Abstract

We describe a low-threshold Cr4+:forsterite laser which can be operated in continuous-wave as well as Kerr-lens mode-locked regimes at room temperature. To achieve low lasing thresholds, a 3-mm-long Cr4+:forsterite crystal with a single-pass absorption of 41% was used to reduce the passive losses. Furthermore, a thin crystal was used to minimize the pump induced thermal gradients. During continuous-wave operation, absorbed threshold pump powers as low as 290 mW were obtained at 20°C in single-pass pumping with a Yb fiber laser. To the best of our knowledge, this is the lowest pump threshold reported to date for Cr4+:forsterite lasers. Furthermore, Kerr-lens mode locking could also be obtained using dispersion compensation with double-chirped mirrors. With an input pump power of 3 W, nearly transform-limited 86-fs pulses were obtained at a repetition rate of 200 MHz and with an average output power of 85 mW.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

2004 (2)

A. Sennaroglu, A. M. Kowalevicz, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Compact femtosecond lasers based on novel multi-pass cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 519-528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Herz, Y. Chen, A. Aguirre, J. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, "Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (6)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

Agnesi, A.

Aguirre, A.

Angelow, G.

Blonigen, F.

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, S. H.

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, I.-H.

Chen, P. C.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, P. C.

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chiu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P. C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, "Multi-photon scanning microscopy using a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser," Scanning 23, 249-254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, S.-W.

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chiu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P. C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, "Multi-photon scanning microscopy using a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser," Scanning 23, 249-254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S. H.

Chu, S.-W.

Chudoba, C.

Ell, T. S. R.

Fujimoto, E. P.

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

A. Sennaroglu, A. M. Kowalevicz, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Compact femtosecond lasers based on novel multi-pass cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 519-528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chudoba, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, "All-solid-state Crforsterite laser generating 14-fs pulses at 1300 nm," Opt. Lett. 26, 292-294 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kartner, U. Morgner, T. S. R. Ell, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, "Ultrabroadband double-chirped mirror pairs for generation of octave spectra," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 882-885 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, T. G.

Goodnow, J.

Haus, H. A.

Herz, P.

Ippen, B. E.

Ippen, E. P.

Ivanov, A.

Jia, Y.

Johnson, I.

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chiu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P. C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, "Multi-photon scanning microscopy using a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser," Scanning 23, 249-254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kartner, F. X.

Koski, A.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

A. Sennaroglu, A. M. Kowalevicz, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Compact femtosecond lasers based on novel multi-pass cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 519-528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, M.

Lin, B.-L.

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, P. C. Chen, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Lin, "Multimodal nonlinear spectral microscopy based on a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 1909-1911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chiu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P. C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, "Multi-photon scanning microscopy using a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser," Scanning 23, 249-254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ling, W.

Liu, T.-M.

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chiu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P. C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, "Multi-photon scanning microscopy using a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser," Scanning 23, 249-254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, P. C. Chen, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Lin, "Multimodal nonlinear spectral microscopy based on a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 1909-1911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mashimo, H.

Minkov, B.

Morgner, U.

Murnane, M. M.

Petersen, C.

Piccinini, A.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Read, K.

Reali, E.

Riccelli, N.

Scheuer, V.

Schibli, T. R.

Schmitt, J.

Sennaroglu, A.

Shcheslavskiy, V.

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.-K.

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, P. C. Chen, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Lin, "Multimodal nonlinear spectral microscopy based on a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 1909-1911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chiu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P. C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, "Multi-photon scanning microscopy using a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser," Scanning 23, 249-254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tschudi, T.

Vasiliev, A.

Wang, Z.

Wei, Z.

Yakovlev, V.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Sennaroglu, A. M. Kowalevicz, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Compact femtosecond lasers based on novel multi-pass cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 519-528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Scanning (1)

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chiu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P. C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, "Multi-photon scanning microscopy using a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser," Scanning 23, 249-254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the compact, continuous-wave and mode-locked Cr4+:forsterite laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Continuous-wave power efficiency curves for the Cr:forsterite laser using the 3 mm-long-crystal with (a) 2.5% and (b) 4.7% transmitting output couplers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Variation of the incident threshold pump power as a function of the output coupler transmission. The round-trip passive cavity loss was estimated to be 1.7%.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Autocorrelation of the pulses obtained with the Cr:forsterite laser. By assuming a sech2 pulse profile, the pulsewidth (FWHM) was determined to be 86 fs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectrum of the pulses obtained with the Cr4+:forsterite laser. The time-bandwidth product was determined to be 0.339.

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