Abstract

Multi-photon absorption and excitation properties of CdSe quantum dots in hexane with different dot-sizes have been investigated. The two- and three-photon absorption (2PA and 3PA) coefficients were measured by using ~160-fs laser pulses at wavelengths of ~775-nm and ~1300-nm, respectively. The dependence of one-, two- and three-photon induced fluorescence spectra as well as their double-exponential decay on the dot-sizes was studied. Based on the fluorescence emission spectra and temporal decay constants for a given sample solution excited by one-, two-and three-photon absorption, it can be concluded that the transition pathways for fluorescence emission and decay under one-, two- and three-photon excitation are nearly identical. The optical power limiting capabilities based on 2PA and 3PA mechanisms are demonstrated separately. In addition, a saturation behavior of 3PA at ~1300 nm was observed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Brunner, G. Abstreiter, G. Baehm, G. Traenkle, and G. Weimann, "Sharp-line photoluminescence and two-photon absorption of zero-dimensional biexcitons in a GaAs/AlGaAs structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1138-41 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. G. S. He, Q. Zheng, C. Lu, and P. N. Prasad, "Two- and three-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization using a liquid dye," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1037-1043 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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  24. W. Fang, J. Y. Xu, A. Yamilov, H. Cao, Y. Ma, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, "Large enhancement of spontaneous emission rates of InAs quantum dots in GaAs microdisks," Opt. Lett. 27, 948-950 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerence, semiconductors, and other materials," Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Badia, L. Cuccia, L. Demers, F. Morin, and R. B. Lennox, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 2682-2692 (1997).
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  28. S.-C. Pu, M.-J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C.-W. Lai, C.-C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y.-M. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, "The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots," Small 2, 1308-1313 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. M. A. El-Sayed, "Small is different: Shape-, size-, and composition-dependent properties of some colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals," Acc. Chem. Res. 37, 326-333 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectra properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. Takemoto, B.-R. Hyun, M. Furuya, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, "Universal dephasing mechanism in semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a matrix," J. Phys. Soc. Japan 72, 249-252 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, "Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: Copper and silver particles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236-1243 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  34. V. P. Drachev, A.K. Buin, H. Nakotte, and V. M. Shalaev, "Size dependent χ(3) for conduction electrons in Ag nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 4, 1535-1539 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernández, R. Pereiro, A. Sanz-Medel, "Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots as luminescent probes for cyanide determination," Anal. Chim. Acta 522, 1-8 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  36. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Three-photon-absorption-induced fluorescence and optical limiting effects in an organic compound," Opt. Lett. 20, 1524-1526 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. G. S. He, Q. Zheng, A. Baev, and P. N. Prasad, "Saturation of multi-photon absorption upon strong and ultrafast infrared laser excitation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, K.-T. Yong, A. Ryasnyanskiy, P. N. Prasad, and A. Urbas, "Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization by using a CdTe quantum dot solution excited at optical communication wavelength of ~1300 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, A. Baev, and P. N. Prasad, "Saturation of multi-photon absorption upon strong and ultrafast infrared laser excitation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

S.-C. Pu, M.-J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C.-W. Lai, C.-C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y.-M. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, "The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots," Small 2, 1308-1313 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Noetzel, Z. Li, V. J. Molina, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B 82, 615-620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, Y. Luo, and H. Aagren, "Multiple-photon spectrum of CdS semiconductor quantum dot for bioimaging," Thin Solid Films 515, 842-845 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (7)

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, C. Lu, and P. N. Prasad, "Two- and three-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization using a liquid dye," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1037-1043 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Seydack, "Nanoparticle labels in immunosensing using optical detection methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2454-2469 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Thantu, "Second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence upconversion in glasses doped with ZnSe nanocrystalline quantum dots," J. Lumin. 111, 17-24 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kagotani, K. Miyajima, G. Oohata, S. Saito, M. Ashida, K. Edamatsu, and T. Itoh, "Two-photon absorption and lasing due to biexciton in CuCl quantum dots," J. Lumin. 112, 113-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, N. Q. Huong, J. L. Birman, and M. J. Potasek, "Large nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor quantum dot arrays embedded in an organic medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4839-4842 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Venkatram, D. N. Rao and M. A. Akundi, "Nonlinear absorption, scattering and optical limiting studies of CdS nanoparticles," Opt. Express 13, 867-872 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, and C. H. B. Cruz, "Two-photon absorption in CdTe quantum dots," Opt. Express 13, 6460-6467 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

J. W. M. Chon and M. Gu, "Scanning total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy under one-photon and two-photon excitation: image formation," Appl. Opt. 43, 1063-1071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Drachev, A.K. Buin, H. Nakotte, and V. M. Shalaev, "Size dependent χ(3) for conduction electrons in Ag nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 4, 1535-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernández, R. Pereiro, A. Sanz-Medel, "Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots as luminescent probes for cyanide determination," Anal. Chim. Acta 522, 1-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. El-Sayed, "Small is different: Shape-, size-, and composition-dependent properties of some colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals," Acc. Chem. Res. 37, 326-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

K. Takemoto, B.-R. Hyun, M. Furuya, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, "Universal dephasing mechanism in semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a matrix," J. Phys. Soc. Japan 72, 249-252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C.-C. Chjo, and L.-J. Yu, "Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4717-4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Malik, P. O’Brien, S. Norager, and J. Smith, "Gallium arsenide nanoparticles: synthesis and characterisation," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2591-2595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

W. Fang, J. Y. Xu, A. Yamilov, H. Cao, Y. Ma, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, "Large enhancement of spontaneous emission rates of InAs quantum dots in GaAs microdisks," Opt. Lett. 27, 948-950 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Ispasoiu, Y. Jin, J. Lee, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, and T. GoodsonIII, "Two-photon absorption and photon-number squeezing with CdSe nanocrystals," Nano Lett. 2, 127-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Schall and P. Uhd. Jepsen, "Above-band gap two-photon absorption and its influence on ultrafast carrier dynamics in ZnTe and CdTe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4771-4773 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectra properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, "Two-photon absorption coefficient measurements based on widely tunable femtosecond pulses from parametric generation," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 361-372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Badia, L. Cuccia, L. Demers, F. Morin, and R. B. Lennox, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 2682-2692 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, "Strongly confined semiconductor quantum dots: pair excitations and optical properties," J. Lumin. 70, 185-202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, "Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: Copper and silver particles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236-1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Brunner, G. Abstreiter, G. Baehm, G. Traenkle, and G. Weimann, "Sharp-line photoluminescence and two-photon absorption of zero-dimensional biexcitons in a GaAs/AlGaAs structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1138-41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerence, semiconductors, and other materials," Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, "Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in cadmium sulfide quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 45, 3465-8 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Kaschke, N. P. Ernsting, U. Mueller, and H. Weller, "Ultrafast electron ejection and trapping in semiconductor colloids after multiple photon absorption," Chem. Phys. Lett. 168, 543-550 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

L. Banyai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S.W. Koch, "Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142-8153 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Aagren, H.

Y. Fu, Y. Luo, and H. Aagren, "Multiple-photon spectrum of CdS semiconductor quantum dot for bioimaging," Thin Solid Films 515, 842-845 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

K. Brunner, G. Abstreiter, G. Baehm, G. Traenkle, and G. Weimann, "Sharp-line photoluminescence and two-photon absorption of zero-dimensional biexcitons in a GaAs/AlGaAs structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1138-41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akundi, M. A.

Alivisatos, A. P.

D. H. Son, J. S. Wittenberg, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Multielectron ionization of CdSe quantum dots in intense femtosecond ultraviolet light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127406/1-127406/4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alloing, B.

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asahara, Y.

Ashida, M.

Y. Kagotani, K. Miyajima, G. Oohata, S. Saito, M. Ashida, K. Edamatsu, and T. Itoh, "Two-photon absorption and lasing due to biexciton in CuCl quantum dots," J. Lumin. 112, 113-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Badia, A.

A. Badia, L. Cuccia, L. Demers, F. Morin, and R. B. Lennox, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 2682-2692 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baehm, G.

K. Brunner, G. Abstreiter, G. Baehm, G. Traenkle, and G. Weimann, "Sharp-line photoluminescence and two-photon absorption of zero-dimensional biexcitons in a GaAs/AlGaAs structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1138-41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baev, A.

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, A. Baev, and P. N. Prasad, "Saturation of multi-photon absorption upon strong and ultrafast infrared laser excitation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balogh-Nair, V.

M. Etienne, A. Biney, A. D. Walser, R. Dorsinville, D. L. V. Bauer, and V. Balogh-Nair, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of a cadmium sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181913/1-181913/3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Banfi, G. P.

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, "Two-photon absorption coefficient measurements based on widely tunable femtosecond pulses from parametric generation," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 361-372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Banyai, L.

L. Banyai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S.W. Koch, "Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142-8153 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, L. C.

Batteh, E. T.

G. Chen, T. H. Stievater, E. T. Batteh, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, and L. J. Sham, "Biexciton quantum coherence in a single quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 117901/1-117901/4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, D. L. V.

M. Etienne, A. Biney, A. D. Walser, R. Dorsinville, D. L. V. Bauer, and V. Balogh-Nair, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of a cadmium sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181913/1-181913/3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bhawalkar, J. D.

Biney, A.

M. Etienne, A. Biney, A. D. Walser, R. Dorsinville, D. L. V. Bauer, and V. Balogh-Nair, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of a cadmium sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181913/1-181913/3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birman, J. L.

Y. Gao, N. Q. Huong, J. L. Birman, and M. J. Potasek, "Large nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor quantum dot arrays embedded in an organic medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4839-4842 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerence, semiconductors, and other materials," Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, K.

K. Brunner, G. Abstreiter, G. Baehm, G. Traenkle, and G. Weimann, "Sharp-line photoluminescence and two-photon absorption of zero-dimensional biexcitons in a GaAs/AlGaAs structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1138-41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buin, A.K.

V. P. Drachev, A.K. Buin, H. Nakotte, and V. M. Shalaev, "Size dependent χ(3) for conduction electrons in Ag nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 4, 1535-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

Cesar, C. L.

Chen, G.

G. Chen, T. H. Stievater, E. T. Batteh, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, and L. J. Sham, "Biexciton quantum coherence in a single quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 117901/1-117901/4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.-M.

S.-C. Pu, M.-J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C.-W. Lai, C.-C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y.-M. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, "The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots," Small 2, 1308-1313 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chjo, C.-C.

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C.-C. Chjo, and L.-J. Yu, "Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4717-4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chon, J. W. M.

Chou, P.-T.

S.-C. Pu, M.-J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C.-W. Lai, C.-C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y.-M. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, "The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots," Small 2, 1308-1313 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costa-Fernández, J. M.

W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernández, R. Pereiro, A. Sanz-Medel, "Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots as luminescent probes for cyanide determination," Anal. Chim. Acta 522, 1-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, C. H. B.

Cuccia, L.

A. Badia, L. Cuccia, L. Demers, F. Morin, and R. B. Lennox, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 2682-2692 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Riedmatten, H.

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, "Two-photon absorption coefficient measurements based on widely tunable femtosecond pulses from parametric generation," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 361-372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Demers, L.

A. Badia, L. Cuccia, L. Demers, F. Morin, and R. B. Lennox, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 2682-2692 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dorren, H. J. S.

H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Noetzel, Z. Li, V. J. Molina, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B 82, 615-620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dorsinville, R.

M. Etienne, A. Biney, A. D. Walser, R. Dorsinville, D. L. V. Bauer, and V. Balogh-Nair, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of a cadmium sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181913/1-181913/3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

V. P. Drachev, A.K. Buin, H. Nakotte, and V. M. Shalaev, "Size dependent χ(3) for conduction electrons in Ag nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 4, 1535-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Edamatsu, K.

Y. Kagotani, K. Miyajima, G. Oohata, S. Saito, M. Ashida, K. Edamatsu, and T. Itoh, "Two-photon absorption and lasing due to biexciton in CuCl quantum dots," J. Lumin. 112, 113-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

M. A. El-Sayed, "Small is different: Shape-, size-, and composition-dependent properties of some colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals," Acc. Chem. Res. 37, 326-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectra properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ernsting, N. P.

M. Kaschke, N. P. Ernsting, U. Mueller, and H. Weller, "Ultrafast electron ejection and trapping in semiconductor colloids after multiple photon absorption," Chem. Phys. Lett. 168, 543-550 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Etienne, M.

M. Etienne, A. Biney, A. D. Walser, R. Dorsinville, D. L. V. Bauer, and V. Balogh-Nair, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of a cadmium sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181913/1-181913/3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, W.

Fiore, A.

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fortusini, D.

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, "Two-photon absorption coefficient measurements based on widely tunable femtosecond pulses from parametric generation," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 361-372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J.

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu, Y. Luo, and H. Aagren, "Multiple-photon spectrum of CdS semiconductor quantum dot for bioimaging," Thin Solid Films 515, 842-845 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Furuya, M.

K. Takemoto, B.-R. Hyun, M. Furuya, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, "Universal dephasing mechanism in semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a matrix," J. Phys. Soc. Japan 72, 249-252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gammon, D.

G. Chen, T. H. Stievater, E. T. Batteh, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, and L. J. Sham, "Biexciton quantum coherence in a single quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 117901/1-117901/4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, N. Q. Huong, J. L. Birman, and M. J. Potasek, "Large nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor quantum dot arrays embedded in an organic medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4839-4842 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gerardino, A.

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goodson, T.

R. G. Ispasoiu, Y. Jin, J. Lee, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, and T. GoodsonIII, "Two-photon absorption and photon-number squeezing with CdSe nanocrystals," Nano Lett. 2, 127-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Hagan, D. J.

Hata, C.

He, G. S.

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, A. Baev, and P. N. Prasad, "Saturation of multi-photon absorption upon strong and ultrafast infrared laser excitation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, K.-T. Yong, A. Ryasnyanskiy, P. N. Prasad, and A. Urbas, "Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization by using a CdTe quantum dot solution excited at optical communication wavelength of ~1300 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, C. Lu, and P. N. Prasad, "Two- and three-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization using a liquid dye," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1037-1043 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C.-C. Chjo, and L.-J. Yu, "Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4717-4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Three-photon-absorption-induced fluorescence and optical limiting effects in an organic compound," Opt. Lett. 20, 1524-1526 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S. T.

Hsieh, C.-C.

S.-C. Pu, M.-J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C.-W. Lai, C.-C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y.-M. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, "The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots," Small 2, 1308-1313 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. -C.

S.-C. Pu, M.-J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C.-W. Lai, C.-C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y.-M. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, "The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots," Small 2, 1308-1313 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, "Strongly confined semiconductor quantum dots: pair excitations and optical properties," J. Lumin. 70, 185-202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Banyai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S.W. Koch, "Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142-8153 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Huong, N. Q.

Y. Gao, N. Q. Huong, J. L. Birman, and M. J. Potasek, "Large nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor quantum dot arrays embedded in an organic medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4839-4842 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hyun, B.-R.

K. Takemoto, B.-R. Hyun, M. Furuya, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, "Universal dephasing mechanism in semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a matrix," J. Phys. Soc. Japan 72, 249-252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ikezawa, M.

K. Takemoto, B.-R. Hyun, M. Furuya, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, "Universal dephasing mechanism in semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a matrix," J. Phys. Soc. Japan 72, 249-252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ikushima, A. J.

Ispasoiu, R. G.

R. G. Ispasoiu, Y. Jin, J. Lee, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, and T. GoodsonIII, "Two-photon absorption and photon-number squeezing with CdSe nanocrystals," Nano Lett. 2, 127-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, T.

Y. Kagotani, K. Miyajima, G. Oohata, S. Saito, M. Ashida, K. Edamatsu, and T. Itoh, "Two-photon absorption and lasing due to biexciton in CuCl quantum dots," J. Lumin. 112, 113-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W. J.

W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernández, R. Pereiro, A. Sanz-Medel, "Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots as luminescent probes for cyanide determination," Anal. Chim. Acta 522, 1-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

R. G. Ispasoiu, Y. Jin, J. Lee, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, and T. GoodsonIII, "Two-photon absorption and photon-number squeezing with CdSe nanocrystals," Nano Lett. 2, 127-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ju, H.

H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Noetzel, Z. Li, V. J. Molina, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B 82, 615-620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kagotani, Y.

Y. Kagotani, K. Miyajima, G. Oohata, S. Saito, M. Ashida, K. Edamatsu, and T. Itoh, "Two-photon absorption and lasing due to biexciton in CuCl quantum dots," J. Lumin. 112, 113-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, S.

Kang, K. I.

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, "Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in cadmium sulfide quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 45, 3465-8 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaschke, M.

M. Kaschke, N. P. Ernsting, U. Mueller, and H. Weller, "Ultrafast electron ejection and trapping in semiconductor colloids after multiple photon absorption," Chem. Phys. Lett. 168, 543-550 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Katzer, D. S.

G. Chen, T. H. Stievater, E. T. Batteh, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, and L. J. Sham, "Biexciton quantum coherence in a single quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 117901/1-117901/4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Noetzel, Z. Li, V. J. Molina, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B 82, 615-620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, "Strongly confined semiconductor quantum dots: pair excitations and optical properties," J. Lumin. 70, 185-202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S.W.

L. Banyai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S.W. Koch, "Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142-8153 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Lai, C.-W.

S.-C. Pu, M.-J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C.-W. Lai, C.-C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y.-M. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, "The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots," Small 2, 1308-1313 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

R. G. Ispasoiu, Y. Jin, J. Lee, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, and T. GoodsonIII, "Two-photon absorption and photon-number squeezing with CdSe nanocrystals," Nano Lett. 2, 127-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lennox, R. B.

A. Badia, L. Cuccia, L. Demers, F. Morin, and R. B. Lennox, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 2682-2692 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Noetzel, Z. Li, V. J. Molina, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B 82, 615-620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. H.

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

G. Chen, T. H. Stievater, E. T. Batteh, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, and L. J. Sham, "Biexciton quantum coherence in a single quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 117901/1-117901/4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Noetzel, Z. Li, V. J. Molina, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B 82, 615-620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

S.-C. Pu, M.-J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C.-W. Lai, C.-C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y.-M. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, "The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots," Small 2, 1308-1313 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, T. C.

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C.-C. Chjo, and L.-J. Yu, "Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4717-4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, M.

L. Banyai, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S.W. Koch, "Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142-8153 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectra properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, C. Lu, and P. N. Prasad, "Two- and three-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization using a liquid dye," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1037-1043 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lunghi, L.

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Y. Fu, Y. Luo, and H. Aagren, "Multiple-photon spectrum of CdS semiconductor quantum dot for bioimaging," Thin Solid Films 515, 842-845 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Malik, M. A.

M. A. Malik, P. O’Brien, S. Norager, and J. Smith, "Gallium arsenide nanoparticles: synthesis and characterisation," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2591-2595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masumoto, Y.

K. Takemoto, B.-R. Hyun, M. Furuya, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, "Universal dephasing mechanism in semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a matrix," J. Phys. Soc. Japan 72, 249-252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McGinnis, B. P.

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, "Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in cadmium sulfide quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 45, 3465-8 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miyajima, K.

Y. Kagotani, K. Miyajima, G. Oohata, S. Saito, M. Ashida, K. Edamatsu, and T. Itoh, "Two-photon absorption and lasing due to biexciton in CuCl quantum dots," J. Lumin. 112, 113-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Molina, V. J.

H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Noetzel, Z. Li, V. J. Molina, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B 82, 615-620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morin, F.

A. Badia, L. Cuccia, L. Demers, F. Morin, and R. B. Lennox, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 2682-2692 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, U.

M. Kaschke, N. P. Ernsting, U. Mueller, and H. Weller, "Ultrafast electron ejection and trapping in semiconductor colloids after multiple photon absorption," Chem. Phys. Lett. 168, 543-550 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, A.

Nakotte, H.

V. P. Drachev, A.K. Buin, H. Nakotte, and V. M. Shalaev, "Size dependent χ(3) for conduction electrons in Ag nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 4, 1535-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noetzel, R.

H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Noetzel, Z. Li, V. J. Molina, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B 82, 615-620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Norager, S.

M. A. Malik, P. O’Brien, S. Norager, and J. Smith, "Gallium arsenide nanoparticles: synthesis and characterisation," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2591-2595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, P.

M. A. Malik, P. O’Brien, S. Norager, and J. Smith, "Gallium arsenide nanoparticles: synthesis and characterisation," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2591-2595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Omi, S.

Oohata, G.

Y. Kagotani, K. Miyajima, G. Oohata, S. Saito, M. Ashida, K. Edamatsu, and T. Itoh, "Two-photon absorption and lasing due to biexciton in CuCl quantum dots," J. Lumin. 112, 113-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Padilha, L. A.

Papadimitrakopoulos, F.

R. G. Ispasoiu, Y. Jin, J. Lee, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, and T. GoodsonIII, "Two-photon absorption and photon-number squeezing with CdSe nanocrystals," Nano Lett. 2, 127-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, D.

G. Chen, T. H. Stievater, E. T. Batteh, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, and L. J. Sham, "Biexciton quantum coherence in a single quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 117901/1-117901/4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pereiro, R.

W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernández, R. Pereiro, A. Sanz-Medel, "Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots as luminescent probes for cyanide determination," Anal. Chim. Acta 522, 1-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, "Strongly confined semiconductor quantum dots: pair excitations and optical properties," J. Lumin. 70, 185-202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Potasek, M. J.

Y. Gao, N. Q. Huong, J. L. Birman, and M. J. Potasek, "Large nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor quantum dot arrays embedded in an organic medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4839-4842 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, A. Baev, and P. N. Prasad, "Saturation of multi-photon absorption upon strong and ultrafast infrared laser excitation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, K.-T. Yong, A. Ryasnyanskiy, P. N. Prasad, and A. Urbas, "Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization by using a CdTe quantum dot solution excited at optical communication wavelength of ~1300 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, C. Lu, and P. N. Prasad, "Two- and three-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization using a liquid dye," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1037-1043 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C.-C. Chjo, and L.-J. Yu, "Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4717-4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Three-photon-absorption-induced fluorescence and optical limiting effects in an organic compound," Opt. Lett. 20, 1524-1526 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pu, S.-C.

S.-C. Pu, M.-J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C.-W. Lai, C.-C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y.-M. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, "The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots," Small 2, 1308-1313 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, D. N.

Reinhardt, B. A.

Ryasnyanskiy, A.

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, K.-T. Yong, A. Ryasnyanskiy, P. N. Prasad, and A. Urbas, "Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization by using a CdTe quantum dot solution excited at optical communication wavelength of ~1300 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

Y. Kagotani, K. Miyajima, G. Oohata, S. Saito, M. Ashida, K. Edamatsu, and T. Itoh, "Two-photon absorption and lasing due to biexciton in CuCl quantum dots," J. Lumin. 112, 113-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon, B. P.

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, "Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in cadmium sulfide quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 45, 3465-8 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sanz-Medel, A.

W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernández, R. Pereiro, A. Sanz-Medel, "Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots as luminescent probes for cyanide determination," Anal. Chim. Acta 522, 1-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schall, M.

M. Schall and P. Uhd. Jepsen, "Above-band gap two-photon absorption and its influence on ultrafast carrier dynamics in ZnTe and CdTe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4771-4773 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seydack, M.

M. Seydack, "Nanoparticle labels in immunosensing using optical detection methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2454-2469 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. P. Drachev, A.K. Buin, H. Nakotte, and V. M. Shalaev, "Size dependent χ(3) for conduction electrons in Ag nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 4, 1535-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sham, L. J.

G. Chen, T. H. Stievater, E. T. Batteh, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, and L. J. Sham, "Biexciton quantum coherence in a single quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 117901/1-117901/4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J.

M. A. Malik, P. O’Brien, S. Norager, and J. Smith, "Gallium arsenide nanoparticles: synthesis and characterisation," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2591-2595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, G. S.

Son, D. H.

D. H. Son, J. S. Wittenberg, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Multielectron ionization of CdSe quantum dots in intense femtosecond ultraviolet light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127406/1-127406/4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steel, D. G.

G. Chen, T. H. Stievater, E. T. Batteh, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, and L. J. Sham, "Biexciton quantum coherence in a single quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 117901/1-117901/4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stievater, T. H.

G. Chen, T. H. Stievater, E. T. Batteh, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, and L. J. Sham, "Biexciton quantum coherence in a single quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 117901/1-117901/4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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K. Takemoto, B.-R. Hyun, M. Furuya, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, "Universal dephasing mechanism in semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a matrix," J. Phys. Soc. Japan 72, 249-252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanji, H.

Thantu, N.

N. Thantu, "Second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence upconversion in glasses doped with ZnSe nanocrystalline quantum dots," J. Lumin. 111, 17-24 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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K. Brunner, G. Abstreiter, G. Baehm, G. Traenkle, and G. Weimann, "Sharp-line photoluminescence and two-photon absorption of zero-dimensional biexcitons in a GaAs/AlGaAs structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1138-41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerence, semiconductors, and other materials," Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Uhd, P.

M. Schall and P. Uhd. Jepsen, "Above-band gap two-photon absorption and its influence on ultrafast carrier dynamics in ZnTe and CdTe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4771-4773 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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G. S. He, Q. Zheng, K.-T. Yong, A. Ryasnyanskiy, P. N. Prasad, and A. Urbas, "Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization by using a CdTe quantum dot solution excited at optical communication wavelength of ~1300 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Noetzel, Z. Li, V. J. Molina, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B 82, 615-620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Venkatram, N.

Walser, A. D.

M. Etienne, A. Biney, A. D. Walser, R. Dorsinville, D. L. V. Bauer, and V. Balogh-Nair, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of a cadmium sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181913/1-181913/3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, G.

K. Brunner, G. Abstreiter, G. Baehm, G. Traenkle, and G. Weimann, "Sharp-line photoluminescence and two-photon absorption of zero-dimensional biexcitons in a GaAs/AlGaAs structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1138-41 (1994).
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M. Kaschke, N. P. Ernsting, U. Mueller, and H. Weller, "Ultrafast electron ejection and trapping in semiconductor colloids after multiple photon absorption," Chem. Phys. Lett. 168, 543-550 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wittenberg, J. S.

D. H. Son, J. S. Wittenberg, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Multielectron ionization of CdSe quantum dots in intense femtosecond ultraviolet light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127406/1-127406/4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Y.

Yamilov, A.

Yang, M.-J.

S.-C. Pu, M.-J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C.-W. Lai, C.-C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y.-M. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, "The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots," Small 2, 1308-1313 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yong, K.-T.

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, K.-T. Yong, A. Ryasnyanskiy, P. N. Prasad, and A. Urbas, "Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization by using a CdTe quantum dot solution excited at optical communication wavelength of ~1300 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.-J.

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C.-C. Chjo, and L.-J. Yu, "Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4717-4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

K. Takemoto, B.-R. Hyun, M. Furuya, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, "Universal dephasing mechanism in semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a matrix," J. Phys. Soc. Japan 72, 249-252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Q.

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, K.-T. Yong, A. Ryasnyanskiy, P. N. Prasad, and A. Urbas, "Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization by using a CdTe quantum dot solution excited at optical communication wavelength of ~1300 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, A. Baev, and P. N. Prasad, "Saturation of multi-photon absorption upon strong and ultrafast infrared laser excitation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, C. Lu, and P. N. Prasad, "Two- and three-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization using a liquid dye," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1037-1043 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zinoni, C.

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zwiller, V.

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
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M. A. El-Sayed, "Small is different: Shape-, size-, and composition-dependent properties of some colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals," Acc. Chem. Res. 37, 326-333 (2004).
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Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

W. J. Jin, J. M. Costa-Fernández, R. Pereiro, A. Sanz-Medel, "Surface-modified CdSe quantum dots as luminescent probes for cyanide determination," Anal. Chim. Acta 522, 1-8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Noetzel, Z. Li, V. J. Molina, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B 82, 615-620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, K.-T. Yong, A. Ryasnyanskiy, P. N. Prasad, and A. Urbas, "Two-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization by using a CdTe quantum dot solution excited at optical communication wavelength of ~1300 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Schall and P. Uhd. Jepsen, "Above-band gap two-photon absorption and its influence on ultrafast carrier dynamics in ZnTe and CdTe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4771-4773 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C.-C. Chjo, and L.-J. Yu, "Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4717-4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Monat, V. Zwiller, L. H. Li, A. Fiore, L. Lunghi, A. Gerardino, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Time-resolved and antibunching experiments on single quantum dots at 1300nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

M. Seydack, "Nanoparticle labels in immunosensing using optical detection methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2454-2469 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Kaschke, N. P. Ernsting, U. Mueller, and H. Weller, "Ultrafast electron ejection and trapping in semiconductor colloids after multiple photon absorption," Chem. Phys. Lett. 168, 543-550 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, C. Lu, and P. N. Prasad, "Two- and three-photon absorption based optical limiting and stabilization using a liquid dye," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1037-1043 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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A. Badia, L. Cuccia, L. Demers, F. Morin, and R. B. Lennox, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 2682-2692 (1997).
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Y. Gao, N. Q. Huong, J. L. Birman, and M. J. Potasek, "Large nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor quantum dot arrays embedded in an organic medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4839-4842 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Q. Zheng, A. Baev, and P. N. Prasad, "Saturation of multi-photon absorption upon strong and ultrafast infrared laser excitation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 083108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (3)

N. Thantu, "Second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence upconversion in glasses doped with ZnSe nanocrystalline quantum dots," J. Lumin. 111, 17-24 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kagotani, K. Miyajima, G. Oohata, S. Saito, M. Ashida, K. Edamatsu, and T. Itoh, "Two-photon absorption and lasing due to biexciton in CuCl quantum dots," J. Lumin. 112, 113-116 (2005).
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Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, "Strongly confined semiconductor quantum dots: pair excitations and optical properties," J. Lumin. 70, 185-202 (1996).
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M. A. Malik, P. O’Brien, S. Norager, and J. Smith, "Gallium arsenide nanoparticles: synthesis and characterisation," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2591-2595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectra properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
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J. Phys. Soc. Japan (1)

K. Takemoto, B.-R. Hyun, M. Furuya, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, and Y. Masumoto, "Universal dephasing mechanism in semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a matrix," J. Phys. Soc. Japan 72, 249-252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

V. P. Drachev, A.K. Buin, H. Nakotte, and V. M. Shalaev, "Size dependent χ(3) for conduction electrons in Ag nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 4, 1535-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Ispasoiu, Y. Jin, J. Lee, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, and T. GoodsonIII, "Two-photon absorption and photon-number squeezing with CdSe nanocrystals," Nano Lett. 2, 127-130 (2002).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, "Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in cadmium sulfide quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 45, 3465-8 (1992).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Brunner, G. Abstreiter, G. Baehm, G. Traenkle, and G. Weimann, "Sharp-line photoluminescence and two-photon absorption of zero-dimensional biexcitons in a GaAs/AlGaAs structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1138-41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerence, semiconductors, and other materials," Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
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G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, "Two-photon absorption coefficient measurements based on widely tunable femtosecond pulses from parametric generation," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 361-372 (1998).
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Small (1)

S.-C. Pu, M.-J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C.-W. Lai, C.-C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y.-M. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, "The empirical correlation between size and two-photon absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots," Small 2, 1308-1313 (2006)
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Y. Fu, Y. Luo, and H. Aagren, "Multiple-photon spectrum of CdS semiconductor quantum dot for bioimaging," Thin Solid Films 515, 842-845 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Chen, T. H. Stievater, E. T. Batteh, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, and L. J. Sham, "Biexciton quantum coherence in a single quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 117901/1-117901/4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Son, J. S. Wittenberg, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Multielectron ionization of CdSe quantum dots in intense femtosecond ultraviolet light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127406/1-127406/4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Etienne, A. Biney, A. D. Walser, R. Dorsinville, D. L. V. Bauer, and V. Balogh-Nair, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of a cadmium sulfide-dendrimer nanocomposites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181913/1-181913/3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

TEM images of five CdSe QDs samples with average sizes of 2.0 nm (QD1), 2.7 nm (QD2), 3.1 nm (QD3), 3.4 nm (QD4), and 3.9 nm (QD5), respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Linear absorption spectra of five CdSe QDs in hexane with a 1-cm path-length and at low concentration levels.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

One- and two-photon excitation induced fluorescence spectra of five QDs solution samples at low concentration levels.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Three-photon excitation (at ~1300 nm) induced fluorescence spectra of five QDs solution samples at high concentration levels.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Linear transmission spectra of three QD4 samples with different concentrations and path-lengths, and one- and three-photon induced fluorescence spectra of two samples with different concentrations.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured fluorescence intensity as a function of the input laser intensity at ~775-nm and ~1300-nm wavelengths separately, and the best fitting straight lines in logarithmic scales.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Two-photon excited fluorescence decay curves (solid-lines) of five QDs solution samples at high concentration levels, and the best double-exponential fitting curves (dashed-lines).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Three-photon excited fluorescence decay curves of two QDs solution samples with high concentrations, and the best double-exponential fitting curves.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a). 2PA cross-section (per unit) versus dot’s size; (b). 2PA cross-section (per dot) versus dot’s size, the solid-line is the best fitting curve with fourth power.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a). Measured 2PA-induced nonlinear transmission change of QD5 solution versus the input 775-nm laser energy (intensity); (b) measured output laser energy versus the input laser energy.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a). 3PA cross-section (per unit) versus dot’s size; (b) 3PA cross-section (per dot) versus dot’s size, the dashed-line is the best fitting curve with 3.3-power dependence.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(a). Measured 3PA-induced nonlinear transmission change of QD5 solution versus the input 1300-nm laser energy (intensity); (b) measured output laser energy versus the input laser energy.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Fluorescence double-exponential decay constants of five CdSe QDs solutions in hexanea

Tables Icon

Table 2. Measured 2PA coefficient (β) and cross-section (σ2 or σ′2) values for five CdSe QDs solutions in hexane by using ~775-nm and ~160-fs laser pulsesa

Tables Icon

Table 3. Measured 3PA coefficient (η) and cross-section (σ3 or σ 3) values for five CdSe QDs solutions in hexane by using ~1300-nm and ~160-fs laser pulsesa

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y = 0.5 × exp ( t τ 1 ) + 0.5 × exp ( t τ 2 ) ,
T ( I 0 ) = [ Ln ( 1 + β l I 0 ) ] β l I 0 ,
β = σ 2 N 0 or β = σ 2 N 0 ,
χ ( 3 ) ( ω ) = i 4 0 { { 4 A 2 ( i ω 1 + γ ) ( ω 1 2 + γ 2 ) σ B σ 2 × ... × [ 2 [ i ( ω 2 σ ω 1 ) + γ ] ( ω 1 2 + γ 2 ) + ... + 1 ( i ω 1 + γ ) ( i ω 2 σ + γ ) [ 1 i ( ω 2 σ ω 1 ) + γ 1 i ω 1 + γ ] ] }
σ 2 = 16 π 3 ω R 3 ε 0 c 2 Im { χ ( 3 ) }
γ ( R ) = γ 0 + C R ,
T ( I 0 ) = 1 ( 1 + 2 η I 0 2 l ) ,
η = σ 3 N 0 or η = σ 3 N 0 ,
T ( I 0 ) = 1 { 1 + 2 I 0 2 l η 0 [ 1 + ( I 0 I s , 3 pa ) 3 ] } ,

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