Abstract

We discuss bending properties of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) inscribed into a holey fiber (HF) depending on an axial rotation angle. High quality of the HF-based LPFG with a high extinction ratio of more than 20 dB is achieved. The proposed HF-based LPFG has bending insensitivity under a certain range of the bending curvature. As the bending curvature is higher than 4 m-1, the center wavelength of the grating is shifted into the shorter wavelength. Bending sensitivity of the HF-based LPFG is changed by an axial rotation angle, which shows its dependence on the rotational orientation. We measure the transmission characteristics of the HF-based LPFG with the ambient index change. The HF-based LPFG has ambient index insensitivity because of the air holes in the inner cladding.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 - 64 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, "long period fiber gratings for structural bending sensing," Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 - 1775 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, and Un-Chul Paek, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratings with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Express 11, 476 - 481 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1320 - 1327 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. P. Espindola, R. S. Sindeler, A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, T. A. Strasser, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fiber grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 327 - 328 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fiber," Electron. Lett. 40, 657 - 658 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224 - 8231 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Zhi, J. Jian, W. Jin, and K. Chiang, "Scaling property and multi-resonance of PCF-based long period gratings," Optics Express 12, 6252 - 6257 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, "Effect of macro-bending on resonant wavelength and intensity of long-period grating in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 15, 1084 - 1087 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. J. Chong, M. Rao, and C. Lu, "Strong resonance and a highly compact long period grating in a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 1900 - 1905 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. H. Kim, Y. G. Han, H. S. Cho, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, K. S. Lee, C. H. Jeong, C. H. Oh, and H. J. Kang, "A novel fabrication method of versatile Holey fibers with low bending loss and their optical characteristics," in Proc. OFC 2006, Anaheim, OWI2 (2006).

2007 (1)

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, "Effect of macro-bending on resonant wavelength and intensity of long-period grating in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 15, 1084 - 1087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224 - 8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

W. Zhi, J. Jian, W. Jin, and K. Chiang, "Scaling property and multi-resonance of PCF-based long period gratings," Optics Express 12, 6252 - 6257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fiber," Electron. Lett. 40, 657 - 658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. J. Chong, M. Rao, and C. Lu, "Strong resonance and a highly compact long period grating in a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 1900 - 1905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1320 - 1327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, and Un-Chul Paek, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratings with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Express 11, 476 - 481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. P. Espindola, R. S. Sindeler, A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, T. A. Strasser, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fiber grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 327 - 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, "long period fiber gratings for structural bending sensing," Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 - 1775 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 - 64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, A. A.

R. P. Espindola, R. S. Sindeler, A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, T. A. Strasser, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fiber grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 327 - 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224 - 8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 - 64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. C.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, "long period fiber gratings for structural bending sensing," Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 - 1775 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K.

W. Zhi, J. Jian, W. Jin, and K. Chiang, "Scaling property and multi-resonance of PCF-based long period gratings," Optics Express 12, 6252 - 6257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, H. J.

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. J. Chong, M. Rao, and C. Lu, "Strong resonance and a highly compact long period grating in a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 1900 - 1905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, Y.

Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, and Un-Chul Paek, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratings with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Express 11, 476 - 481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

R. P. Espindola, R. S. Sindeler, A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, T. A. Strasser, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fiber grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 327 - 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dobb, H.

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fiber," Electron. Lett. 40, 657 - 658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, "Effect of macro-bending on resonant wavelength and intensity of long-period grating in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 15, 1084 - 1087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dufva, M.

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224 - 8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

R. P. Espindola, R. S. Sindeler, A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, T. A. Strasser, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fiber grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 327 - 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 - 64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Espindola, R. P.

R. P. Espindola, R. S. Sindeler, A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, T. A. Strasser, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fiber grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 327 - 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. G.

Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, and Un-Chul Paek, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratings with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Express 11, 476 - 481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Z.

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, "Effect of macro-bending on resonant wavelength and intensity of long-period grating in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 15, 1084 - 1087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Høiby, P. E.

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224 - 8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, J. B.

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224 - 8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jian, J.

W. Zhi, J. Jian, W. Jin, and K. Chiang, "Scaling property and multi-resonance of PCF-based long period gratings," Optics Express 12, 6252 - 6257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, W.

W. Zhi, J. Jian, W. Jin, and K. Chiang, "Scaling property and multi-resonance of PCF-based long period gratings," Optics Express 12, 6252 - 6257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 - 64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kalli, K.

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fiber," Electron. Lett. 40, 657 - 658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, and Un-Chul Paek, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratings with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Express 11, 476 - 481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C. S.

Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, and Un-Chul Paek, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratings with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Express 11, 476 - 481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. B.

Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, and Un-Chul Paek, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratings with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Express 11, 476 - 481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 - 64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. J. Chong, M. Rao, and C. Lu, "Strong resonance and a highly compact long period grating in a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 1900 - 1905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paek, U. C.

Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, and Un-Chul Paek, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratings with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Express 11, 476 - 481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, "long period fiber gratings for structural bending sensing," Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 - 1775 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224 - 8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, M.

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. J. Chong, M. Rao, and C. Lu, "Strong resonance and a highly compact long period grating in a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 1900 - 1905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, Y. J.

Rindorf, L.

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224 - 8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shum, P.

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. J. Chong, M. Rao, and C. Lu, "Strong resonance and a highly compact long period grating in a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 1900 - 1905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sindeler, R. S.

R. P. Espindola, R. S. Sindeler, A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, T. A. Strasser, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fiber grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 327 - 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 - 64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

R. P. Espindola, R. S. Sindeler, A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, T. A. Strasser, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fiber grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 327 - 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 - 64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vohra, S. T.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, "long period fiber gratings for structural bending sensing," Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 - 1775 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. P.

Webb, D. J.

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fiber," Electron. Lett. 40, 657 - 658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhi, W.

W. Zhi, J. Jian, W. Jin, and K. Chiang, "Scaling property and multi-resonance of PCF-based long period gratings," Optics Express 12, 6252 - 6257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, T.

Zhu, Y.

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, "Effect of macro-bending on resonant wavelength and intensity of long-period grating in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 15, 1084 - 1087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. J. Chong, M. Rao, and C. Lu, "Strong resonance and a highly compact long period grating in a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 1900 - 1905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (3)

R. P. Espindola, R. S. Sindeler, A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, T. A. Strasser, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "External refractive index insensitive air-clad long period fiber grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 327 - 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fiber," Electron. Lett. 40, 657 - 658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, "long period fiber gratings for structural bending sensing," Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 - 1775 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 - 64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1320 - 1327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Optics Express (5)

Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, and Un-Chul Paek, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratings with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Opt. Express 11, 476 - 481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224 - 8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhi, J. Jian, W. Jin, and K. Chiang, "Scaling property and multi-resonance of PCF-based long period gratings," Optics Express 12, 6252 - 6257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. He, Y. Zhu, and H. Du, "Effect of macro-bending on resonant wavelength and intensity of long-period grating in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 15, 1084 - 1087 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. J. Chong, M. Rao, and C. Lu, "Strong resonance and a highly compact long period grating in a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 1900 - 1905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. H. Kim, Y. G. Han, H. S. Cho, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, K. S. Lee, C. H. Jeong, C. H. Oh, and H. J. Kang, "A novel fabrication method of versatile Holey fibers with low bending loss and their optical characteristics," in Proc. OFC 2006, Anaheim, OWI2 (2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental scheme for measurement of bending sensitivity of the HF-based LPFG.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectra of the HF-based LPFG with the bending curvature change.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Variation of the transmission and the center wavelength of the HF-based LPFG as a function of the bending curvature (θ= 0°).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Center wavelength shift as a function of the applied bending curvature depending on the axial rotational angle (θ). The variation of the center wavelength of the grating with the twist rate without fiber bending was shown in the inset.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectra of the HF-based LPFG with the ambient index change.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Variation of the transmission (a) and the center wavelength (b) of the HF-based LPFG as a function of the ambient index change (θ= 0°).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C = 2 d d 2 + L 2 ,
λ p C = ( n core n clad m ) Λ C + Λ ( n core C n clad m C ) ,

Metrics