309, 221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeon, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. G. Markelz and E. G. Gwinn, "Nonlinear response of quantum-confined electrons in nonparabolic subbands," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 2533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Hattori, K. Tukamoto, and H. Nakatsuka, "Time-resolved study of intense terahertz pulses generated by a large-aperture photoconductive antenna," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4907 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, "High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons," Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Q. Xing, L. Lang, Z. Tian, N. Zhang, S. Li, K. Wang, L. Chai and Q. Wang, "The effect of two-photon absorption and optical excitation area on the generation of THz radiation," Opt. Commun. 267, 422-426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Jones, D. You, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1236 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

G. P. Williams, "Filling the THz gap - high power sources and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, "Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007). See also THz Science and Technology Network, "Team generates most energetic terahertz pulses yet, observes useful optical phenomena," http://www.thznetwork.org/wordpress/index.php/archives/478>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ganichev, W. Prettl, and S. G. Ganichev, Intense Terahertz Excitation of Semiconductors (Oxford, 2005).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss and J. Orenstein, "Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids, G. Grüner, ed., (Springer, Berlin, 1998).

D. Mittleman, Sensing with Terahertz Radiation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the high-power THz pulse source at the Advanced Laser Light Source.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Total THz pulse energy emitted from the large-aperture ZnTe source (measured just outside the vacuum chamber) as a function of the incident 800 nm laser pulse energy per unit area. The corresponding energy conversion efficiency is also shown.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Azimuthal angle dependence of the THz pulse energy generated from the ZnTe source. The solid line is the theoretically predicted response for an optical rectification source according to Eq. (1).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). THz pulse wave form obtained in a N2-purged environment using a 20 μm thick ZnTe EO detection crystal. The THz pulse energy measured at the position of the ZnTe detection crystal was equal to 0.76 μJ. The inset shows the corresponding Hilbert transform of the wave form. (b) Frequency spectrum of the THz pulse wave form shown in (a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The square of the THz peak electric field normalized to the total THz pulse energy as a function of the laser energy.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Real time Image of the THz pulse focus obtained with an infrared pyroelectric camera (Electrophysics model PV320-L2Z). The THz pulse energy at the focal plane was 0.76 uJ. (b) Line profiles of the THz spot size from the image in (a) in the horizontal and vertical directions.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E THz X E THz Y sin ( 2 θ ) sin 2 ( θ ) ,
α = tan 1 ( 2 tan ( θ ) )
A B A + B = sin θ = 2 π λ n 0 3 r 41 E THz L ,
W = τA E THz pk 2 2 η 0 ,

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