Abstract

The nonlinear power limit of optical links using optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) for dispersion compensation can be significantly improved using an optimum combination of nonlinearity precompensation and postcompensation. The compensation is implemented at the transmitter and at the receiver as computationally-efficient power-dependent phase shifts with a single tuning parameter. The system is robust against the exact details of the fiber plant’s dispersion and power levels. Using an optimum combination of pre and post compensation allows a 2-dB increase in launch power for 2000-km standard single-mode fiber (S-SMF) systems and 5-dB when 6 ps/nm/km fibers are used. Using pre or post compensation alone approximately halves these values.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, and P. Bayval, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714-716 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. J. Lowery and J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems," Opt. Express 14, 2079-2084 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. C. Xia and W. Rosenkranz, "Mitigation of intrachannel nonlinearity using nonlinear electrical equalization," in Tech. Digest of European Conference on Optical Communications, 2006, Paper We1.5.3.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007

A. J. Lowery, "Fiber nonlinearity mitigation in optical links that use OFDM for dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1819, 1556-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, and Y. Tang, "Theoretical and experimental study of PMD-supported transmission using polarization diversity in coherent optical OFDM systems," Opt. Express 15, 9936-9947 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, W. Xun Qing, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, "Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804-1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Roberts, Chuandong Li, L. Strawczynski, and M. O'Sullivan, "Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 403-405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Roberts, Chuandong Li, L. Strawczynski, and M. O'Sullivan, "Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 403-405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lowery and J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems," Opt. Express 14, 2079-2084 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, and P. Bayval, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714-716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

1996

Armstrong, J.

Bayval, P.

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, and P. Bayval, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714-716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Belanger, P. -A.

Burrows, E. C.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, W. Xun Qing, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, "Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804-1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chuandong Li, K.

K. Roberts, Chuandong Li, L. Strawczynski, and M. O'Sullivan, "Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 403-405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doran, N. J.

Essiambre, R. J.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, W. Xun Qing, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, "Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804-1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glick, M.

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, and P. Bayval, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714-716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. P.

Khan, J. M.

Killey, R. I.

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, and P. Bayval, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714-716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, W. Xun Qing, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, "Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804-1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lowery, A. J.

A. J. Lowery, "Fiber nonlinearity mitigation in optical links that use OFDM for dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1819, 1556-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lowery and J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems," Opt. Express 14, 2079-2084 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

Mikhailov, V.

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, and P. Bayval, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714-716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pare, C.

Roberts, K.

K. Roberts, Chuandong Li, L. Strawczynski, and M. O'Sullivan, "Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 403-405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

Tang, Y.

Villeneuve, A.

Watts, P. M.

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, and P. Bayval, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714-716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, C. A.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, W. Xun Qing, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, "Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804-1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, W. Xun Qing, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, "Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804-1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Xun Qing, W.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, W. Xun Qing, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, "Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804-1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, W. Xun Qing, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, "Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804-1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Roberts, Chuandong Li, L. Strawczynski, and M. O'Sullivan, "Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 403-405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lowery, "Fiber nonlinearity mitigation in optical links that use OFDM for dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1819, 1556-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, and P. Bayval, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714-716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. I. Killey, "Dispersion and nonlinearity compensation using electronic predistortion techniques" in the IEE Seminar on Fibre Communications and Electronic Signal Processing2005-11310, 0-14-2/6 (15 Dec. 2005).

R. Feced, R. Rickard, and E. Richard, "Reference phase and amplitude estimation for coherent optical receiver," U. S. Patent Application 20050180760, August 18, 2005.

T. H. Williams, "System for transmission of digital data using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," U. S. Patent 5, 371, 548, December 6, 1994.

J. McNicol, M. O’Sullivan, K. Roberts, A. Comeau, D. McGhan, and L. Strawczynski, "Electrical domain compensation of optical dispersion," in Tech. Digest of the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 5 (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 269 - 271.

G. Goeger, "Modulation format with enhanced SPM-robustness for electronically pre-distorted transmission," in Tech. Digest of European Conference on Optical Communications, 2006, Paper Tu4.2.6.

X. Liu and D. A. Fishman, "A fast and reliable algorithm for electronic pre-equalization of SPM and chromatic dispersion," in Tech. Digest of the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, 2006), Paper OThD4.

C. Xia and W. Rosenkranz, "Mitigation of intrachannel nonlinearity using nonlinear electrical equalization," in Tech. Digest of European Conference on Optical Communications, 2006, Paper We1.5.3.

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery and J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstrations of 20 Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12 Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter," in Tech. Digest of the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, 2007), Postdeadline Paper PDP18.

A. J. Lowery, Liang Du and J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems," in Tech. Digest of the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, 2006), Postdeadline Paper PDP39.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram for optical OFDM with nonlinear pre and post compensation.

Fig. 2(a).
Fig. 2(a).

Nonlinearity pre-compensation on and off.

Fig. 2(b).
Fig. 2(b).

Nonlinearity post-compensation on and off.

Fig. 2(c).
Fig. 2(c).

Advantage of combined pre-and post-compensation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Q versus effective length at the receiver for several transmitter effective lengths for standard single-mode fiber.

Fig. 4(a).
Fig. 4(a).

Q versus fiber input power for 16 ps/km/nm (s-SMF) fiber.

Fig. 4(b).
Fig. 4(b).

Q versus fiber input power for 6 ps/km/nm fiber.

Equations (1)

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θ ( t ) = 2 π n 2 s L eff P ( t ) ( λ 0 A eff )

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