Abstract

We demonstrate highly broad-band frequency conversion via four-wave mixing in silicon nanowaveguides. Through appropriate engineering of the waveguide dimensions, conversion bandwidths greater than 150 nm are achieved and peak conversion efficiencies of -9.6 dB are demonstrated. Furthermore, utilizing fourth-order dispersion, wavelength conversion across four telecommunication bands from 1477 nm (S-band) to 1672 nm (U-band) is demonstrated with an efficiency of -12 dB.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007

2006

Z. G. Lu, P. J. Bock, J. R. Liu, F. G. Sun, T. J. Hall, "All-optical 1550 to 1310 nm wavelength converter," Electron. Lett. 42, 937 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, Y. -H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, "High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 1182 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1182.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt,M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, G. P. Agrawal, "Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4786 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-11-4786.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. -H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, "Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides" Opt. Express 14, 11721 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11721.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, Q. Lin, G. P. Agrawal, "Dispersion tailoring and soliton propagation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 1295 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, "Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express. 14, 3853 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-9-3853.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4357.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. Foster, J. Sharping, A. Gaeta, Q. Xu, M. Lipson, "All-optical slow-light on a photonic chip," Opt. Express 14, 2317 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-6-2317.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Sharping, K. F. Lee, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, P. Kumar, "Generation of correlated photons in nanoscale silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 12388-12393 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-25-12388.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, "Self-phasemodulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 5524 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5524.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. -W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultrafast-pulse selfphase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 12380 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-25-12380.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dekker, A. Driessen, T. Wahlbrink, C. Moormann, J. Niehusmann, M. Forst, "Ultrafast Kerr-induced all-optical wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using 1.55 m femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 14, 8336 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8336.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

T. Liang, L. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. Priem, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, H. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 7298 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-19-7298.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, O. Cohen, "Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13, 519 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-519.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, M. Panniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, "Parametric Raman wavelength conversion in scaled silicon waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2094 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4341 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-4341.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4629 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zhang, M. S. Demokan, "Broadband wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 2375 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, B. Jalali, "Phase-matching and nonlinear optical processes in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 149 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-1-149.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Andersen, K. M. Hilligsoe, C. K. Nielsen, J. Thogersen, K. P. Hansen, S. R. Keidling, J. J. Larsen, "Continuous-wave wavelength conversion in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express 12, 4113 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-9-3581.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, A. L. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Express 12, 2880 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2880.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, B. Jalali, "Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 829 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-5-829.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cowan, G. Rieger, J. Young, "Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 μm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures," Opt. Express 12, 1611 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1611.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4094.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

J. Hansryd, A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 m," Opt. Express 10, 1305 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305.
[PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, B. Jalali, "Stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," IEEE Electron. Lett. 38, 1352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Nanotapers for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, T. V.

Andrekson, A.

J. Hansryd, A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bock, P. J.

Z. G. Lu, P. J. Bock, J. R. Liu, F. G. Sun, T. J. Hall, "All-optical 1550 to 1310 nm wavelength converter," Electron. Lett. 42, 937 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, O.

Chen, X.

Claps, R.

Coen, S.

Cohen, O.

Cowan, A.

Dadap, J. I.

Day, I. E.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, R.

Demokan, M. S.

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Opt. Lett.

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, Boston, 1989).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Simulated group-velocity dispersion D of the TE and TM modes for three of the waveguide cross-sections used in this investigation, (b) the acquired phase mismatch after 1-cm of propagation, and (c) the predicted conversion efficiency for 100-mW pump power and 1-cm interaction length. All curves assume a pump wavelength of 1550 nm except the black curve which has a pump wavelength of 1585 nm. In the small-gain limit, the conversion bandwidth corresponds to the range of wavelengths for which the magnitude of this linear mismatch is less than π, as indicated by the grey region in (b). The waveguides with the lowest GVD at the pump wavelength have the largest conversion bandwidth. When the pump is tuned near the zero-GVD point to 1585-nm (dashed black curve), fourth-order dispersion adds two additional phase matching points away from the pump wavelength.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimentally measured conversion efficiency in the (a) TE and (b) TM polarization modes of the four waveguides with the pump wave at 1550 nm. The TM mode of the smallest waveguide and the TE mode of the largest waveguide have the lowest GVD magnitude and consequently have the largest conversion bandwidths.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimentally measured conversion efficiency for various pump powers in the TM polarization of the 300-nm by 500-nm waveguide. While the maximum efficiency is highly dependent on pump power, the conversion bandwidth is not.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimentally measured conversion efficiency for the TE mode of the 300-nm by 750-nm waveguide for three pump wavelengths spanning the C-band. The 3-dB conversion bandwidth remains > 100 nm for signal wavelengths tuned relative to these pump wavelengths demonstrating that any C-band signal can be converted to any other C-band wavelength by tuning the pump wavelength.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Experimentally measured conversion efficiency pumping at 1568 nm in the TM mode of the 300-nm by 500-nm waveguide. This pump wavelength is near the zero-GVD point of the waveguide allowing phase-matching through fourth-order dispersion further from the pump. (b) This fourth-order phase matching yields conversion across four telecommunication bands from 1477 nm to 1672 nm with -12 dB efficiency

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Eye diagrams associated with conversion of a 10-Gb/s signal from 1535 nm (blue) to 1566 nm (red). The converted output shows minimal degradation of the data quality.

Equations (7)

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Δ k = 2 γ P pump Δ k linear ,
Δ k linear = β 2 ( Δ ω ) 2 1 12 β 4 ( Δω ) 4 ,
G idler = P idler out P signal in = [ γ P pump g sinh ( gL ) ] 2 ,
g = [ γ P pump Δ k linear ( Δ k linear 2 ) 2 ] 1 2
G idler max = sinh 2 ( γ P pump L ) .
Ω FWM [ 4 π β 2 L ] 1 2 .
Δ ω = 12 β 2 β 4 ,

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