Abstract

We propose an electro-optic device in silicon based on a p-i-n-i-p device structure for charge transport. The proposed device exhibits carrier injection time of 10 ps and extraction time of 15 ps enabling 100 GHz operation. When integrated into a resonator the micron-size device operates at 40 Gbit/s with 12 dB extinction ratio and 2.25 fJ/bit/micron-length power dissipation. The proposed device is limited in speed only by the photon lifetime of the resonator.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  25. L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005)
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    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Emelett, and R. Soref, Analysis of dual-microring-resonator cross-connect switches and modulators.Opt. Express 13, 7840-7853 (2005).
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  28. B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 549-551 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, "Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 839 - 841 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou and A. W. Poon, "Silicon electro-optic modulators using p-i-n diodes embedded 10-micron-diameter microdisk resonators," Opt. Express 14, 6851-6857 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9431-9435 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Emelett, and R. Soref, Analysis of dual-microring-resonator cross-connect switches and modulators.Opt. Express 13, 7840-7853 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327, (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jalali, O. Boyraz, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, "Scaling laws of nonlinear silicon nanophotonics" Proc. SPIE,  5730, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer size waveguide devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332 - 2339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuwayama, M. Ichimura, E. Arai, "Interface recombination velocity of silicon-on-insulator wafers measured by microwave reflectance photoconductivity decay method with electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 928-930 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Palais and A. Arcari, "Contactless measurement of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity in silicon wafers," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4686-4690 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. W. Lutz, a, A. Schwanhäußerb, M. Eckardtb, L. Robledob, G. Döhlerb and A. Seilmeier, "High-field electron transport in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs p-i-n-i-p-structures investigated by ultrafast absorption changes," Physica E (Asterdam) 13, 802-805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between micro resonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 4 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Yamada, K. Nakamura, and H. Horikawa, "Electroabsorption modulator with PINIP structure," Electron. Lett. 34, 304-306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, "Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 839 - 841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J-P Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

S. M. Bedair, B. T. McDermott, K. G. Reid, P. G. Neudeck, J. A. Cooper, Jr., and M. R. Melloch, " Extremely low-leakage GaAs P-i-N junctions and memory capacitors grown by atomic layer epitaxy," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 11, 261 - 263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Huang, S. Yee, and M. Soma, "Quantum calculations of the change of refractive index due to free carriers in silicon with nonparabolic band structure," J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2033-2039 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  23, 123- 129 (1987)
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arai, E.

T. Kuwayama, M. Ichimura, E. Arai, "Interface recombination velocity of silicon-on-insulator wafers measured by microwave reflectance photoconductivity decay method with electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 928-930 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arcari, A.

O. Palais and A. Arcari, "Contactless measurement of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity in silicon wafers," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4686-4690 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bedair,

S. M. Bedair, B. T. McDermott, K. G. Reid, P. G. Neudeck, J. A. Cooper, Jr., and M. R. Melloch, " Extremely low-leakage GaAs P-i-N junctions and memory capacitors grown by atomic layer epitaxy," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 11, 261 - 263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  23, 123- 129 (1987)
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, O.

B. Jalali, O. Boyraz, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, "Scaling laws of nonlinear silicon nanophotonics" Proc. SPIE,  5730, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

Chu, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J-P Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, P. G.

S. M. Bedair, B. T. McDermott, K. G. Reid, P. G. Neudeck, J. A. Cooper, Jr., and M. R. Melloch, " Extremely low-leakage GaAs P-i-N junctions and memory capacitors grown by atomic layer epitaxy," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 11, 261 - 263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dimitropoulos, D.

B. Jalali, O. Boyraz, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, "Scaling laws of nonlinear silicon nanophotonics" Proc. SPIE,  5730, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Emelett, S.

Foresi, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J-P Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Franck, T.

Gill, D. M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, "Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 839 - 841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Greene, W.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grove, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haus, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J-P Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hewitt, P. D.

Hodge, D.

Hong, C-Y

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horikawa, H.

K. Yamada, K. Nakamura, and H. Horikawa, "Electroabsorption modulator with PINIP structure," Electron. Lett. 34, 304-306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. C.

H. C. Huang, S. Yee, and M. Soma, "Quantum calculations of the change of refractive index due to free carriers in silicon with nonparabolic band structure," J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2033-2039 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, "Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 839 - 841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, M.

T. Kuwayama, M. Ichimura, E. Arai, "Interface recombination velocity of silicon-on-insulator wafers measured by microwave reflectance photoconductivity decay method with electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 928-930 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, O. Boyraz, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, "Scaling laws of nonlinear silicon nanophotonics" Proc. SPIE,  5730, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keil, U.

Kimerling, L. C.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, "Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 839 - 841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuwayama, T.

T. Kuwayama, M. Ichimura, E. Arai, "Interface recombination velocity of silicon-on-insulator wafers measured by microwave reflectance photoconductivity decay method with electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 928-930 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J-P Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, "Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 839 - 841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, " 12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Schmidt, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, " Compact electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator substrates using cavities with ultra-small modal volumes," Opt. Express 15, 3140-3148 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9431-9435 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327, (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer size waveguide devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332 - 2339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Little,

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J-P Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

Liu, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lothian, J.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, "Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 839 - 841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, H. W.

H. W. Lutz, a, A. Schwanhäußerb, M. Eckardtb, L. Robledob, G. Döhlerb and A. Seilmeier, "High-field electron transport in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs p-i-n-i-p-structures investigated by ultrafast absorption changes," Physica E (Asterdam) 13, 802-805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

McDermott, S. M.

S. M. Bedair, B. T. McDermott, K. G. Reid, P. G. Neudeck, J. A. Cooper, Jr., and M. R. Melloch, " Extremely low-leakage GaAs P-i-N junctions and memory capacitors grown by atomic layer epitaxy," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 11, 261 - 263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Melloch, J. A.

S. M. Bedair, B. T. McDermott, K. G. Reid, P. G. Neudeck, J. A. Cooper, Jr., and M. R. Melloch, " Extremely low-leakage GaAs P-i-N junctions and memory capacitors grown by atomic layer epitaxy," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 11, 261 - 263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M.

Nakamura, K.

K. Yamada, K. Nakamura, and H. Horikawa, "Electroabsorption modulator with PINIP structure," Electron. Lett. 34, 304-306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neudeck, K. G.

S. M. Bedair, B. T. McDermott, K. G. Reid, P. G. Neudeck, J. A. Cooper, Jr., and M. R. Melloch, " Extremely low-leakage GaAs P-i-N junctions and memory capacitors grown by atomic layer epitaxy," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 11, 261 - 263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palais, O.

O. Palais and A. Arcari, "Contactless measurement of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity in silicon wafers," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4686-4690 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R.

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 660-668 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, S. S.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A. T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327, (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raghunathan, V.

B. Jalali, O. Boyraz, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, "Scaling laws of nonlinear silicon nanophotonics" Proc. SPIE,  5730, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rasras, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Reid, B. T.

S. M. Bedair, B. T. McDermott, K. G. Reid, P. G. Neudeck, J. A. Cooper, Jr., and M. R. Melloch, " Extremely low-leakage GaAs P-i-N junctions and memory capacitors grown by atomic layer epitaxy," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 11, 261 - 263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

Samara-Rubio, D.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Shakya, J.

Soma, M.

H. C. Huang, S. Yee, and M. Soma, "Quantum calculations of the change of refractive index due to free carriers in silicon with nonparabolic band structure," J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2033-2039 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

Sparacin, D. K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, "Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 839 - 841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. A.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, "Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 839 - 841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

White, A. E.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, T. K.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, "Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 839 - 841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, K. Nakamura, and H. Horikawa, "Electroabsorption modulator with PINIP structure," Electron. Lett. 34, 304-306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between micro resonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 4 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Yee, S.

H. C. Huang, S. Yee, and M. Soma, "Quantum calculations of the change of refractive index due to free carriers in silicon with nonparabolic band structure," J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2033-2039 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Kuwayama, M. Ichimura, E. Arai, "Interface recombination velocity of silicon-on-insulator wafers measured by microwave reflectance photoconductivity decay method with electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 928-930 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between micro resonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 4 (2000)
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, K. Nakamura, and H. Horikawa, "Electroabsorption modulator with PINIP structure," Electron. Lett. 34, 304-306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

S. M. Bedair, B. T. McDermott, K. G. Reid, P. G. Neudeck, J. A. Cooper, Jr., and M. R. Melloch, " Extremely low-leakage GaAs P-i-N junctions and memory capacitors grown by atomic layer epitaxy," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 11, 261 - 263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  23, 123- 129 (1987)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, "Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 839 - 841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. C. Huang, S. Yee, and M. Soma, "Quantum calculations of the change of refractive index due to free carriers in silicon with nonparabolic band structure," J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2033-2039 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O. Palais and A. Arcari, "Contactless measurement of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity in silicon wafers," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4686-4690 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nature (3)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A highspeed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327, (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Physica E (Asterdam) (1)

H. W. Lutz, a, A. Schwanhäußerb, M. Eckardtb, L. Robledob, G. Döhlerb and A. Seilmeier, "High-field electron transport in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs p-i-n-i-p-structures investigated by ultrafast absorption changes," Physica E (Asterdam) 13, 802-805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, O. Boyraz, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, "Scaling laws of nonlinear silicon nanophotonics" Proc. SPIE,  5730, 41-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. F. Pierret, Advanced Semiconductor Fundamentals. (Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc 1987).

SILVACO International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Bldg. 1, Santa Clara, CA 94054.

F. Gan and F. X. Kärtner, "High-Speed Electrical Modulator in High-Index-Contrast (HIC) Si-Waveguides," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), CMG1.

G. Gunn, "CMOS photonicsTM - SOI learns a new trick," in Proceedings of IEEE International SOI Conference Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, (2005), 7-13.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Proposed PINIP device; the device is symmetric about the central dotted line.

Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2(a)

Carrier Density in the center of the ridge

Fig. 2(b)
Fig. 2(b)

Anode Current

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Charge transients in the center of the waveguide in the PINIP device with a) applied voltages of 2 V, 3 V and 4 V b) varied intrinsic region doping concentration (electron density is negligible since the intrinsic region is lightly p doped)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A ring resonator integrated into a PINIP structure

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The optical transient response of the PINIP embedded ring modulator compared to a PIN-embedded ring modulator.

Fig.6:
Fig.6:

Comparison of transient behavior of PIN and PINIP devices for varying surface conditions as modeled by Surface Recombination Velocity (SRV)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Optical output for a Non-Return to Zero coded bit stream at 40 Gbit/s.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. PINIP Device Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2. Main parameters used in electrical modeling

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n = Δ n e + Δ n h = ( 8.8 × 10 22 Δ n + 8.5 × 10 18 ( Δ p ) 0.8 )
Δ α = Δ α e + Δ α h = 8.5 × 10 18 Δ n + 6.0 × 10 18 Δ p

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