Abstract

We report the first measurements of the scattering coefficient of natural marine particles, which extend over the near-infrared spectral region to up to 870 nm. The measurements were conducted in three different European estuaries (Gironde, Tamar and Elbe) using an in situ absorption and attenuation-meter. The observed particulate scattering coefficients varied from 1 to nearly 100 m-1. The spectral shape in the near-infrared very closely matched a λ-γ spectral dependence, which is expected when the particle size followed a power-law distribution. The spectral slope of the scattering spectrum, γ spanned from 0.1 to 1.2 and showed significant regional and temporal variations. These variations were certainly related to the particle size distribution, which will have to be studied in future works. Using our near-infrared data as a reference, we assessed the use of the attenuation coefficient spectrum in the visible range to estimate the near-infrared particulate scattering slope and found values different by 10% on average.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  41. K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. J. Park, and G. F. Moore, "Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: The similarity spectrum for turbid waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007

M. Defoin Platel, and M. Chami, "How ambiguous is the inverse problem of ocean color in coastal waters," J.Geophys. Res. 112, doi10.1029/2006JC003847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, "Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio," Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the Atmospheric Correction of SeaWiFS Ocean Colour Images over Turbid Waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, "Variability of light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region," Appl. Opt. 42, 4802-4810 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Laurion, F. Blouin, and S. Roy, "The quantitative filter technique for measuring phytoplankton absorption: interference by MAAS in the UV waveband," Limnol. Oceanogr. 1, 1-9 (2003).

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, and P. Castaing, "Remote sensing reflectance of turbid sediment- dominated waters. Reduction of sediment type variations and changing illumination conditions effects using reflectance ratios," Appl. Opt. 42, 2623-2634 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and oceanic waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, "A novel ocean color inversion model: retrieval of beam attenuation and particle size distribution,"Geophys. Res. Let. 30, 10.1029/2002GL016366 (2003).Q2

D. McKee, A. Cunningham, and S. Craig, "Semi-empirical correction algorithm for ac-9 measurements in a coccolithophore bloom," Appl. Opt. 42, 4369-4374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, "Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 2705-2714 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Babin, and D. Stramski, "Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

V. S. Langford, A. J. McKinley, and T. I. Quickenden, "Temperature dependence of the visible-near-infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water," J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8916-8921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particulate size distribution in the boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, "Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution," Appl. Opt. 40, 4885-4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. W. Gould, R. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, "Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters," Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and S. J. Lavender, "The Atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II Waters: application to MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713-1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. G. Mitchell and M. Kahru, "Algorithms for SeaWiFS standard products developed with the CalCOFI bio-optical data set," Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep. 39, 133-147 (1998).Q1

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2837-2845 (1998).

1997

G. A. Jackson, R. E. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, "Particle size spectra between 1μm and 1cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments," Deep-Sea Res. 44, 1739-1768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope, and E. S. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water," Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

M. Jonasz and G. R. Fournier, "Approximation of the size distribution of marine particles by a sum of log-normal functions," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 744-754 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters," Limnol.Oceanogr. 40, 393-410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper Ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749-10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983

M. Jonasz, "Particle size distributions in the Baltic," Tellus B 35, 346-358 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

1972

R. W. Sheldon, "Size separation of marine seston by membrane and glass-fiber filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 494-498 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970

H. Bader, "The hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822-2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the Atmospheric Correction of SeaWiFS Ocean Colour Images over Turbid Waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and S. J. Lavender, "The Atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II Waters: application to MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713-1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alldredge, A. L.

G. A. Jackson, R. E. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, "Particle size spectra between 1μm and 1cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments," Deep-Sea Res. 44, 1739-1768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R.

Babin, M.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin and D. Stramski, "Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 756-767 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and oceanic waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, and D. Stramski, "Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bader, H.

H. Bader, "The hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822-2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

Barnard, A. H.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, "Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependence of absorption by water and heavy water in the 450-750 nm spectral range," Appl. Opt. 45, 5294-5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particulate size distribution in the boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2837-2845 (1998).

Blondeau-Patissier, D.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the Atmospheric Correction of SeaWiFS Ocean Colour Images over Turbid Waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blouin, F.

I. Laurion, F. Blouin, and S. Roy, "The quantitative filter technique for measuring phytoplankton absorption: interference by MAAS in the UV waveband," Limnol. Oceanogr. 1, 1-9 (2003).

Boss, E.

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, "Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio," Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, "A novel ocean color inversion model: retrieval of beam attenuation and particle size distribution,"Geophys. Res. Let. 30, 10.1029/2002GL016366 (2003).Q2

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, "Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution," Appl. Opt. 40, 4885-4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particulate size distribution in the boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters," Limnol.Oceanogr. 40, 393-410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Castaing, P.

Chami, M.

Chang, G. C.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particulate size distribution in the boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Costello, D. K.

G. A. Jackson, R. E. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, "Particle size spectra between 1μm and 1cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments," Deep-Sea Res. 44, 1739-1768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cowles, T. J.

Craig, S.

Cunningham, A.

Dam, H. G.

G. A. Jackson, R. E. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, "Particle size spectra between 1μm and 1cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments," Deep-Sea Res. 44, 1739-1768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Cauwer, V.

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. J. Park, and G. F. Moore, "Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: The similarity spectrum for turbid waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Defoin Platel, M.

M. Defoin Platel, and M. Chami, "How ambiguous is the inverse problem of ocean color in coastal waters," J.Geophys. Res. 112, doi10.1029/2006JC003847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particulate size distribution in the boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Donaghay, P. L.

Doxaran, D.

Fell, F.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and oceanic waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, G. M.

Fournier, G. R.

M. Jonasz and G. R. Fournier, "Approximation of the size distribution of marine particles by a sum of log-normal functions," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 744-754 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fournier-Sicre, V.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and oceanic waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Froidefond, J. M.

Fry, E. S.

Gardner, W. D.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particulate size distribution in the boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gould, R. W.

Gray, D.

Herring, S.

Jackson, G. A.

G. A. Jackson, R. E. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, "Particle size spectra between 1μm and 1cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments," Deep-Sea Res. 44, 1739-1768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jonasz, M.

M. Jonasz and G. R. Fournier, "Approximation of the size distribution of marine particles by a sum of log-normal functions," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 744-754 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jonasz, "Particle size distributions in the Baltic," Tellus B 35, 346-358 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

B. G. Mitchell and M. Kahru, "Algorithms for SeaWiFS standard products developed with the CalCOFI bio-optical data set," Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep. 39, 133-147 (1998).Q1

Khomenko, G. A.

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Korotaev, G. K.

Langford, V. S.

V. S. Langford, A. J. McKinley, and T. I. Quickenden, "Temperature dependence of the visible-near-infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water," J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8916-8921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laurion, I.

I. Laurion, F. Blouin, and S. Roy, "The quantitative filter technique for measuring phytoplankton absorption: interference by MAAS in the UV waveband," Limnol. Oceanogr. 1, 1-9 (2003).

Lavender, S. J.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the Atmospheric Correction of SeaWiFS Ocean Colour Images over Turbid Waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and S. J. Lavender, "The Atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II Waters: application to MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713-1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. E. G.

Logan, B. E.

G. A. Jackson, R. E. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, "Particle size spectra between 1μm and 1cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments," Deep-Sea Res. 44, 1739-1768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maffione, R. E.

G. A. Jackson, R. E. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, "Particle size spectra between 1μm and 1cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments," Deep-Sea Res. 44, 1739-1768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

Martinolich, P. M.

Martynov, O. V.

McKee, D.

McKinley, A. J.

V. S. Langford, A. J. McKinley, and T. I. Quickenden, "Temperature dependence of the visible-near-infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water," J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8916-8921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Melville, W. K.

Mitchell, B. G.

B. G. Mitchell and M. Kahru, "Algorithms for SeaWiFS standard products developed with the CalCOFI bio-optical data set," Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep. 39, 133-147 (1998).Q1

Moore, C. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. M.

Moore, G. F.

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. J. Park, and G. F. Moore, "Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: The similarity spectrum for turbid waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the Atmospheric Correction of SeaWiFS Ocean Colour Images over Turbid Waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and S. J. Lavender, "The Atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II Waters: application to MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713-1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and oceanic waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper Ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749-10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. J. Park, and G. F. Moore, "Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: The similarity spectrum for turbid waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, "Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio," Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particulate size distribution in the boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2837-2845 (1998).

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, A. R.

Pinkerton, M. H.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the Atmospheric Correction of SeaWiFS Ocean Colour Images over Turbid Waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Piskozub, J.

Pope, R. M.

Quickenden, T. I.

V. S. Langford, A. J. McKinley, and T. I. Quickenden, "Temperature dependence of the visible-near-infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water," J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8916-8921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ras, J.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rhoades, B.

Roesler, C.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters," Limnol.Oceanogr. 40, 393-410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, "A novel ocean color inversion model: retrieval of beam attenuation and particle size distribution,"Geophys. Res. Let. 30, 10.1029/2002GL016366 (2003).Q2

Roy, S.

I. Laurion, F. Blouin, and S. Roy, "The quantitative filter technique for measuring phytoplankton absorption: interference by MAAS in the UV waveband," Limnol. Oceanogr. 1, 1-9 (2003).

Ruddick, K. G.

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. J. Park, and G. F. Moore, "Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: The similarity spectrum for turbid waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheldon, R. W.

R. W. Sheldon, "Size separation of marine seston by membrane and glass-fiber filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 494-498 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Shybanov, E. B.

Siegel, D. A.

Smith, R. C.

Stramski, D.

M. Babin and D. Stramski, "Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 756-767 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Piskozub, D. Stramski, E. Terril, and W. K. Melville, "Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurements of beam attenuation in highly scattering marine environments," Appl. Opt. 43, 4723-4731 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and oceanic waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, and D. Stramski, "Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

Tassan, S.

Terril, E.

Tieche, F.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

Whitmire, A. L.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, "Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependence of absorption by water and heavy water in the 450-750 nm spectral range," Appl. Opt. 45, 5294-5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particulate size distribution in the boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2837-2845 (1998).

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters," Limnol.Oceanogr. 40, 393-410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

D. Doxaran, J. M. Froidefond, and P. Castaing, "Remote sensing reflectance of turbid sediment- dominated waters. Reduction of sediment type variations and changing illumination conditions effects using reflectance ratios," Appl. Opt. 42, 2623-2634 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Pope, and E. S. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water," Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, "Variability of light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region," Appl. Opt. 42, 4802-4810 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, "Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 2705-2714 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, "Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependence of absorption by water and heavy water in the 450-750 nm spectral range," Appl. Opt. 45, 5294-5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, "Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200800nm).Appl. Opt. 20, 177-184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. McKee, A. Cunningham, and S. Craig, "Semi-empirical correction algorithm for ac-9 measurements in a coccolithophore bloom," Appl. Opt. 42, 4369-4374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, "Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment," Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Piskozub, D. Stramski, E. Terril, and W. K. Melville, "Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurements of beam attenuation in highly scattering marine environments," Appl. Opt. 43, 4723-4731 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Gould, R. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, "Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters," Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, "Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution," Appl. Opt. 40, 4885-4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep.

B. G. Mitchell and M. Kahru, "Algorithms for SeaWiFS standard products developed with the CalCOFI bio-optical data set," Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep. 39, 133-147 (1998).Q1

Cont. Shelf Res.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the Atmospheric Correction of SeaWiFS Ocean Colour Images over Turbid Waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res.

G. A. Jackson, R. E. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, "Particle size spectra between 1μm and 1cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments," Deep-Sea Res. 44, 1739-1768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Let.

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, "A novel ocean color inversion model: retrieval of beam attenuation and particle size distribution,"Geophys. Res. Let. 30, 10.1029/2002GL016366 (2003).Q2

Int. J. Remote Sens.

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and S. J. Lavender, "The Atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II Waters: application to MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713-1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particulate size distribution in the boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Bader, "The hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822-2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper Ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749-10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2837-2845 (1998).

J. Phys. Chem. A

V. S. Langford, A. J. McKinley, and T. I. Quickenden, "Temperature dependence of the visible-near-infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water," J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8916-8921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.Geophys. Res.

M. Defoin Platel, and M. Chami, "How ambiguous is the inverse problem of ocean color in coastal waters," J.Geophys. Res. 112, doi10.1029/2006JC003847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and oceanic waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Laurion, F. Blouin, and S. Roy, "The quantitative filter technique for measuring phytoplankton absorption: interference by MAAS in the UV waveband," Limnol. Oceanogr. 1, 1-9 (2003).

M. Babin, and D. Stramski, "Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin and D. Stramski, "Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 756-767 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Jonasz and G. R. Fournier, "Approximation of the size distribution of marine particles by a sum of log-normal functions," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 744-754 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Sheldon, "Size separation of marine seston by membrane and glass-fiber filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 494-498 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. J. Park, and G. F. Moore, "Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: The similarity spectrum for turbid waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Limnol.Oceanogr.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters," Limnol.Oceanogr. 40, 393-410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tellus B

M. Jonasz, "Particle size distributions in the Baltic," Tellus B 35, 346-358 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water, Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

J.-F. Berthon, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra, Italy, (personal communication, 2006).

E. Leymarie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6 - CNRS, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France (personal communication, 2006).

T. J. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters," Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Ref. 72-78, 79 pp (1972).

N. V. Blough, and R. Del Vecchio, "Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the coastal environment," in Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, D. Hansell and C. Carlson, eds., (Academic Press, San Diego, 2002) pp. 509-546.
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Diffusion de la lumière par les eaux de mer. Résultats expérimentaux et approche théorique. Optics of the sea," AGARD Lectures Series (1973).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

b p(λ) spectra measured in the Tamar (a), Elbe (b) and Gironde (c) estuaries in October 2005, and in the Gironde (d) estuary in March 2006. Spectra are normalised at 555 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scattering coefficient spectral slope (exponent γ in Eq. (4)) observed in the near-IR (715 – 870 nm) spectral region. Measurements made in the Tamar, Elbe, and Gironde estuaries in November 2005, and in the Gironde estuary in March 2006, are presented separately.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot of the scattering spectral slope (γ) between 715 and 870 nm as a function of b p(715) in the Tamar, Elbe and Gironde estuaries.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plot of the particulate attenuation coefficient spectral slope γcp in the 440 – 715 nm (a) and 412 – 676 nm (b) spectral ranges as a function of the particulate scattering spectral slope γ in the 715 – 870 nm near-IR spectral region. Solid lines show the 1:1 relationships. Black, grey and white points represent the Tamar, Gironde and Elbe data, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Plot of the particulate attenuation coefficient spectral slope γcp as a function of the particulate scattering spectral slope γ in the 715 – 870 nm near-IR spectral region (a). Plot of γcp in the 440 – 715 nm visible spectral region as a function of γ in the 715 – 870 nm near-IR spectral region, when assuming no light absorption by particles and coloured dissolved organic matter at 715 nm and longer wavelengths (b). Solid lines show the 1:1 relationships. Black, grey and white points represent the Tamar, Gironde and Elbe data, respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Statistics on the b p(λ) values obtained from ac-9 measurements at selected visible and near-IR wavelengths. Normality of distributions was verified successfully using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on log-transformed data. The geometric standard deviation (SD) is to be applied as a factor.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Statistics on the near-IR (715 – 870 nm) spectral slope (γ). Normality of distributions was verified successfully using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Determination coefficient (R 2) of the power law (Eq. (4)) fitting on measured b p(λ) spectra. Average absolute and relative deviations (in m-1 and %, respectively) from the model.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Statistics on the visible (440 – 715 nm) spectral slope (γ). Normality of distributions was verified successfully using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Determination coefficient (R 2) of the power law (Eq. (4)) fitting on measured b p(λ) spectra. Average absolute and relative deviations (in m-1 and %, respectively) from the model.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a ( λ ) = a mts ( λ ) a mts ( λ ref ) c mts ( λ ref ) a mts ( λ ref ) × [ c mts ( λ ) a mts ( λ ) ]
b p ( λ ) = c mts ( λ ) a ( λ )
γ = j 3
b p ( λ ) = b p ( 715 ) ( λ / 715 ) γ
c p ( λ ) = c ( λ ) a CDOM ( λ )

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